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TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS

Teaching Learning materials are of many kinds, like TB, audio and video cassettes, charts, teaching
aids of various kinds etc. in English language teaching text-books are all the more important. In
absence of any other instructional material the text-book becomes a patent tool in the hands of a
teacher to teach the skill of a language and more so of a foreign language.
TYPES OFTEACHING & INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
(1)AUDIO AIDS
(a)Audio cassette Player
(b)Radio
(2)VISUAL AIDS
(a)Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft boards.
(b)Charts, Maps, Pictures, Drawings.
(c)Static and working modal
(d)Film strip, Slide projector, OHP.
(e)Magazines, Newspapers, Encyclopedia.
(3)AUDIO - VISUAL AIDS
(a)Video Cassette Player
(b)Video Compact Disc Player
(c)Television
(d)Film Projector
(4)LANGUAGE LABORATORY.
(5)COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING AUDIO AIDS:
AUDIO AIDS
(a) Tape recorder or audio cassette player is used in teaching learning process by teacher, which
makes teaching very scientific and effective. In this process the subject matter is recorded as audio
cassette and played on this machine. The students repeat that subject matter and learn. The learners
have an access to native language and they better drill the patterns in its required form.
(b) Radio was first used to teach English. In this source the teacher has no criteria to select the
learning material because whatever aired is the source. Radio must appeal to every type and level
of taste. But there is a room on the air for instrumental & vocal music, both classical and popular,
addresses, forums, debates, sports, events, mysteries, religions broadcasts, quiz programme and
variety of many others. It should be possible for the listener to make a free selection from amongst
many of these kinds of programmes at any point of time.
VISUAL AIDS:
(a) Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards , soft boards are used to display charts, maps, tables etc.
(b) Charts, Maps, pictures & Drawings: Teacher can prepare these aids herself or get ready made.

But she should herself be a creative person so that students can follow her. Charts may be written
or drawn thick coloured papers and can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards. Pictures
and maps can also be displayed on boards.
(c) Static and working Models: Teacher can use models to make her teaching very effective. For
example teacher wants to teach the topic of computer. She can use both the static and working
models. Working model of computer creates primary interest in students.
(d) Film strip, slide projector, OHP, Episcope: The teacher can use film strip and slide projector to
make her teaching too effective. These aids make students draw their attention very carefully
towards teaching. Over Head Projector (OHP) is the hardware used to project the transparencies.
The transparency is plastic sheet on which teacher can develop her own material to be presented.
Use of OHP by teacher is a good practical that help her to make her teaching very interested and
effective. Episcope is also known as Epidiascopes. The material on opaque sheet is projected with
the help of this hardware. The teacher can project any material developed on simple plain paper
sheet. Small size of picture, can be projected through this instructional material.
AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS:It is believed that audio - visual aids may create interest and motivation at the highest degree
because through this teaching aid both eyes and ears of learners become active, so they are widely
used in the teaching of language.
(a) Video - Cassette Player: In teaching learning process teacher uses VCP to make her teaching
effective and alive. Teaching materials available on the video tape are played by the video cassette
player.
(b) Video Compact Disc Player: In this machine the video cassette is played. It is the latest audio
- visual aid. The programmes recorded on the video cassettes can be transferred into compact disc.
(c) Television: Today, television is very effective instrument in teaching, learning process.
Specific channels have been launched in which programmes of various educational interests are
being aired. This system appears to be very successful among teenage students.
(d) Film Projector: The programmes which are recorded on film are projected with the help of
film projectors.
(e) Language Laboratory: It is a place where the learners have to listen on headphone. The
language labs are set up with a view to provide listening activities in order to make them
developing good speech habit. The learning materials are recorded on audio - tapes which are
played back by teacher, is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the mentor. Learner himself
records his practices and listens to it:
(f) Computer assisted language learning: It means to present teaching material though computer.
The computer technology has brought multimedia package means the programme is developed
with all kinds of media available for presentation. In this presentation, texts, graphics, audio and
video are available. The computer is multimedia system. It is VCD, DVD, VCR, slide and film
projector.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL USED


