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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

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BPDU

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard,


Loop Guard & UDLD
5 July 2011, 10:00 pm

BPDU Guard: Prevents accidental connection of switching devices to


PortFast-enabled ports. Connecting switches to PortFast-enabled ports
can cause Layer 2 loops or topology changes.

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Eric Leahys guide to networking in
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CATEGORIES
CCIE
Implement IPv4
Implement IP version 4 (IPv4)
addressing, subnetting, and
variable-length subnet masking
(VLSM)

Implement IPv4 Border


Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Implement IPv4 Enhanced


Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (EIGRP)

Implement IPv4 Open Shortest


Path First (OSPF)

Implement IPv4 RIP version 2


(RIPv2)

Implement IPv4 tunneling and


Generic Routing Encapsulation
(GRE)

Implement Layer 2 Technologies


EtherChannels Load Balance
Frame Relay
Implement Ethernet
technologies

Implement High-Level Data


Link Control (HDLC) and PPP

Implement Switch Port

BPDU filtering: Restricts the switch from sending unnecessary BPDUs


out access ports.
Root Guard: Prevents switches connected on ports configured as access
ports from becoming
the root switch.
Loop Guard: The Loop Guard STP feature improves the stability of Layer
2 networks by preventing bridging loops.
UDLD: UDLD detects and disables unidirectional links.
BPDU Guard
BPDU Guard puts an interface configured for STP PortFast into the errdisable state upon receipt of a BPDU. The BPDU Guard disables
interfaces as a preventive step to avoid a potential
bridging loop. The BPDU Guard feature is used to protect the Spanning
Tree domain from external influence. BPDU Guard is disabled by default
but is recommended for all ports on which the Port Fast feature has been
enabled. This prevents false information from being injected into the
Spanning Tree domain on ports that have Spanning Tree disabled.
When a port only has a host device connected to it, we will enable
portfast, this will speed up the port initialization process and put the port
into forwarding state straight away. This eliminates 30 seconds of delay
that would have been encountered if STP was not bypassed and the port
went through the Listening and Learning states. Because host is a
workstation, it sends no BPDUs and so disabling Spanning Tree on a port
like this is not an issue.
If we removed this end host of this port and connected a switch. This new
switch will start to generate BPDUs and could take over as been the Root
Bridge for the network, or it could cause a loop in our network if it has
another link connected into another part of the network.

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy
Analyzer (SPAN), Remote SPAN
(RSPAN)

Implement trunk and trunk


protocols

Implement VLANs
Implementing Spanning Tree
Protocol (STP)

802.1d
802.1s
802.1w
BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter,
Root Guard, Loop Guard &
UDLD

So what BPDU Guard will provide is a secure response to invalid


configurations, or unauthorised switches onto our network, because the
administrator must manually reenable the err-disabled interface after fixing
the invalid configuration, or removing the unauthorised switch form the
network. It is also possible to set up a time-out interval after which the
switch automatically tries to reenable the interface. However, if the invalid
configuration, or switch still exists,the switch err-disables the interface
again.

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To enable BPDU Guard or to disable BPDU Guard on a switch do the


following;
switch(config)#[no] spanning-tree portfast edge bpduguard default
switch(config-if)#spanning-tree bpduguard enable
switch#show
spanning-tree
totals
PortFast BPDU Guard is enabled
UplinkFast is disabled
BackboneFast is disabled
Default pathcost method used is short

summary
Root bridge for: none.

BPDU Filter
When PortFast is enabled on a port, the port will send out BPDUs and will
accept and process received BPDUs. The BPDU Guard feature prevents
the port from receiving any BPDUs but does not prevent it from sending
them. If any BPDUs are received, the port will be errdisabled. The BPDU
Filter feature effectively disables STP on the selected ports by preventing
them from sending or receiving any BPDUs.
BPDU filtering supports the ability to prevent switches from sending
BPDUs on PortFast-enabled interfaces. Ports configured for the PortFast
feature typically connect to host devices. Hosts do not participate in STP
and hence drop the received BPDUs. As a result, BPDU filtering prevents

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

unnecessary BPDUs from being transmitted to host devices.


