2 views

Uploaded by Thandial Selvam

this is about lateral modes of aircraft

- Design and Control of an Indoor Micro Quadrotor.pdf
- 04a-RecentWindTunnelExperimentsinCanadaonInclinedandYawedStayCables.pdf
- ADA508090.pdf
- Assignment
- Sample Power Curves
- Army Aviation Digest - Mar 1980
- Aerodynamics Chapter 1 r
- MSc Thesis FINAL - Anton Stoop
- Mae 331 Lecture 5
- Exercise
- Aerodynamics,An Introduction
- Final Seminar MAR 2013 Broucher Modified
- IRJET-CFD Analysis of Vortex Breakdown on Double Delta Wing
- 12312
- Basic Aircraft Design Rules
- 118 project report
- Numerical Simulation Capsule Vehicle
- gr br 1
- MEC3458 Final Report
- Aerodynamics Transport Guide

You are on page 1of 9

Chapter 7

Dynamic stability analysis I Equations of motion

and estimation of stability derivatives - 6

Lecture 27

Topics

7.17 Derivatives due to change of

7.17.1 Cy

7.17.2 Cn

7.17.3 Cl

7.18.1 Cyp

7.18.2 Cnp

7.18.3 Clp

7.19.1 Cyr

7.19.2 Cnr

7.19.3 Clr

7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

Example 7.1

7.17 Derivatives due to change of

These derivatives include Cy , Cn and Cl

7.17.1 Cy

The major contribution to this quantity is from the vertical tail. From

Eq.(5.13):

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

(Y)v.tail = -

1 2

V S CLv v

2 v

(7.146)

gives:

Cy = - v

Sv

d

CLv (1+

)

S

d

(7.147)

QSCy

(7.148)

Remark:

Reference 1.8b, chapter 7 mentions that wing and fuselage also have small

contributions to Cy (see also Appendix C).

7.17.2 Cn

From Eq.(5.21):

Cn = (Cn )w +(Cn )f,n,p +VV v CLv (1+

d

)

d

(7.149)

5.3 to 5.6.

Note that N =

QSb Cn

Izz

(7.150)

7.17.3 Cl

From Eq.(6.2):

C'l = (C'l )w + (C'l )f,n,p + (C'l )vt

(7.151)

6.5 to 6.8.

Note that L' =

QSb C'l

Ixx

(7.151a)

These derivatives include Cyp, Cnp and Clp

7.18.1 Cyp

Consider an airplane rolling with angular velocity p. A component of the

airplane which is at a distance z from the x-axis would be subject to a linear

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

velocity pz. This would induce a sideslip angle = pz / u0. This sideslip angle

would result in a side force. Since, the sideslip angle depends on the distance z

from the x-axis, the contribution to Cyp is mainly due to the vertical tail. When

subjected to this sideslip, the vertical tail would produce a side force. The vertical

location of this side force would depend on Zv, lv and the angle of attack of the

airplane in the undisturbed flight; Zv is the distance of the a.c. of vertical tail

above of c.g.

Reference 1.8b, chapter 8 gives the following expression:

Note that Yp =

(Z v cos - lv sin)

Cyv

b

QS bC yp

2mu0

(7.152)

(7.153)

7.18.2 Cnp

The main contribution to this quantity is from the wing in the form of adverse

yaw. As explained in section 5.8.1:

(Cn )adverse yaw = Hence, Cnp =

Note :

CL pb

8 2u0

dCn

C

=- L

pb

8

d(

)

2u0

Np =

QS b2Cnp

2Izzu0

(7.154)

(7.155)

(7.155a)

Remark:

Reference 1.8b gives a procedure which includes contributions due to

vertical tail (see also Appendix C).

