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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Subject of the Study


The present study focused on investigating students skill in mastering
writing. The researcher selected the eighth grade students of SMPN 3 Amlapura in
academic year 2013/2014. The researcher took the eighth grade students as the
subject of this study. The total of the students in this class was 30; consisted of 16
female and 14 male.
The reasons why this subject was chosen, because most of them still have
problem in writing especially in writing recount paragraph. This subject have
difficulties when they wrote recount paragraph. This could be identified from the
result of the interview with the English teacher of eighth grade students of class
E. She said that the students were still confused when the teacher asked them to
write a story. As a result most of them obtained bad score or in other words, they
were still low in mastering writing skill. This also supported by the result of the
pre-test which was done by the students. This indicated that the students ability
was still poor.

3.2 Research Design


Classroom action research was used in this study. Ferrence (2000:1) states
that action research was a process in which participants examine their own
educational practicesystematically and carefully, using the techniques of research.
McNiff and Whitehead (2006:7) also state that action research is a form of
enquiry that enables practitioners everywhere to investigate and evaluate their
work. It makes use of a collection of pre-test and post-test research design.
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Furthermore, Wallen and Fraenkel (2009:589) state that action research is


conducted by one or more individuals or groups for the purpose of solving a
problem or obtaining information in order to inform local practice. Norton
(2009:4) describes that the purpose of action research is to systematically
investigate our teaching/learning facilitation practice with the dual aim of
modifying practice and contributing to theoretical knowledge. Richards
Lockhart (2008:12) adds that action research typically involves small scale
investigation projects in the teachers own classroom and consists of a number of
phases which often recur in cycles: planning, action, observation, reflection.
This classroom action study concerned with teaching writing through
scramble sentences. Classroom action research was divided into two cycles; they
were cycle I and cycle II and each cycle consisted of four interconnected
activities, namely : Planning, Action, Observation, and Reflection.

3.3 Research Procedure


In this classroom action research the session was divided into two cycles
(Cycle I and Cycle II) and each cycle consisted of four interconnected activities,
namely: Planning (P), Action (A), Observation (O), and Reflection (R). This
classroom action study concerned with teaching writing by using two kinds of
tests,they were initial reflection or pre-test and reflection or post-test. Cycle I was
designed starting from giving initial reflection (IR), Planning (P), Action (A),
Observation (O), and Reflection (R), whereas in cycle II was designed starting
from revised Planning, Action, Observation, and Reflection. The teaching learning
process can be described as follows :
Cycle I : IR

P1

A1

O1

R1

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Cycle II : RP

A2

O2

R2

In initial reflection was intended to evaluate the pre-existing writing


recount paragraph whereas reflection was administered at the end of each session,
was meant to reveal the expected increase in students recount paragraph writing
skill achievement after they have been taught recountparagraph through scrambled
sentences. To get data of students prior knowledge, we could get from pre-test
before teaching learning process and to measure how well the students improved
their writing skill,we could get from post-test.

3.3.1

Planning
Before teaching learning process was began, first, the writer did the

observation to the school (SMPN 3 Amlapura) and then the writer identified the
existing problem in the classroom. After knowing the problems occured, the
writer determined the topic that would be taught. So, the planning was general
formulated by the researcher as follows:
1. Designing the lesson plan or setting up the teaching scenario for the
present class study. Prepared the topic that would be taught especially
material about recount paragraph so that students would more
understand the topic or material.
2. Preparing the instrument that would be used in teaching learning
process.
3. Designing the post-test that would be administrated at the end of each
session of this cycle.
4. Designing the questionnaire to the subjects under study.This
questionnaire was given to the students by the end of cycle II.
3.3.2

Action

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After the planning was completed, then the researcher carried out an
action. This teaching learning process focused on teaching writing through
scrambled sentences. The researcher began to teach in class based on thetopic that
has been made. During the teaching learning process, there would be three
activities included in the teaching scenario, namely: pre-activity, whilst-activity,
and post-activity.
Teaching learning process was started with pre-activity. The researcher
who acted as a teacher greeted the students and checked students attendance.
Then, the researcher tried to warm up the students prior knowledge by giving
some questions related to the topic that would be discussed. The aim was to invite
the students attention in order to make them more interested and motivated
during the teaching learning process.
In whilst-activity, the researcher carried out the main process of teaching
writing by using scrambled sentences. The researcher explained the topic and
gave an example of recount paragraph. The researcher gave an example of recount
paragraph to the students. In order to the process of teaching learning process was
more intensive, the researcher gave an exercise about recount paragraph with
scramble order and the students rearranged the sentences into a good paragraph by
discussing to each other. Observing the students was very important in teaching
learning process. The researcher should observe and help the students when they
did the exercise in order to know about the subject attitude toward the learning
process. After finishing answer the question, the researcher and students discussed
the correct answer. She asked one of students to come in front of the class to write
his/her answer on whiteboard. Next session, researcher asked the students to make