When enabled globally, BPDU filtering has the following affects;
It affects all operational PortFast ports on switches that do not have
BPDU filtering configured on the individual ports.
If BPDUs are seen, the port loses its PortFast status, BPDU filtering
is disabled, and the STP sends and receives BPDUs on the port as
it would with any other STP port on the switch.
Upon startup, the port transmits ten BPDUs. If this port receives any
BPDUs during that time, PortFast and PortFast BPDU filtering are
disabled. go over this
When enabled on an individual port, BPDU filtering has the following
affects;
It ignores all BPDUs received.
It sends no BPDUs.
If you enable BPDU Guard on the same interface as BPDU filtering, BPDU
Guard has no effect because BPDU filtering takes precedence over BPDU
Guard.

To enable PortFast BPDU filtering;


switch(config)#spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default
switch(config-if)#spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
switch#show spanning-tree summary
Switch is in pvst mode
Root bridge for: none
Extended system ID is enabled
Portfast Default is disabled
PortFast BPDU Guard Default is disabled
Portfast BPDU Filter Default is enabled
switch# show spanning-tree interface fastEthernet 0/1 detail
Port 196 (FastEthernet0/1) of VLAN0010 is forwarding
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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

Port path cost 1000, Port priority 160, Port Identifier


160.196.
Designated root has priority 32768, address 00d0.00b8.140a
Designated bridge has priority 32768, address 00d0.00b8.140a
Designated port id is 160.196, designated path cost 0
Timers:message age 0, forward delay 0, hold 0
Number of transitions to forwarding state:1
The port is in the portfast mode by portfast trunk
configuration
Link type is point-to-point by default
Bpdu filter is enabled
BPDU:sent 0, received 0
Root Guard
Root Guard is useful in avoiding Layer 2 loops during network anomalies.
The Root Guard feature forces an interface to become a designated port
to prevent surrounding switches from becoming a root switch. In other
words, Root Guard provides a way to enforce the root bridge placement in
the network. The Root Guard feature prevents a Designated Port from
becoming a Root Port. If a port on which the Root Guard feature receives
a superior BPDU, it moves the port into a root-inconsistent state
(effectively equal to a listening state), thus maintaining the current Root
Bridge status.
The Root Guard feature prevents a port from becoming a Root Port, thus
ensuring that the port is always a Designated Port. Unlike other STP
enhancements, which can also be enabled on a global basis, Root Guard
must be manually enabled on all ports where the Root Bridge should not
appear. Because of this, it is important to ensure a deterministic topology
when designing and implementing STP in the LAN. After the Root Guard
feature is enabled on a port, the switch does not enable that port to
become an STP root port. The port remains as an STPdesignated
port. In addition, if a better BPDU is received on the port, Root Guard
disables (err-disables)
the port rather than processing the BPDU. If an unauthorized device starts
sending BPDUs with a better bridge ID, the normal STP process would
elect the new switch as the root switch. By disabling the port, the network
topology is protected.
Current design recommendation is to enable Root Guard on all access
ports so that a root bridge is not established through these ports. After a
port stops receiving superior BPDUs, the port unblocks again and goes
through regular STP transition of listening and learning, and eventually to
the forwarding state. Recovery is automatic; no intervention is required.

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

To enable Root Guard;


switch(config-if)#spanning-tree guard root
switch# show spanning-tree inconsistentports
Name Interface Inconsistency
-
VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/1 Port Type Inconsistent
VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/2 Port Type Inconsistent
VLAN0002 FastEthernet0/1 Port Type Inconsistent
VLAN0002 FastEthernet0/2 Port Type Inconsistent
Loop Guard
Loop Guard provides additional protection against Layer 2 forwarding
loops (STP loops). A bridging loop happens when an STP blocking port in
a redundant topology erroneously transitions to the forwarding state. This
usually occurs because one of the ports of a physically redundant
topology (not necessarily the STP blocking port) has stopped receiving
STP BPDUs. In STP, switches rely on continuous reception or
transmission of BPDUs, depending on the port role. (A designated port
transmits BPDUs, whereas a nondesignated port receives BPDUs.)
If the switch link is up and no BPDUs are received (due to a unidirectional
link), the switch assumes that it is safe to bring this link up and the port
transitions to the Forwarding state and begins relaying received BPUDs. If
a switch is connected to the other end of the link, this effectively creates a
Spanning Tree loop.
With the Loop Guard feature, switches do an additional check before
transitioning to the STP forwarding state. If switches stop receiving
BPDUs on a nondesignated port with the Loop Guard feature enabled, the
switch places the port into the STP loop-inconsistent blocking state
instead of moving through the listening, learning, and forwarding states. If
a switch receives a BPDU on a port in the loop-inconsistent STP state, the
port transitions through STP states according to the received BPDU. As a
result, recovery is automatic, and no manual intervention is necessary.
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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

