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MODULE

13

HEALTH CARE

Learning Objective: At the end of this module, the students should be able to know
the importance of ones health
Methodology:

Lecture discussion

Requirements:

Attendance
Participation during discussion

Content:

1. Why do we have to study health?


2. Principles underlying health
3. Essential facts which man should know (Fuentes, et. al 1999)
4. Carriers of contagious disease
5. Fitness and healthy living
6. Nutrition
7. Common deficiency diseases
8. Basic elements in food
9. Balanced diet food
10. Common communicable disease

Time Allotment:

4 hours

Introduction
We often hear that health is wealth and this is very true, No matter how much
we study and work hard to earn a big income, without good health, everything is
futile.

How do we define health? Health is the complete fitness of the body,


soundness of the mind and wholesomeness of the emotion, which make possible
the highest quality of effective living and of service.
Why do we have to study health?
The following are the reasons why we have to study health:
1. Medical health records show that current health practices are poor
2. Peoples attitude towards health does not lead to hygienic living
3. People lack basic information regarding health matters
4. Habits affect health and the school can develop health habits
Principles underlying health
1. Heredity, environment and mode of living determine ones health
2. The students health is a joint responsibility of the home, the school as
well as the community
3. Teaching health in the school is principally in the hands of the Health
teacher
4. Health education is included in the curriculum starting from kindergarten
up to college
5. The health specialist of the school should have a better understanding,
sympathy, cooperation and support in order to have an effective health
education
6. Better accomplishment of the medical and dental and nursing services of
the school lies in the health instruction and the development of health,
attitude and habits
7. The promotion of the teachers health is important to the health education
program as well as to the quality and cost of education
8. What constitutes a valuable element in the health education of the
student is the professional skill and initiative of the teacher
9. It is very essential to develop the health practices of the student starting
from kindergarten until he becomes old enough to understand the
scientific reasons which these practices rest.
According to Fuentes (1999), women tend to live longer and are generally far
healthier than men. Yet they visit the doctor twice as often. This is partly because
even when they are in the best of their health, their basic biological functions
menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and menopause frequently require medical
intervention.
Further, she said that there is an increasing and predominantly silent crisis in
mens health and well being. Due to lack of awareness, poor health education, and
culturally induced behavior patterns in their work and personal lives, mens health
and well-being are deteriorating steadily. In the 1920s, the life expectancy of
males and females was roughly the same. Now, life expectancy among males is
over 10% lower of 7 years shorter than that of women. The relative slack in mens
health is due to a number of reasons. The primary reason is that men have been

brought up to think it is unmanly to react to pain in their bodies. The consequence is


that men are at greater risk for several of the top killers heart disease, cancer,
suicide, accidents and violence.
Women depend on their gynecologist for female problems, and learn the
benefits of early detection for breast cancer through self-examination. Men, on the
other hand, often ignore warning signs and symptoms until the problem becomes
serious. Furthermore, there really isnt a medical specialty to deal with the wide
variety of problems that a man faces.
Essential Facts which man should know (Fuentes, et. al 1999)
1. Heart Disease. One of the leading causes of death among men is heart
disease. This disease is brought by lack of concern for diet as well as a
stressful lifestyle.
2. Hospital. Men visit doctors when they can no longer bear the pain. So, if
their disease is already severe, the tendency is to stay longer in the
hospital.
3. Violence. Mens tendency is to become aggressive than women. This
aggressiveness is brought about by the male hormone, testosterone. What
happens is they end up in jail or in a mental hospital.
4. Addiction. Men are prone to addiction. According to Fuentes, et. al (1999),
it is estimated that over two-thirds of alcoholics are men. The reason for
this is the macho image in which men seldom share their emotional
disturbance with others. Because of these emotional outbursts, they tend
to take drugs or alcohol.
5. Accidents. Men are exposed to hazardous jobs especially engineers, pilots,
marines, fishermen, etc. So, they are also prone to accidents.
6. Sexually transmitted disease. STD is a disease among men if they do not
practice safe sex, or restrain from sexual activities with some low moral
women, especially the prostitutes.
7. Suicide. More men tend to commit suicide than women. Because of the
macho image, they always keep their problems to themselves. So they
are more likely to commit suicide, as they dont have any outlet to share
their emotions.
8. Impotence. This is brought about by psychological aspects. Other
contributors to impotence are: smoking, alcohol, blood pressure medicines
and diabetes.
9. Cancer. Accodring to Fuentes, et. al (1999), men are twice as likely to die
from cancer than women are. The male specific cancers are: testicular,
prostate, while non-gender specific caners are lung and colon cancers.
10.Stress. Several factors can cause stress among men such as financial
problems, poor health, heavy workload, the death of a loved one, work
environment and marriage strife.
Carriers of contagious disease