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a short recount paragraph based on the topic. The objective of this activity was to
measure the students writing skill before and after teaching learning process.
In post activity, researcher asked the students about their difficulties during
the teaching and learning process after applying scrambled sentences. Also, the
teacher made a conclusion or summarized the materials have been studied before.
The last, she ended the class and went out from the class.

3.3.3

Observation
In this classroom action investigation, the researcher acted as an observer.

In this study, the researcher observed the situation of classroom during the present
action study. The researcher observed the activities of students in teaching
learning process in order to know the effectiveness of learning process and
whether or not the strategy could improve the students achievement. In this study,
we could see the positive changing behaviour of the students attitude and
motivation in learning and practice of writing recount paragraph in their
classroom activities.
3.3.4

Reflection

After finishing observation and evaluation, the researcher did the


reflection. Its aim was to find out the teaching learning process based on lesson
plan that had been made successfully done or not. Also in this study, the
researcher would analyse the application of the strategy including both the
strengths and weaknesses. The finding in each meeting and the result of each test
would be considered as the input to improve the result of the next cycle. If the
first cycle was not successfully done to improve the students writing skill, the
research should be continued to the next cycle that was cycle II. The researcher

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used the result in first cycle as the consideration whether the study would be
ended or continued to the next cycle.

3.4 Research Instrument


Research instrument was for gathering the data. Research instruments used
by the researcher was as a vehicle to stimulate, elicit, and encourage the students
to give their opinions, responses and answers to obtain valid and reliable required
data for the investigation. In this study, the researcher used two instruments in
collecting data. The instruments were:
a. Test
Test given to the students focused on writing recount paragraph. The purpose
of this test was to find students skill in writing recount paragraph correctly.
The test used in this study were pre-test and post-test. Pre-test was conducted
before the teaching learning process was carried out. Its purpose was to find
out the existing the students writing skill, especially in writing recount
paragraph. The post-test was conducted at the end of each teaching sessions to
find out the students improvement in each sessions after they were taught
writing recount paragraph by using scrambled sentences.
b. Questionnaire
The questionnaire was conducted to find out the students changing behavior
when they are learning recount paragraph writing by using scrambled
sentences.
3.5 Data Collection
There were three kinds of instruments used to gather the data of this
classroom action study: they were pre-test, post-test and questionnaire. Thus, the

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data required to answer the research question were gathered through administering
pre-test, post-test and questionnaire to the eighth grade students of SMPN 3
Amlapura. The pre-test was conducted to the students under study to find out their
pre-existing recount paragraph writing skill. In pre-test, the students were asked to
make a short recount paragraph based on the topic. Post-test was conducted at the
end of each session in cycle I and cycle II to find out the result of actions toward
the strategy used. And questionnaire was conducted to show the students changing
learning behaviors in learning recount paragraph writing by using scrambled
sentences.

3.6 Data Analysis


The most important data required to answer the research question under
study was collected through administering pre-test and post-tests, some supporting
additional data are gathered through administering questionnaire to the
studentsunder study, that was the eighth grade student ofSMPN 3 Amlapura.
Thus, there were considerably three kinds of raw scores obtained for the present
class action study they were as the following:
(1) Scores indicating the students pre existing recount paragraph writing
skill,
(2) Scores showing the students progress achievement in recount paragraph
writing skill, and
(3) Scores showing the students changing learning behaviour.
The data were analysed by using the following formula:

M=

X
N

Where :

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: mean score

X
N

: the sum of total score

: the total number of students

While the data resulted from the questionnaire would also be analysed
descriptively as the following percentage of an item:

Number of students choosing the item


X=

x 100%
Number of whole students

3.7 Success Indicator


Based on Curriculum of SMPN 3 Amlapura, the standard completeness
that has been stated in this school is 73. The eight grade students should reach the
standard completeness indicated. It means the present study was successfull if
80% or more of students reach the standard completeness and the research was
failed if less than 80% students reach standard completeness.