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# Lecture # 7

## Tuesday, 27 August 2005

http://www.iitg.ernet.in/engfac/mech/public_html/resources/me111/index.html
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Topics
9Orthographic Projections
9Projection of Points

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Projection Theory
Engineering drawing are dependent on
projection methods.
Two projection methods used are:
Perspective and Parallel.
Both methods are based on projection
theory.
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Projection theory
Comprises the principles used to
represent graphically 3-D objects and
structures on 2-D media.
All projection theory are based on two
variables: Line of sight and a plane of
projection.
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## Changing the position of the object relative to the line

of sight creates different views of the same object.
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## In perspective projection, all lines

of sight start at a single point.

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## In parallel projection, all lines of

sight are parallel.
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Plane of Projection
A plane of projection (i.e, an image or picture
plane) is an imaginary flat plane upon which the
image created by the line of sight is projected.
The image is produced by connecting the points
where the lines of sight pierce the projection
plane. In effect, 3-D object is transformed into a
2-D representation, also called projections.
The paper or computer screen on which a
drawing is created is a plane of projection.
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DrP.
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## Parallel vs Perspective Projection

9 Parallel projection

## Distance from the observer to the object is infinite,

projection lines are parallel object is positioned at
infinity.
Less realistic but easier to draw.

Perspective projection

## Distance from the observer to the object is finite and

the object is viewed from a single point projectors
are not parallel.
Perspective projections mimic what the human eyes
sees, however, they are difficult to draw.
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Orthographic Projection

## Is a parallel projection technique in which the plane of

projection is positioned between the observer and the
object and is perpendicular to the parallel line of sight.

## Orthographic projection technique can produce either

pictorial drawings that show all three dimensions of an
object in one view, or multi-views that show only two
dimensions of an object in a single view.

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Multi-view Projection
Is an orthographic projection for which the object is behind
the plane of projection, and the object is oriented such that
only two of its dimensions are shown.

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Multi-view Drawings

Employ multi-view
projection techniques.

## Generally three views of an

object are drawn, and features
and dimensions in each view
accurately represent those of
the object. Each view is a 2-D
flat image. The views are
defined according to the
positions of the planes of
projection with respect to the
object.

## Single view the front

view drawn on paper makes
the 3-D object appear 2-D; one
dimension, in this case the
depth dimension, can not be
represented since it is
perpendicular to the paper.
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Frontal plane
of projection is
the plane onto
which the front
view of the
multi-view
drawing is
projected.

Front view of
an object
shows the
width and
height
dimensions.
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## Horizontal plane of projection

Horizontal plane of projection is the plane onto which the
top view of the multi-view drawing is projected.

dimensions.

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## Profile plane of projection

In multi-view drawings, the right side view is the standard
side view used. The right side view of an object shows
the depth and the height dimensions. The right side view
is projected onto the profile plane of projection, which is
a plane that is parallel to the right side of the object.

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## Orientation of views from projection

planes
Top view is
always
positioned and
aligned with the
front view, and
side (right) view
is always
positioned to the
right of and
aligned with the
front view.
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## The plane of projection can be oriented to produce an

infinite number of views of an object. However, some
views are more important than others.

## These principal views are six mutually perpendicular

views that are produced by six mutually perpendicular
planes of projection.

## Imagine suspending an object in a glass box with

major surfaces of the object positioned so that they
are parallel to the sides of the box, six sides of the
box become projection planes, showing the six views
front, top, left, right, bottom and rear.
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Object
suspended in a
glass box
producing six
principal views
each view is
perpendicular
to and aligned
with the

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## Unfolding the glass box

to produce six-view
drawing

## Top, front and bottom

views are all aligned
vertically and share
the same width
dimension.

## Rear, left side, front

and right side views
are all aligned
horizontally and share
the same height
dimension.
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## Conventional view placement

The three-view
multiview drawing is the
standard used in
engineering and
technology, because
many times the other three
principal views are mirror
images and do not add to
the knowledge about the
object.
The standard views used in
a three-view drawing are the
top, front and the right side
views

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## The width dimensions are

aligned between the front
and top views, using
vertical projection lines.

## The height dimensions are

aligned between the front
and the profile views, using
horizontal projection lines.

## Because of the relative

positioning of the three
views, the depth dimension
cannot be aligned using
the depth dimension is
measured in either the top
or right side view.

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US Standard

## 9First angle projection

European standard
BIS - 1991

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The principal
projection
planes and
used to create
first- and
third-angle
projection
drawings

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The principal
projection
planes and
used to create
first- and
third-angle
projection
drawings

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## Placing the object

in the third
projection planes
between the
viewer and the
object.
When placed in
the object is
between the
viewer and the
projection planes.
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First angle
projection

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Third angle
projection

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## Difference between first- and third-angle projections

First angle projection

Third-angle projection

## Object lies between observer and the

plane of projection.

## Plane of projection lies between the

observer and the object.

## The plane of projection is assumed to be The plane of projection is assumed

non-transparent.
to be transparent.
Front (elevation) view is drawn above
the XY line

## Front (elevation) view is drawn

below the XY line

line

XY line

and vise versa

plane itself.

## Followed in India, European countries

Followed in USA
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Symbol of projection
The method of projection used should be indicated in the
space provided for the purpose in the title box of the
drawing sheet. The symbol recommended by BIS is to
draw the two sides of a frustum of a cone placed with its
axis horizontal.

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Projection of points
Projection of points, viz., front, top and profile views are
obtained by locating the given point in each of the four
If the point lies
In the 1st quadrant - Either on or above HP and in front of VP.
In the 2nd quadrant Either on or above HP and behind VP.
In the 3rd quadrant - Either on or below HP and behind VP.
In the 4th quadrant Either on or below HP and in front of VP.