There are three agent-carriers of disease germs according to Meez (1970)


and these are:
1. Man. Man spreads a contagious disease directly or indirectly. He is a
carrier even if he has not been sick with the disease, but carries the germs
with him.
2. Water. Drinking water is another carrier of a disease. We also get the
disease by using the glass and utensils of a sick person.
3. Food. Food is also a carrier of disease, so let us avoid eating dirty food.
Leftover food should always be covered so that flies, rats and cockroaches
will not step on them. In order to avoid getting disease from infected food,
you should not buy from the outside vendors, because you are not sure
how they prepare, cook and serve the food.
Fitness and Healthy Living
Fitness relates to physical activity perhaps a rigorous daily exercise
regimen. Others may think of fitness simply as being free from disease and other
health problems. Yet the true definition of fitness is far broader and more personal.
It refers to your own optimal health and overall well-being. Fitness is your good
health.
Being fit relates to every aspect of your health physical, emotional, and
mental. All the three are interconnected. Nutrition and physical activity are
fundamental to each one.
When you are fit, you have:
1. Stamina and are optimistic in dealing with everyday emotional ups and
downs as well as the different mental challenges that are often
encountered
2. Reduced risk for may health problems, including serious diseases
3. An attitude of looking and feeling the best
4. Physical strength and endurance to handle yourself in case of an
emergency
5. A better future to become an asset to your country
6. Chance for a better quality of life and ready to face challenges

Nutrition
Nutrition is the science that studies nutrients determining what they are, in
what quantities they are found in different foods, how they are utilized by the body,
and in what quantities they are needed by the body.
Its is also deifned by Fuentes, et. al (1999), as how the food nourishes your
body. Being well nourished depends on getting enough of the nutrients your body
needs, but not too much of the nutrients and energy your body needs.
There are two classes of nutrients. The Macronutrients are relatively in large
quantities and make up the bulk of all diets (supply energy). The Micronutrients are

needed in smaller quantities which serve as calorie sources, but play essential role
in the body chemistry.
Common deficiency diseases
The common deficiency diseases among children in the Philippines are
brought by inadequate nutrients in the body. As the children grow up, it has been
noted that the quantity of balanced food they eat goes down.
Hereunder are the common deficiency diseases:
1. Kwashiorkor calorie deficiency
2. Vitamin A deficiency
3. Vitamin B deficiency
4. Vitamin C deficiency
Basic elements in food
Food is a substance out together by nature into plant or animal life. There are
two general groups of food:
1. Those that give energy for life, growth and repair (energy-growth giving
foods)
Under this group are the carbohydrates and protein.
2. Those that are needed by the body to help do its work (regulating foods)
Under this group are minerals, calcium and vitamins.
Water is not food, but plays a very essential part in changing substances for
digestion, in helping waste elimination and in regulating our temperature.
Balanced diet food
1. Eat a variety of foods with different nutrients good for your body.
2. Balance the foods you eat so that you can attain good health; eat grain
products which are energy giving foods, vegetables and fruits which
supply other nutrients needed by your body.
3. Choose a diet rich in grain products, vegetables and fruits because these
are excellent sources of many nutrients like vitamins, minerals, complex
carbohydrates as well as fiber and other healthful food substances.
4. Choose a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Fat is essential for
health. It supplies energy, contains essential fatty acids and carries
vitamins into your blood stream, but too much of it can also cause an
ailment.
5. Choose a diet moderate in sugars because it can cause diabetes.
6. Choose a diet moderate in salts, especially those who are suffering from
high blood pressure. Sodium is a nutrient and a natural part of many
foods. It helps the body maintain fluid balance and regulate blood
pressure but a person with high blood pressure is sodium-sensitive.
7. Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation. Drinking higher amount is linked
to many health problems.
Common communicable diseases

