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DISCUSSION

We had successfully done this experiment because the objective of this experiment, to
conduct various experiments on chemical coagulation and flocculation and to determine the
optimum dose combination of coagulant aid (when used) which will produce the highest
removal of turbid water sample has achieved.
Jar tests have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of various coagulants and
flocculants under a variety of operating conditions for water treatment. . This procedure
allows individual polymers to be compared on such criteria as floc formation, settling
characteristics, and clarity. Generally, the best performing products provide fast floc
formation, rapid settling rate, and clear supernatant. This test should be performed on-site,
since large amounts of water may be required for testing.
Turbidity is essentially a measure of the cloudiness of the water which indicates the
presence of colloidal particles. The particles should be making sure removed from the water
before for the public use. However these colloids are suspended in solution and can be
removed by sedimentation or filtration. Very simply, the particles in the colloid range are too
small to settle in a reasonable time period, and too small to be trapped in the pores of a filter.
For colloids to remain stable they must remain small. Most colloids are stable because they
possess a negative charge that repel other colloidal particles before they collide with one
another. The colloids are continually involved in Brownian movement, which is merely
random movement. Charges on colloids are measured by placing Dc electrodes in a colloidal
dispersion. The particles migrate to the pole of opposite charge at a rate proportional to the
potential gradient. Generally, the larger the surface charge, the more stable the suspension.
Based on this experiment, the first jar is serving as a control and no coagulant was
added. The coagulant doses increased in the containers from no 1 to no 5. For this water, as
the dose of coagulant increased the residual turbidity improved. It is important to note that the
optimum coagulant dose is the dose which meets the specified turbidity required on the
regulatory permit. The addition of excess coagulant may reduce turbidity beyond what is
required but also could lead to the production of more sludge which would require disposal.

The most effective dose of coagulant we get from the Graph turbidity versus
coagulant after the experiment is 10 mg/L. The most effective pH is 7.35.
Jar tests are used in these procedures to provide information on the most effective
flocculants, optimum dosage, and optimum feed concentration, effects of dosage on removal
efficiencies, effects of concentration of influent suspension on removal efficiencies, effects of
mixing conditions, and effects of settling time.
The general approach used in these procedures is as follows:
a) Prepare stock suspension of sediment.
b) Test a small number (six) of polymers that have performed well on similar dredged
material which has 2-grams-per-litre suspensions and is a typical concentration for
effluent from a well-designed containment area for freshwater sediments
containing clays. If good removals are obtained at low dosages (10 milligrams per
liter or less), then select the most cost-effective polymer. If good removals are not
obtained, examine the polymer under improved mixing and settling conditions and
test the performance of other flocculants
c) The effects of settling time on the removal of suspended solids and turbidity from a
suspension of average concentration should be exanimate using the selected
dosage and likely mixing conditions.
d) The effects of the range of possible mixing conditions on the required dosage of
flocculants for a typical suspension should be exanimate