When implementing Loop Guard, you should be aware of the following


implementation guidelines;
Loop Guard cannot be enabled on a switch that also has Root
Guard enabled
Loop Guard does not affect Uplink Fast or Backbone Fast operation
Loop Guard must be enabled on point-to-point links only
Loop Guard operation is not affected by the Spanning Tree timers
Loop Guard cannot actually detect a unidirectional link
Loop Guard cannot be enabled on Port Fast or Dynamic VLAN
ports
You configure the Loop Guard feature on a per-port basis, although the
feature blocks inconsistent ports on a per-VLAN basis. For example, on a
trunk port, if BPDUs are not received for only one particular VLAN, the
switch blocks only that VLAN (that is, moves the port for that VLAN to the
loop-inconsistent STP state). In the case of an Ether Channel interface,
the channel status goes into the inconsistent state for all the ports
belonging to the channel group for the particular VLAN not receiving
BPDUs. Enable the Loop Guard feature on all nondesignated ports, and
not just for blocking ports. More precisely, Loop Guard should be enabled
on root and alternative ports for all possible combinations of active
topologies. Before enabling Loop Guard, however, consider all possible
failover scenarios.

UDLD
A unidirectional link occurs when traffic is transmitted between neighbors
in one direction only. Unidirectional Link Detection is a Layer 2 protocol.
UDLD performs tasks that Layer 1
mechanisms, such as auto
negotiation, cannot perform. When UDLD and auto-negotiation are
enabled, both Layer 1 and Layer 2 detections work together to prevent
physical and logical unidirectional connections and the malfunctioning of
other protocols. Unidirectional links can cause spanning-tree topology
loops. UDLD enables devices to detect when a unidirectional link exists
and also to shut down the affected interface. UDLD is useful on a fiber
ports to prevent network issues resulting in miswiring at the patch panel
causing the link to be in up/up status but the BPDUs are lost.
With UDLD enabled, the switch periodically sends UDLD protocol packets
to its neighbor and expects the packets to be echoed back before a
predetermined timer expires. If the timer expires, the switch determines
the link to be unidirectional and shuts down the port. If messages are not
received within the timeout interval (45 seconds), the port is disabled. The
messages are sent out every default interval, which is 15 seconds.
The 45 seconds it takes to detect a unidirectional link and errdisable the
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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

port is less than the 50 seconds it would take for STP to transition the port
to a Forwarding state, which is based on 20 seconds for Max Age + 30
seconds for Listening and Learning. This prevents a loop that would
otherwise be caused if STP transitioned the port into the Forwarding state
because of a lack of received BPDUs.
UDLD is a Layer 2 protocol enabled between adjacent switches. It uses
MAC 01-00-0c-cc-cc-cc with Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) HighLevel Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol type 00111. UDLD packets
contain information about sending the ports device ID and port ID and the
neighbors device ID and port ID. Neighbor devices with UDLD enabled
send the same hello message. The link is bidirectional if devices on both
sides receive each others UDLD packets. If the port does not see its own
device and port ID in the incoming UDLD packets for a specific duration of
time (timeout interval), the link is considered unidirectional and is
disabled.
This UDLD echo-algorithm allows for unidirectional link detection due to
the following:
When the link is up on both sides; however, packets are being
received by only one side
When receive and transmit Fibers are not connected to the same
port on the remote side
A UDLD frame is made up of the following fields;
Device ID This field contains the MAC address of the sending
device.
Port ID This field contains the module and port number of the
sending device.
Echo This field contains the module and port pair known by the
sending device.
Message Interval This field contains the transmit interval of the
sending device.
Timeout Interval This field contains the timeout interval of the
sending device.
Device Name This field contains the CDP Device ID string of the
sending device.
Sequence Number This field contains the number used to validate
discovery packets.
Reserved These fields are reserved for future use.
Once the unidirectional link is detected by UDLD, the respective port is
disabled and remains disabled until it is manually re-enabled, or until
errdisable timeout expires (if configured). UDLD can operate in either
normal or aggressive mode.
In Normal mode, UDLD simply changes the UDLD-enabled port to an
undetermined state if it stops receiving UDLD messages from its directly
connected neighbor. Aggressive mode UDLD is a variation of UDLD, and
when a port stops receiving UDLD packets, UDLD tries to reestablish the