A disease is the abnormal state or functioning of all or part of the organism. It


is also an alteration of the dynamic interaction between an individual and his
environment. On the other hand, a communicable disease is a disease that can be
transferred from the source to another person.
Some signs of disease are abnormal changes in temperature, pulse rate and
respiratory rate.
Symptoms are pain and restlessness, though these may not be
the same for all persons.
The following are the different communicable diseases:
1. Sore eyes
2. Chronic bronchitis
3. El tor or cholera
4. Common cold
5. Chicken pox
6. Whooping cough
7. Measles
8. Pneumonia
9. Tuberculosis
10.Dengue fever
11.Typhoid fever
12.Mumps

Self-Test: (Integrating Activity)


I.

Define the following:


a. Health
b. Fitness
c. Nutrition

d. Balance diet
e. Disease

II. Discuss briefly the importance of studying health


III. Enumerate the following:
a. Four common deficiency diseases brought by inadequate nutrients
in the body
b. Twelve different common communicable diseases
IV.

Discussion
How do the following agents carry disease germs? Explain briefly.
a. man
b. water
c. food
DRUG EDUCATION

Learning Objective: At the end of this module, the students should be able to know
how to prevent drug abuse

Methodology:

Lecture discussion

Requirements:

Attendance
Participation during discussion

Content:

1. What is a drug?
2. When are drugs harmful?
3. Are products other than drugs ever abused?
4. What is drug abuse?
5. Why do people turn to drugs?
6. What drugs are commonly used?
7. How can you tell when someone is abusing drugs?
8. What are the ill-effects of drug abuse?
9. What can a person do to prevent drug abuse?
10. What are the general facts about Ecstasy, Marijuana,
Inhalant abuse,
Opiates and Cocaine?

Time Allotment:

4 hours

Introduction
A drug is a chemical substance that brings about physical, emotional or
behavioral change in a person taking it. Any drug can be harmful when taken in
excess. Some drugs can also be harmful if taken in dangerous combinations or by
hypersensitive (allergic) persons in ordinary or even small amounts. Substance like
glue, paint thinners, gasoline and other volatile (breathable) solvents contain a
variety of dangerous chemicals. They should be sold and used with caution.
What is Drug abuse?
Drug abuse is the use of any chemical substance, licit or illicit, which results
in an individuals physical, mental or social impairment.
It may refer to any of the following practices:
1. Using, without benefit or prescription, useful drugs which have the
capacity to alter the mood or behavior.
2. Using drugs and substances for a purpose different from the one for which
the drug has been prescribed.
3. Using drugs and substances having no legitimate medical application for
purposes other than research.
Why do people turn to drugs?
These are the reasons ranging from the following:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Medicines can solve problems


Widespread access to various drugs
Peer pressure
The notion that drugs give enjoyment to users and in the context that it is
used as an alcohol substitute

What drugs are commonly used?


