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Lecture 17

Sub-structure:
Design of the Abutments
A counter-fort retaining wall.
The next step is to calculate the dead weight value w(x) from the superstructure and part of the sub-
structure. It can also include some live load if the bridge is in a heavily traveled urban area. From these
two values, vs and w(x), we can find the fundamental period T of the bridge and the seismic force pe(x).
9"

L v =5.26 k 4

3'-0"
L h =0.24 k 3.88'

12" 12"
5 6
3
12'-0"

12" 1
7
5'-6"

6'-0"
2'-6" 12" 3'-6"

4'-0"
1'-6"

8
A
7'-0"
Wheel load

Bridge slab P Approach slab


Normal pavement

Girder
Backfill

Abutment

a a
3
1

12"

#4@ 9" front face


#4@ 18" back face
Provide 3" clear to

Vert. bars, back face


all bars except 1 12 "
clear to bars in
front face of stem

#6 @ 10"
#4 @ 2'-0"
16'-6"

6" drains
@ 10'-0"
Vert. bars,
back face
#6 @ 5"
#6 @ 6"
2'

3' 1'-6" 5'-6"


1'-6"

#6 @ 6" 2"x6" key #4 @ 12"


Preparing the foundations of an abutment for a high-speed rail overpass (AVE, St, Sadurniu,
Barcelona. The AVE is the high-speed rail connection between Paris-Barcelona).
The almost finished abutment for a high-speed rail overpass (AVE, St, Sadurniu, Barcelona. The AVE is the
high-speed rail connection between Paris-Barcelona).
Abutments damaged by seismic forces
San Fernando Earthquake, on February 9, 1971. Settlement of the abutment fill.
Wing-wall damage at abutment

Interchange 210 – Roxford


Street Undercrossing at Foothill
Boulevard.

Single-span, variable depth,


prestressed box girder, slightly
skewed and supported on pile
diaphragm abutments. The
structure was supported entirely
on fill. All eight wingwall-to-
diaphragm connections were
badly damaged.
Failure in Shear of
Superstructure and End
Diaphragm at Soffit.
Balboa Boulevard Over-crossing –
South Abutment

Seven-span, reinforced concrete box


girder with Class II piles and spread
footings. Abutments were diaphragm
type.

The south abutment was in original


ground and soil supported, while the
north abutment was upon fill and
supported on concrete piles.
Abutment Fill Settlement
Eureka Earthquake –
November 8, 1980.

Epicenter – 30 miles
northwest of
Eureka, CA

Magnitude – 6.6 to 7.1 on the


Richter Scale

Damage – Collapse of
Fields Landing
Overhead
located on
Highway 101
Aerial View of Fields Landing showing Collapse of Two Spans. Failure caused by earthquake factors which
can be attributed to the failure caused by severe skew, rocker bearings at the abutments, hinges at each bent,
narrow hinge seats, simply-supported median slab between tan not connected to left and right bridge.
Abutment 1.

All of the pedestals were


severely shattered, and most
of the steel bearings were
ripped from their
anchorages.
Steel rocker bearings were torn out of their anchors.
Damage to abutment and to the wingwall.
Route 14/5 Separation & Overhead – Collapsed Spans at South Abutment
Higashi-Kobe Bridge – Vertical Movement of 0.5 Meter at the Top Roadway.
Failure of Reinforcing Concrete Pier Wall
Hanshin Expressway – Failure of single-column bents