7.18.3 Clp

Main contribution C'lp to this quantity is from the damping due to wing. From

Eq.(6.22):

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

b/2

2CLw p

(C'l )damp =

u0Sb

cy

dy

(7.156)

Hence,

4 CLw

C'l

C'lp =

=

pb

Sb2

)

(

2u0

'

Note that: Lp =

b/2

cy

dy

(7.157)

QS b2Clp'

2Ixxu0

(7.158)

Remarks:

i)

The horizontal tail and vertical tail also make minor contributions to Clp

(see Appendix C).

ii)

Reference 1.1, chapter 3 gives the following formula for Clp in terms of

CLw and geometrical parameters of the wing.

C'lp = -

CL 1+3

12 1+

(7.158a)

These derivatives include Cyr, Cnr and Clr

7.19.1 Cyr

When an airplane has an angular velocity in yaw (r) , then a component of

the airplane at a distance x from the c.g. experiences a side word velocity of rx.

This results in side slip of (rx/u0) leading to side force and consequently Cyr. The

major contribution to Cyr is due to the vertical tail. It is evident that the vertical tail

has a side ward velocity of r lv and side slip angle of ( -rlv / u0).

This would produce a side force:

Y = - CLv Qv Sv

CLv (

Hence, Cy =

lv r

) Qv Sv

u0

l r

S

= CLv ( v )v v

QS

u0

S

(7.159)

(7.160)

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

Let, Cyr =

Cy

S l

, Then, C yr =2CLv v v v

rb

S b

)

(

2u0

Note that: Yr =

(7.161)

Sv

,

S

lv

b

(7.162)

Q S b Cyr

2 mu0

(7.163)

Remark:

neglected.

7.19.2 Cnr

vertical tail experiences a sideslip angle = (-lv r / u0) . The side force would

also produce a yawing moment given by:

l r

N = CLv Qv Sv lv = -CLv v Qv Sv lv

u0

(7.164)

N

l r

= - CLv ( v )v Vv

qSb

u0

(7.165)

Or Cn =

Let, Cnr =

Cn

,

rb

(

)

2u0

Note that :

Nr =

(7.166)

lv

b

QSb2 Cnr

2Izzu0

(7.167)

(7.168)

Remark:

When the airplane has a rate of yaw, the two wing halves experience

different velocities (refer to the explanation of Clr in the next subsection) and

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

hence, experience different drags. This would cause a small contribution from

wing to Cnr (see appendix C).

7.19.3 Clr

back. Then, a section of the right wing at a distance y from the x-axis would

experience a velocity ry or relative wind of (uo-ry). Consequently, the dynamic

pressure is lower on the right wing. For the same reason, the dynamic pressure

is higher on the left wing. The lifts on the two wing halves are different, thus

producing a positive rolling moment. Strip theory (as explanied in subsection

6.10.2) can be used to obtain an approximate estimate of Cl and Clr. In addition

to this the side force on the vertical tail also contributes to Clr. Ref.1.1, chapter 3

gives the following approximate formula:

C'lr =

CL lv Z v

-2

Cytail

4

b b

(7.168a)

Note that:

L'r =

QSb2 C'lr

2Ixxu0

(7.169)

Expressions for the derivatives Cnr and Cla are given in Eq.(5.31a) and

(6.27) respectively. The cross derivatives viz. Cna and Clr can be obtained from

Ref. 1.1 and 1.12.

7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

Table 7.7; Table 7.6 presents the list of symbols.

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

Y =

QSCy

m

N =

L' =

Ya =

(m/s2 )

Yp =

(s-2 )

Np =

QSbCn

Izz

QSbC'l

Ixx

QSCya

(s-2 )

L'p =

(m/s2 )

Yr =

m

QSbCna -2

Na =

(s )

Izz

QSbC'la -2

L'a =

(s )

Ixx

QSCyp

2mu0

Yr =

(s-1 )

Nr =

QSb2Cnr

2Izzu0

(s-1 )

-1

L'r =

QSb2C'lr

2Ixxu0

(s-1 )

QSb2Cnp

2Izzu0

QSb2C'lp

2Ixxu0

QSCyr

QSCyr

(m/s)

(s )

2mu0

(m/s)

(m/s2 )

m

QSbCnr

Nr =

(s-2 )

Izz

QSbC'lr

L'r =

(s-2 )

Ixx

Remarks:

i)

respectively.

ii) For expressions for Cyp , Cnp and Clp . See Eqs.(7.152),(7.155) and (7.157).

iii) For expressions for Cyr , Cnr , Clr . See Eqs.(7.162),(7.167) and (7.168a).