Drugs that are commonly abused depending on their pharmacological effects
may be classified into:
1. Stimulants drugs which increase alertness and physical disposition.
Examples are amphetamine, cocaine, caffeine and nicotine
2. Hallucinogens (also called as psychedelics) drugs which affect sensation,
thinking, self-awareness and emotion. Changes in time and space
perception, delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations may be mild or
overwhelming, depending on dose and quality of the drug.
Examples are LSD, Mescaline and Marijuana
3. Sedatives drugs which may reduce anxiety and excitement.
Examples are barbiturates, non-barbiturates, tranquilizers and alcohol
4. Narcotics drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep.
Examples are opium and its derivatives (morphine, codeine and heroin)
How can you tell when one is abusing drugs?
A person who is abusing drugs has a lot of changes in behavior, appearance
and mood. The changes may be pleasant or unpleasant. Thus he is:
1. Irritable, discourteous, defiant and aggressive
2. Untrustworthy and lacks self-confidence
3. Unhealthy and unconcerned with good grooming
4. Has a low frustration tolerance
5. Lacks interest in his studies/work
6. Blames everybody for his problems
7. Prefers his barkada where he feels accepted
What are the ill-effects of drug abuse?
Drug abuse leads to medical and health problems. The physical complications
depend to an extent on the specific drug, its source and the way it is used. Among
the physical and mental complications are:
1. Malnutrition. The lives of drug dependents revolve around drug abuse.
They miss their regular meals because they lose their appetite.
2. Panic Reaction. The loss of thought processes can cause panic reactions or
feelings on invulnerability. Both of these states can lead to injury and
death. The prolonged harmful reactions include anxiety and depressive
sates, or breaks with reality, which may last from a few days to months.
3. Physical Damage. In addition to those disease, which accompany the use
of unsterile syringes and contaminated drugs these may cause certain

medical problems. Kidney failure, hepatitis, drastic weight loss and


vitamin deficiencies are some of the adverse physical complications.
The life of drug abusers is a dreadful one. To support the habit, they resort to
committing crimes like stealing, prostitution and gambling, wherein they hamper
their emotional maturation.
What can a person do to prevent drug abuse?
1. Maintain god physical and mental health
2. Use drug properly
3. Understand your own self
4. Develop your potentials
5. Learn to relate effectively to whom you can communicate your problems
freely
6. Learn to cope with your problems and other stresses without the use of
drugs
7. Seek professional help if you feel you cannot cope with your problems
8. Develop strong moral and spiritual foundations
What are the general facts about Ecstasy, Marijuana, Inhalant abuse, Opiates and
Cocaine?
Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine related substance. IT GAINED POPULARITY AS
A RECREATIONAL DRUG, FIRST IN THE United States and then later in Europe
and now is increasingly known in other parts of the world. It has the following
street names: X, Rave, Love Drug, Flying Saucer, LBD or Libido, Jagged Little
Pill, Artist Drug, Hug Drug, MDA, MDEA, XTC, E, Eckie, and Love Doves. Its
scientific name is 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A user
generally takes the drug through oral ingestion, but some resort to snorting
for its faster effect, but this is usually painful and irritating to the nostrils. Its
dosage varies whole tablet-1 hit lasts for about 3 to 5 hours. A typical dose
is between 75 mg and 150 mg; one half-tablet half a bit.
The physiological effects are muscle tension, involuntary teeth
clenching, nausea, appetite loss, blurred vision, rapid eye movement,
hallucinations, irritability, faintness, chills, sweating, sleeping problems,
increase in heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure, liver & heart
damage, and brain hemorrhage.
MDMA is particularly dangerous when taken with alcohol, or by those
suffering from heart ailments, diabetes, asthma and psychosis.
The psychological effects are classified into two categories. The first of
which are positive psychological effects which include: extreme mood lifts,
increase in willingness to communicate, increase in energy or stimulation,
ego softening, feeling of comfort, belonging and closeness to others, feeling
of love and empathy, forgiveness, increased awareness and appreciation of
music, increased awareness of senses, profound life-changing spiritual
experiences, neurotically based fear dissolution, experience bright and