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Conventional Representation

## The actual positions of the points located in the

quadrants are designated by the capital letters, viz, A,
B, C, etc.
Their front views are conventionally represented by
small letters with dashes, viz., a, b, c

## Profile or side views are represented by small letters

with double dashes, viz a, b, c

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Projectors and
the lines of the
intersection of
planes of
projections are
shown as thin
lines.

The lines of
intersection of
HP and VP is
denoted as XY.

The VP and HP
are written on
either side of
the XY line.

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## Projection of a point in the first quadrant

Example 1:
A point P is 40 mm in front of VP,
50 mm above HP and 30 mm in
front of left profile plane (PP).
Draw the three principal views of
the point.

Solution:
Step 1:
Point P is located in I quadrant.
Point P is projected on VP, HP,
and left PP.
P front view on VP, p top view
on HP and p right view on PP.
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Step 2:
After obtaining the
projections on VP, HP and
left PP, the HP and the left
PP are rotated by 90 so as
to lie in the same plane as
that of VP.

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Step 3:
After rotation, HP lies below
the XY line and the left PP
on which the right view is
projected lies on the left of
VP.

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Step 4:

Orthographic
projections
Draw a thin horizontal XY
line to represent the line of
intersection of HP and VP.
Draw X1Y1 line to
represent the line of
intersection of VP and PP.
Through O, the point of
intersection of XY and
X1Y1, draw a 45 degree
line for projecting the
profile view.
Since the given point P is
30 mm in front of left PP,
draw a vertical projector
line at a distance of 30 mm
from the X1Y1 line.

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## Since point P is 50 mm above

HP, mark p the front view
of the point P, 50 mm above
the XY line.
Since point P is 50 mm infront
of VP and also the HP on
which the top view of the point
P is projected, lies below XY
line, p the top view of the line
lies 40 mm below XY line.
To project the right view on
the left PP, draw a horizontal
projector through p to intersect
the 45 degree line at m and
through m draw a vertical
projector to intersect the
horizontal projector drawn
through p at p the right
view of point P

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Steps
1-4

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## Projection of a point in the second quadrant

Example 2:
A point P is 30 mm above HP, 50
mm behind VP and 45 mm infront
of left PP. Draw the three principal
views of the point.

Solution:
Step 1:
Point P is located in II quadrant.
Since point P is located behind VP,
the VP is assumed transparent
plane.
Point P is projected on VP, HP, and
left PP.
p front view on VP, p top view
on HP and p right view on left PP.

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Step 2:
After obtaining the
projections on VP, HP and
left PP, the HP and the left
PP are rotated by 90 so as
to lie in the same plane as
that of VP.

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Step 3:
After rotation, HP
will coincide with the
VP and the left PP
will lie on the left of
VP.
The direction of
rotation is
maintained same as
in the first quadrant.

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Step 4:

Orthographic
projections
Draw a thin horizontal XY line
and mark both HP and VP
above it.
Draw X1Y1 line to represent
the line of intersection of VP
and left PP.
Mark PP on the left side of
VP. Since point P is 30 mm
above HP, the front view of
the point P lies 30 mm above
the XY line. Therefore, mark
p the front view of the
point P, 30 mm above XY line.
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## Since point P is 50 mm behind

VP and also the HP on which
the top view is projected will
also lie above the XY line, p
the top view of point P lies 50
mm above XY line.
To project the right view on the
left PP, draw a horizontal
projector through p to intersect
the 45 degree line at m and
through m, draw a vertical
projector to intersect the
horizontal projector drawn
through p at p the right view
of point P.
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Steps
1-4

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## Projection of a point in the third quadrant

Example 3:
Draw the three principal views of a
point P lying 40 mm behind VP, 60
mm below HP and 30 mm behind
the right PP.

Solution:
Step 1:
Point P is located in III quadrant.
Since the three planes of projections
lie in between the observer and the
point P, they are assumed as
transparent planes.
Point P is projected on VP, HP, and
right PP.
p front view on VP, p top view
on HP and p right view on right
PP.

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Step 2:
After obtaining the
projections on VP,
HP and right PP, the
HP and the right PP
are rotated by 90 so
as to lie in the same
plane as that of VP.

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Step 3:
After rotation, HP
lies above XY line
and the right PP lies
on the right side of
the VP.
For rotating HP,
the direction of
rotation is
maintained same
as in the first

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Step 4:

Orthographic
projections
Draw a thin horizontal
XY line and mark HP
and VP on either side
of XY line to indicate the
third quadrant system of
projection.
Draw X1Y1 line to
represent the line of
intersection of VP and
right PP.
Through O draw a 45
degree line for
projecting the profile
view.

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## Since point P is 30 mm behind

the right PP, draw a vertical
projector line at a distance of 30
mm from the X1Y1 line. Since
the point P is 60 mm below HP,
the front view of point P lies 60
mm below XY line. Therefore,
mark p the front view of point
P 60 mm below the XY line.
Since the point P is 40 mm
behind VP and also the HP on
which the top view is projected
lies above the XY line, p the top
view of the point P lies 40 mm
above the XY line.
To project the right view on the
right PP, draw a horizontal
projector through p to intersect
the 45 degree line at m, draw a
vertical projector to intersect the
horizontal projector drawn
through p at p the right view
of point P.

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Steps
1-4

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## Projection of a point in the fourth quadrant

Example 4: Draw the three principal views of a

point P lying 60 mm
below HP, 50 mm infront of VP and 45 mm infront of the left PP.

Solution:
Steps 1-4

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