Example 7.1

W = 12232.6 N, CD = 0.035 + 0.091 CL2 , CL = 4.44 rad-1 , xcg / c = 0.295

Wing : S = 17.09 m2 , b = 10.18 m, CLW = 4.17 rad-1 , x ac /c = 0.25 ,

c = 1.74 m ,

Fuselage : Cm fuselage = 0.212 rad-1

Power :

Cm power

= 0.195 rad-1

t = 0.9 , lt = 4.63 m ,

d

= 0.438

d

53.64 m/s at sea level.

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

Solution :

Before calculating the desired quantities, the items like CL, CD, Cm and CD are

evaluated below.

Flight is at sea level, hence, = 1.225 kg / m3

CL =

2W

212232.6

=

= 0.406

2

SV

1.22517.0953.642

CD = 0.039+0.0910.4062 = 0.050

From Eq.(2.65)

x x

d

Cm = CLw cq - ac + Cm f,p - V CLt 1

c

d

c

4.73 4.63

0.93.43 1- 0.438

17.09 1.74

CD =

2CL CL

= 20.4064.440.091 = 0.328

Ae

From Eq.(7.117)

C X = CL - CD = 0.406 - 0.328 = 0.078

From Eq.(7.121)

CZ = - CL +CD = - 4.44 +0.05 = 4.49

From Eq.(7.142a)

Cm = - 2CLt VH

lt d

c d

= 23.430.9

0.438 = - 5.3

17.09 1.74 1.74

From Eq.(7.133a)

Cmq = - 2CLt VH

lt

d

= Cm /

c

d

Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

Answers:

- Design and Control of an Indoor Micro Quadrotor.pdfUploaded byMaryamRazzaq
- 04a-RecentWindTunnelExperimentsinCanadaonInclinedandYawedStayCables.pdfUploaded bykajewoo
- ADA508090.pdfUploaded byhmxa91
- AssignmentUploaded byRaymond
- Sample Power CurvesUploaded byNasyith Hananur Rohiem
- Army Aviation Digest - Mar 1980Uploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- Aerodynamics Chapter 1 rUploaded byYadana1
- MSc Thesis FINAL - Anton StoopUploaded bykarlinhosmg
- Mae 331 Lecture 5Uploaded bymrslayerdude
- ExerciseUploaded byMav NT
- Aerodynamics,An IntroductionUploaded byHumayun Yousaf
- Final Seminar MAR 2013 Broucher ModifiedUploaded bypremselva
- IRJET-CFD Analysis of Vortex Breakdown on Double Delta WingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- 12312Uploaded byHayoung Kim
- Basic Aircraft Design RulesUploaded byaeroacademic
- 118 project reportUploaded byapi-461820735
- Numerical Simulation Capsule VehicleUploaded byMaharba Bedloe
- gr br 1Uploaded byAsim Mumic
- MEC3458 Final ReportUploaded byangelaers
- Aerodynamics Transport GuideUploaded byvdnsit
- Perfil Elíptico y Efecto CoandaUploaded byLisandro Iaffar
- Cap 2 - Basic Equations of Continuum Mechanics.pdfUploaded byBelmont D Jose
- Basic AerodynamicsUploaded bydkdk44
- 2- Metodos de DiscretizacaoUploaded byjvasilva13
- FE-Civil-CBT-specs.pdfUploaded bykyle
- Monitoring of Hull Condition of ShipsUploaded byFotis Stefanidis
- 440 Report_1 CopyUploaded byN
- Certificates FinalUploaded bybalijajagadish
- General Aspects of the Structural Behavior in the Messina Strait Bridge DesignUploaded bylucasgambi
- Bch ChilledUploaded byehasayin