intense sensations and urge to hug and kiss people. The second category has
negative effects which include: inappropriate and unintended emotional
bonding, tendency to say things the user might feel uncomfortable about
later, depression and fatigue up to seven days, confusion, drug craving,
severe anxiety and paranoia.
The short term effects of MDMA are: restlessness, anxiety, pronounced
visual and auditory hallucinations at larger dose, increased blood pressure
and heart rate which may lead to cardiac arrest, nausea and vomiting while
the long term effects of MDMA are: psychosis, arrhythmia, same effect as
with Amphetamines, psychological dependence, depression.
A user experience grogginess, talkativeness, increased heart rate and
palpitation, reverberating feeling, glassy eyes, and hypertension. The after
effect of Ecstasy leads to sudden drop of euphoria and depression. After
taking the drug, users usually indulge in sex (with single or multiple partners)
and some resort to mental intercourse (jamming or sex talks.
The signs and symptoms are: poor appetite, disturbed sleeping
pattern, erratic behavior, paranoia and suspicious of people.
The penalty of life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from five
hundred thousand pesos (PhP 500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person,
who
unless
authorized
by
law,
shall
possess
10
grams
of
methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) regardless of purity to include
illegal manufacture, sale, administration, dispensing, distribution, delivery
and transportation.
Marijuana, often called grass, pot, or weed, is a crude drug made from Cannabis
sativa, a plant that contains a mind-altering (psychoactive) ingredient called
tetrahydrocannabinol THC. A marijuana joint or cigarette is made from the
dried leaves, tops and flowers of the plant. Its strength depends on the type
of plant, the weather, the soil and the time of harvest of the plant. Hashish or
hash is made from the extracted resin of the plant. It is usually stronger
than crude marijuana and can be both be smoked and eaten. Marijuana slows
down the users mental and psychomotor activities. Users dont remember
what they have learned when they are high. The effects of marijuana can also
impair thinking, reading comprehension and verbal and mathematical skills.
Marijuana creates other health problems related to the reproductive system,
the heart and the lungs. It has been found that Marijuana use may lead to
cancer. The long term regular use of this may lead to psychological
dependence. Once started, it may take more of the drug for the user to get
the same effect.
The immediate effects are: faster heartbeat and pulse rate, bloodshot
eyes, dry mouth and throat, altered sense of time/disorientation,
forgetfulness or inability to think, impaired reflexes, coordination and
concentration, acute panic anxiety reaction extreme fearing of losing
control. The long term effects are chest pain, irregular menstrual cycle,

temporary loss of fertility for both sexes, premature babies or low birth
weights, cancer, and marijuana burn out (dull, slow moving, inattentive,
and unaware of surroundings).
The reasons why people use marijuana are: peer pressure, curiosity,
boredom, frustration (due to personal/family/school and work problems), poor
self-image, weak personality (unable to cope with stress, conflicts, etc.),
desire to escape from reality, an lack of parental guidance.
Inhalant abuse is the deliberate inhalation of volatile chemical substances that
contain psychoactive (mind/mood altering) vapors to produce a state of
intoxication. It is dangerous because it will cause permanent damage to the
brain or may result in sudden sniffing death. Abusers under the influence of
inhalants are prone to accident. Abusers can also become violent. Inhalant
abuse produces psychological dependence. Once the habit is formed, the
dose has to be increased gradually to produce the same effect.
The immediate effects of this are: confusion or disorientation, distorted
perception of time and distance, aggressive behavior or violence, illusions,
nausea, vomiting and hallucination. The delayed effects are: loss of memory,
inability to think, muscle cramps and weakness, numbness in limbs,
abdominal pains, and damage to the central nervous system, kidneys & liver.
Opiates, sometimes called narcotics, are a group of drugs that are used to relieve
pain, but have a high potential for abuse. Some opiates come from a resin
taken from the seedpod of the Asian poppy.
Opium dark brown chunks or powder that are usually smoked or eaten.
Morphine white or brownish powder that is usually dissolved in water and
then injected.
Heroin diluted or cut with other substances such as sugar or quinine.
Codeine
Synthesized or manufactured opiates come in capsules, tablets, syrups,
solutions and suppositories.
Morphine, meperidine, paregoric (which contains opium), and cough
syrups (that contain codeine) are the most common opiates with legal
medicine uses that are abused.
The dangers of opiates abuse are: opiates may cause dependence and
tolerance. An opiate-dependent person makes finding and using the drug his
main focus in life. Over time, opiate users may develop infections of the heart
lining and valves, skin abscesses and congested lungs. The opiate-dependent
women suffer from health problems like anemia and may give birth to babies
with defects or who are dead.
The immediate effects are: restlessness, nausea and vomiting, on the
nod effect (going back and forth from feeling alert to drowsy), for very large
dose person cannot be awakened anymore, smaller pupils, cold, moist and
bluish skin, slowed down breathing and death.