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

connection with the neighbor. After eight failed retries, the port state
changes to the err-disable state, which effectively disables the port.
In UDLD normal mode, when a unidirectional link condition is detected,
the port is allowed to continue its operation. UDLD merely marks the port
as having an undetermined state and generates a syslog message. In
other words, in normal mode, no action is taken by UDLD and the port is
allowed to continue behaving according to its Spanning Tree state.
UDLD aggressive mode is configured on point-to-point links. This mode
comes into play after a UDLD neighbor stops receiving UDLD updates
from its adjacent peer. In aggressive mode, the local device will attempt to
re-establish the UDLD connection eight times. If the switch is unable to
re-establish the connection within this timeframe, it will proceed and
errdisable the port.
Aggressive mode is the preferred method of configuring UDLD. By
preventing this one-way
communication, UDLD can be useful in spanning-tree networks. UDLD is
used when a link should be shut down because of a hardware failure that
is causing unidirectional communication. In an EtherChannel bundle,
UDLD shuts down only the physical link that has failed. UDLD aggressive
mode adds additional detection when the port is stuck (one side is neither
transmiting nor receives; however, the link is up on both ends) or when
the link is up on one side and down on the other side, which is typically
seen on Fiber connections only, as Copper ports are normally not
susceptible to this type of issue because they use Ethernet link pulses to
monitor the link.
To bring a port back up after it has been placed into error-disable state,
simply shut and then no shut the affect interface once the error has been
corrected.

UDLD can be enabled globally for all fiber interfaces or on a per-interface


basis.
To enable UDLD on an interface,
Switch(config-if)# udld enable [aggressive]
To enable UDLD globally on all fiber-optic interfaces,
Switch(config)# udld { enable | aggressive }
To verify UDLD on a port run the following command,
SwitchA#show udld gigabitEthernet 0/1
Interface Gi0/1

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

Port enable administrative configuration setting: Enabled / in aggressive


mode
Port enable operational state: Enabled / in aggressive mode
Current bidirectional state: Bidirectional
Current operational state: Advertisement Single neighbor detected
Message interval: 15
Time out interval: 5
Entry 1

Expiration time: 38
Device ID: 1
Current neighbor state: Bidirectional
Device name: FOX01590RW1
Port ID: Gi1/1
Neighbor echo 1 device: FOX0872A001
Neighbor echo 1 port: Gi0/1
Message interval: 15
Time out interval: 5
CDP Device name: SwitchB
Comparison Between Aggressive Mode UDLD and Loop Guard
Loop Guard and aggressive mode UDLD functionality overlap insofar as
both protect against STP failures caused by unidirectional links. These two
features are different, however, in their approach to the problem and in
functionality.
Loop Guard

Aggr

Configuration

Per Port

Per

Action Granularity

Per Vlan

Per

Auto-Recovery

Yes

Yes

Protection against STP failures


caused by unidirectional links

Yes, when enabled on all root


ports and alternative port in
redundant topology

Yes,
links

Protection against STP failures


caused by software resulting in
designated switch not sending
BPDUs

Yes

No

Protection against miss wiring

No

Yes

The most noticeable difference between aggressive mode UDLD and


Loop Guard is with regard to STP. Aggressive mode UDLD cannot detect
failures caused by problems in software in the designated switch not
sending the BPDU. Aggressive mode UDLD is more robust in its capability
to detect unidirectional links on EtherChannel. Loop Guard blocks all
interfaces of

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BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD Eric Leahy

the EtherChannel in such a failure by putting the EtherChannel into the


loop-inconsistent state for a VLAN or for all VLANs, whereas aggressive
mode UDLD disables the single port exhibiting problems. In addition,
aggressive mode UDLD is not dependent on STP, so it supports Layer 3
links as well. Loop Guard does not support shared links or interfaces that
are unidirectional on switch Bootup. If a port is unidirectional on switch
Bootup, the port never receives BPDUs and becomes a designated port.
Loop Guard does not support this scenario, because the behavior is not
distinguishable from normal STP operation. Aggressive mode UDLD does
provide protection against such a failure scenario.
Enabling both aggressive mode UDLD and Loop Guard provides the
highest level of protection against bridging loops and black holes in
multilayer switched networks.
Filed under BPDU Guard, BPDU Filter, Root Guard, Loop Guard & UDLD

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