- metalspinningfinalppt-140228221016-phpapp01.pptxUploaded byThandial Selvam
- metalspinningfinalppt-140228221016-phpapp01.pptxUploaded byThandial Selvam
- supperalloyssirppt-151019181318-lva1-app6892.pptxUploaded byThandial Selvam
- High Temperatures Material in AircraftUploaded byRodriguez Arthurs
- High Temperatures Material in AircraftUploaded byRodriguez Arthurs
- injection moulding process explained in basic terms.pdfUploaded byThandial Selvam
- Ch 13.pptUploaded byThandial Selvam
- Computer aided simulation laboratoryUploaded byThandial Selvam
- forgingofmetals-140409114854-phpapp01.pptxUploaded byThandial Selvam
- Project ReportUploaded bysameersenn
- injection moulding process explained in basic terms.pdfUploaded byThandial Selvam
- Chapter_9 - Fatigue From Variable Amplitude LoadingUploaded byOdjak Maryono
- Fatigue 2marks n 16 marksUploaded byAdrian James
- Anna university report formatUploaded bydilip_666
- forgingofmetals-140409114854-phpapp01.pptxUploaded byThandial Selvam
- ELEMENT OF AERONAUTICS.pptUploaded byPrabhat Singh
- injection moulding process explained in basic terms.pdfUploaded byThandial Selvam
- Lateral Stability DerivativesUploaded byCodenameairi Ally
- Linguistic Reorganization of Indian States After IndependenceUploaded byThandial Selvam
- 047_Chapter 9_L33Uploaded byThandial Selvam

- AIR Modeller 75 2017-12-20_-01Uploaded byJoãoGilbertoAraújoPontes
- E5906_Wk08c01Uploaded byardossantos
- Case StudyUploaded bymiera_za
- Rule: Offshore airspace areasUploaded byJustia.com
- Advanced NDE Lesson 1Uploaded byMathew John
- 11Uploaded byFais Isaac
- 1-10_Selective_Anodizing_REVISE_ME.pdfUploaded byCicero Gomes de Souza
- Apollo 13Uploaded byHamada Ali
- Vehicle NavigationUploaded byversine
- Vintage Airplane - Nov 1984Uploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- GPSMAP76CSx_QuickReferenceGuideUploaded byCostel Mirzac
- AFD-090529-055Uploaded bymjpietro
- International Aviation AssignmentUploaded bybbharaniprasad
- Airlines in Asia PacificUploaded bymeqaloman
- 417 RCAFUploaded byBobby Chipping
- Titan Aviation India - Company ProfileUploaded byAerokingimran
- AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR SMALL HO.pdfUploaded bytaybech
- rbsUploaded byNareshMech
- public announcement.docUploaded byFebriant Dita
- CEB-72-6082Uploaded byturboshaft
- Coupled Pressure Based All Speed SolverUploaded byapoorvs75
- Final Quiz VACBI(A320)Uploaded byKhurram Naseem
- Group 1 - Aircraft CharacteristicsUploaded byLoren Jean
- 02.07 Chapter 7Uploaded byMarcelitoVG
- Basic Electronics and DevicesUploaded byPity Parker
- Materials in SpaceUploaded byJuan Pablo Cano Mejia
- Applications of Hydraulics-PneumaticsUploaded byÖzgür Dal
- Intro-Propulsion-Lect-25.pdfUploaded byLevent Önder
- Rostrum's Law Review, Vol 2, Issue IUploaded byRostrum's Law Review
- Fluid Mechanics Formula SheetUploaded byDenise Isebella Lee