IN THE CLASSROOM:
Supplement Oral Teaching: Now-a-days most of classroom teaching is verbal which
cannot make teaching learning effective. The verbal statements made by teacher do not
help to clarity the viewpoints. At such stage audio visual aids help to clarify the views of
teacher.
Audio Visual Aids as Motivator: Audio Visual Aids work as motivators in teaching
learning process. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear her content, students take more
interest in that teaching. They mentally prepare for working more effectively. Motivation
is the preparatory phase for all acts of learning.
Present Indiscipline and Monotony: Teacher uses teaching aids to make her teaching
effective and alive. Usage of aids prevents monotony and indiscipline among students
because it creates interest in students to know something.
Make learning Permanent: Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory organs of
the learner which improve retentiveness and make learning permanent. Seeing and hearing
go together which play extraordinary roles in learning. The aids appeals to those senses
that can respond adequately.
Save time and energy: Using audio visual aids, takes less time and makes students to
understand very easily that explaining verbally. It saves more time and energy of teacher
and students.
Provide direct experience : Educational tours, visit to zoo and museums, taking the student
into the community resources etc, are some of the sources that provide first-hand
knowledge and direct learning experiences to the students
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TB:
A good TB not only teaches but also tests. A few essential characteristics of good TB are
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)

Should be matched with the abilities of the students of a particular class.


The words and structures are properly selected and graded
Adequate subject matter
Heading and sub-heading should be printed on the title page in bold letters
Illustrations should be attractive
The subject matter of the TB should provide new information so that students could get
new knowledge.
Language item should proceed from easier to complex
Topics should be interesting to the students topics must correspond to the students`
experience and their own culture.
There should be both practice and text exercise at the end of the chapter.
A list of related books should be given at the end of the lesson for the further study.
TB should cover whole syllabus.

IMPORTANCE OF TB:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)

Storehouse of past knowledge


Helpful in the work of revision
Guide for teacher
Useful for dull students
Essential for new teachers
A good TB helps the teachers in planning the lessons before going to class
The students as well as teachers can know their curriculum
Teaching is almost impossible in lower classes without the help of these TB.
Silent reading is possible through the TB. It motivates the students for self-study.
A TB works as a teacher also in his absence.
Helps to make language activities meaningful and interesting. Helps to do different
language activities discussions, reading more on the topic, and related topic for additional
reading, writing on similar topics in their own language.
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

1.An effective language teacher


(a) will prepare question papers using only the
questions given in the text-book
(b) will rely entirely on the prescribed text-book
(c) will make children learn all the answers to
the questions given in the text-book
(d) will use the text-book as well as other
material as resources for teaching
2.A teacher uses a report from a newspaper to
teach writing. The material used thus form
teaching is referred to as
(a)External material
(b)Realistic material
(c)Natural material
(d)Authentic material
3.Use of the medium of motion pictures offers
experience for the student.
(a)vicarious
(b) abstract
(c) indirect
(d) concrete
4.According to the recommendations of NCF
2005, technology could be integrated
(a)used only judiciously subject to the
economic and social goals of a community

(b)with the larger goals and processes of


educational programmes
(c)with revisions to meet current
developmental policies of the Central
Government
(d)as an add-on to the main educational goals
5.Internal qualities of a good English book are
(a)good printing
(b)psychological presentation of the subject- 6.
matter
(c)Suitable font type and size
(d)all of the above
6.Language lab is more helpful for the
(a)pronunciation correction
(b)understanding spoken English
(c)innovative teaching
(d)all of the above
7. Which one is useful to learn English by self
study?
(a) Programmed learning
(b) Linguaphone
(c) A. V. Aids
(d) Textbooks
8. Example for Authentic Material is
(a)English Reader
(b)Supplementary Reader

(c)News paper
(d)All the above
9. Teaching aids such as Charts, Maps, Pictures
and Drawings should be used by teachers as
they
1. prepare students mentally
2. motivate for further preparation
3. are not expensive
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(3) 2 and 3
(d) All of these
10. Keeping in view the significance of text
book, what should one keep in his mind while
selecting a text book?
1. Age, interest and individual differences
2. The cover should be attractive and qualitative
3. Text book should cover the objectives of the
subject.
4. The publisher of the book should be well
known.
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 1,2, and 3 (d) All of these