The delayed effects are: uneasiness, diarrhea, abdominal cramps,


chills, sweating, nausea, runny nose and eyes.
The symptoms begin 4-6 hours after lat dose of the drug, are stronger
24-27 hours after and subside with 7-10 days. Sometimes, symptoms such as
sleeplessness and drug craving can last for months.
The treatments for opiate addicts are: detoxification in a hospital or as
outpatient, rehabilitation in therapeutic communities, outpatient drug-free
programs, methadone-maintenance using methadone (a substitute for
heroin, on a daily basis to help people lead productive lives while in
treatment).
Cocaine is a drug extracted from the leaves of coca, a South American shrub, which
has the same effect as amphetamines a central nervous system stimulant.
Cocaine is available in the following forms:
Cocaine Hydrochloride is the most available form. It is a fine white crystallike powder that is medically known as a local anesthetic. Users sniff or snort
it into the nose.
Street Cocaine Hydrochloride or rocks these are the larger pieces of
cocaine hydrochloride.
Freebase is the purified substance of rocks. It is usually injected or
smoked.
Coca Paste is the crude product smoked in South America. It is more
dangerous because it has contaminants such as kerosene.
Cocaine is dangerous because in some people, even low doses of
cocaine, it may
Create psychological problems. An overdose may cause delirium, convulsions,
respiratory failures or death. Regular intake of high doses of cocaine may
cause paranoia or may lead to cocaine psychosis (hallucinations of touch,
sight, taste or smell).
Injecting cocaine with unsterile equipment can cause hepatitis or other
infections. Preparation of freebase exposes the user to death and serious
injuries from fire or explosion that can occur.
Repeated use of cocaine leads to addiction. Users can get to the point
of centering their lives on seeking and using the drug. Sometimes, they may
continue to use it to avoid depression and fatigue they would feel if they
stopped using the drug.
The immediate effects are: dilated pupils, increase in blood
pressure/heart rate/breathing rate/body temperature, a sense of well-being,
feels energetic/alert, less hungry and slurred speech.
The delayed effects are: psychosis, restlessness, irritability/anxiety,
sleeplessness, stuffy or runny nose/ulcerated mucous membrane of nose,
confusion, and slurred speech.

Self-Test: (Integrating Activity)


I.

Define the following:


a. Drugs
b. Drug abuse

II.

Enumeration
1-4 Reasons why people turn to drugs
5-8 Drugs which are commonly used
9-15 Describe a person who takes drugs
16-18 Ill-effects of drugs
19-26 What you can do as a NSTP student to prevent drug abuse

Reference:
GASILLA-DELA CRUZ, SONIA G. 2005. NSTP National Development via National
Service Training Program (CWTS & ROTC). Books Atbp. Publishing Corp. 151 Rev.
Aglipay St., Mandaluyong City, pp 73-105 and pp 129-147.