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11/26/2014

Factorsaffectingplantgrowth

Topic3

FactorsAffectingPlantGrowth
Wewillreviewthesefactorsbecauseofthelimitingeffectstheyhaveonuseofplant
nutrients.
DefinitionofgrowthTheprogressivedevelopmentofanorganism.
Usuallyexpressedasdryweight(totalofthepartwe'reinterestedinsuchasgrain),
height,length,diameter
GrowthofanannualplantrelatedtotimeisanSshapedcurveforanoronegrowing
seasonforaperennialplant.

growth

time

Growthrelatedtothefactorsaffectingit.
G=f(X1,X2,X3.....Xn)
G=measureofgrowth
Xi=growthfactors
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Thefactorsthataffectplantgrowthcanbeclassifiedasgeneticorenvironmental.
A.GeneticFactor
1.FieldcropsYieldpotentialisdeterminedbygenesoftheplant.A
largepartoftheincreaseinyieldovertheyearshasbeenduetohybrids
andimprovedvarieties.Othercharacteristicssuchasquality,disease
resistance,droughthardinessaredeterminedbythegeneticmakeup.
Cornhybridsareanexampleofadramaticyielinceaseresultingfrom
genetics.Geneticengineeringisnowbecominganimportanttoolin
changingaplantspotential.
2.Nurserycropsandturfnotinterestedintotalgrowthasmuchas
appearance.Ex.isBermudagrass
1.CoastalbermudagassAsaforagethegrowerisinterested
inyieldandfeedquality.
2.TifdwarfGolfgreensinterestedinappearance,cover,
wearresistancenothowmuchtotalgrowthoccurs.
3.VarietyandPlantNutrientneedsHybridcornproducing200bu/ac
requiresmoreplantnutrientsthanahybridproducing100bu/ac.As
potentialcropyieldsareincreased,theplantnutrientsrequiredare
increased.CurrentresearchintheSoilScienceandGeneticsdepartment
isconcernedwithdevelopingcornhybridsthatusenitrogenmore
efficientlyProducemoregrainperpoundofNfertilizer.
4.Aproducerhascontroloverthegeneticfactorbyhischoiceofvariety.
Fieldcropshighestyielding,diseaseresistant,etc.
NurseryBestappearancedwarfvslargershrubs
B.EnvironmentalFactors
definitionAllexternalconditionsandinfluencesaffectingthelifeanddevelopmentof
anorganism.
Thefollowingareregardedasthemostimportantenvironmentalfactors
Temperature
Moisturesupply
Radiantenergy
Compositionoftheatmosphere
Soilaerationandsoilstructure
Soilreaction
Bioticfactors
Supplyofmineralnutrients
Absenceofgrowthrestrictingsubstances
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Eachcanbealimitingfactorinplantgrowth.Theseenvironmentalfactors
donotactindependentlyexampleinverserelationshipbetweensoil
moistureandair
a.TemperatureAmeasureoftheintensityofheat.Plantgrowthoccurs
inafairlynarrowrange60100degreesF
1.Temperaturedirectlyaffects
photosynthesis
respiration
transpirationlossofwater
absorptionofwaterandnutrients
2.Therateoftheseprocessesincreaseswithanincreasein
temperatureresponsesaredifferentwithdifferentcrops
cottonvscollardsorpotatoes
fescuevsbermudagrass
Thesegeneralizationsholdwithinacropsrangeofadaptation
3.Temperaturealsoaffectssoilorganismsnitrifyingbacteria
inhibitedbylowtemperature.pHmaydecreaseinsummer
duetoactivitiesofmicroorganisms
4.Soiltemperatureaffectswaterandnutrientuptake
b.MoisturesupplyPlantgrowthrestrictedbylowandhighlevelsofsoil
moisture
1.canberegulatedwithdrainageandirrigation
2.goodsoilmoistureimprovesnutrientuptake
Ifmoistureisalimitingfactorfertilizerisnotusedefficiently.
c.Radiantenergy
Quality,intensityanddurationoflightareimportant
1.Qualitycan'tbecontrolledonafieldscaleFeasibleon
specialtycrops
2.Intensityoflight(brightness)isanimportantfactor.
photosynthesislightintensity
Cornwithuprightleavesbeingbredtointerceptmorelight
3.DurationPhotoperiodismPlantbehaviorinrelationto
daylength
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longdayplantsfloweronlyifdaysarelongerthansame
criticalperiod12hoursGrainsandclovers
shortdayplantsfloweronlyifdaysareshorterthana
criticalperiodsoybeans.
indeterminatefloweroverawiderangeofdaylengths.
Tomato,cotton,buckwheat
Somecropsfailtoflowerincertaingeographicalareas
Chrysanthemumscanbemadetobloombycontrolling
photoperiod.
d.Compositionoftheatmosphere
CO2makesup0.03percentofairbyvolume.Photosynthesis
convertsCO2toorganicmaterialintheplant.CO2isreturned
toatmospherebyrespirationanddecomposition
InacornfieldorclosedgreenhouseCO2levelmaydropand
becomealimitingfactoringrowth.
IncreasingCO2canincreasecropyieldsrespirationofplants
andanimalsdecompositionofmanureorplantresiduemay
releaseCO2
greenhousecrops
Plantgrowthandqualitycanbeenhancedbysupplemental
CO2.Growthresponseshavebeenshownwithtomatoes,
lettuce,cucumbers,flowercrops,greens,peas,beans,
potatoes
AirQuality
Airpollutantsinsufficientquantitiesaretoxictoplantssulfur
dioxideprovidessulfuratlowlevels
carbonmonoxide
hydrofluoricacid
e.Soilaeration
Compactsoilsofhighbulkdensityandpoorstructureare
aeratedpoorly.
Porespaceisoccupiedbyairandwatersotheamountofair
andwaterareinverselyproportionaltotheamountofoxygen
inthesoil.Onwelldrainedsoils,oxygencontentisnotlikely
tobelimitingtoplantgrowth.
Plantsvarywidelyintheirsensitivitytosoiloxygen.Paddy
ricevstobacco
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f.Soilreaction
pHinfluencesavailabilityofcertainnutrientsexphosphate
availabilitylowonacidsoils.Alistoxictoplants
diseasesaffectedbypH
PotatoscabcontrolledbykeepingpHbelow5.5
g.Bioticfactors
diseaseheavierfertilizationmayincreasevegetativegrowth
andsusceptibilitytodisease
Rootknotnematodesreduceabsorptionsomorefertilizeris
necessary.
insects
weedscompeteformoisturenutrientslight
allelopathyharmfulsubstancesreleasedbyroots.
h.PlantNutrients

EssentialPlantNutrientsThoseelementsthatare
neededforhigherplantstocompletealllifefunctions,and
thatthedeficiency
canbecorrectedonlybytheapplicationof
thespecificelementcausingthedeficiency.
Nonmineralnutrients(fromwaterandair)
carbon,hydrogen,oxygen
Macronutrients
Primarynutrients
nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium
Secondarynutrients
calcium,magnesium,sulfur
Micronutrients
copper,manganese,zinc,boron,molybdenum,
chlorine,iron,nickel
MineralElementsbeneficialtosomeplants
cobalt,vanadium,sodium,silicon,selenium
i.Absenceofgrowthrestrictingsubstances
Highconcentrationsofplantnutrients
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Factorsaffectingplantgrowth

aluminum,nickel,leadassociatedwithsewagedisposal,
wastesfromindustry,mines,etc.
organiccompoundsphenols,oil

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