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Flight dynamics II

Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter 7
Dynamic stability analysis I Equations of motion
and estimation of stability derivatives - 6
Lecture 27
Topics
7.17 Derivatives due to change of
7.17.1 Cy

7.17.2 Cn
7.17.3 Cl

7.18 Derivatives due to change of p


7.18.1 Cyp
7.18.2 Cnp
7.18.3 Clp

7.19 Derivaties due to change of r


7.19.1 Cyr
7.19.2 Cnr
7.19.3 Clr

7.20 Lateral control derivatives ( Cnr , Cla , Cna and Clr )


7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

Example 7.1
7.17 Derivatives due to change of
These derivatives include Cy , Cn and Cl

7.17.1 Cy
The major contribution to this quantity is from the vertical tail. From
Eq.(5.13):

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Flight dynamics II
Stability and control
(Y)v.tail = -

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

1 2
V S CLv v
2 v

(7.146)

Noting that v = +, v = ( Vv2)/ ( V2)and Cy = Y / ( V2 S) , Eq.(7.146)


gives:

Cy = - v

Sv
d
CLv (1+
)
S
d

It may be added that Y =

(7.147)

QSCy

(7.148)

Remark:

Reference 1.8b, chapter 7 mentions that wing and fuselage also have small
contributions to Cy (see also Appendix C).
7.17.2 Cn

From Eq.(5.21):
Cn = (Cn )w +(Cn )f,n,p +VV v CLv (1+

d
)
d

(7.149)

Details regarding estimation of various terms in Eq.(7.149) are given in Sections


5.3 to 5.6.
Note that N =

QSb Cn
Izz

(7.150)

7.17.3 Cl
From Eq.(6.2):
C'l = (C'l )w + (C'l )f,n,p + (C'l )vt

(7.151)

Details regarding estimation of different terms in Eq.(7.151) are given in section


6.5 to 6.8.
Note that L' =

QSb C'l
Ixx

(7.151a)

7.18 Derivatives due to change of p


These derivatives include Cyp, Cnp and Clp

7.18.1 Cyp
Consider an airplane rolling with angular velocity p. A component of the
airplane which is at a distance z from the x-axis would be subject to a linear

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

velocity pz. This would induce a sideslip angle = pz / u0. This sideslip angle
would result in a side force. Since, the sideslip angle depends on the distance z
from the x-axis, the contribution to Cyp is mainly due to the vertical tail. When
subjected to this sideslip, the vertical tail would produce a side force. The vertical
location of this side force would depend on Zv, lv and the angle of attack of the
airplane in the undisturbed flight; Zv is the distance of the a.c. of vertical tail
above of c.g.
Reference 1.8b, chapter 8 gives the following expression:

Cyp (Cyp )v.tail = 2


Note that Yp =

(Z v cos - lv sin)
Cyv
b

QS bC yp
2mu0

(7.152)
(7.153)

Remark: Cyp is generally small and neglected.


7.18.2 Cnp
The main contribution to this quantity is from the wing in the form of adverse
yaw. As explained in section 5.8.1:
(Cn )adverse yaw = Hence, Cnp =

Note :

CL pb
8 2u0

dCn
C
=- L
pb
8
d(
)
2u0

Np =

QS b2Cnp
2Izzu0

(7.154)
(7.155)

(7.155a)

Remark:
Reference 1.8b gives a procedure which includes contributions due to
vertical tail (see also Appendix C).

7.18.3 Clp
Main contribution C'lp to this quantity is from the damping due to wing. From
Eq.(6.22):

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

b/2

2CLw p
(C'l )damp =
u0Sb

cy

dy

(7.156)

Hence,
4 CLw
C'l
C'lp =
=
pb
Sb2
)
(
2u0
'

Note that: Lp =

b/2

cy

dy

(7.157)

QS b2Clp'
2Ixxu0

(7.158)

Remarks:
i)

The horizontal tail and vertical tail also make minor contributions to Clp
(see Appendix C).

ii)

Reference 1.1, chapter 3 gives the following formula for Clp in terms of
CLw and geometrical parameters of the wing.

C'lp = -

CL 1+3
12 1+

(7.158a)

7.19 Derivatives due to change of r


These derivatives include Cyr, Cnr and Clr

7.19.1 Cyr
When an airplane has an angular velocity in yaw (r) , then a component of
the airplane at a distance x from the c.g. experiences a side word velocity of rx.
This results in side slip of (rx/u0) leading to side force and consequently Cyr. The
major contribution to Cyr is due to the vertical tail. It is evident that the vertical tail
has a side ward velocity of r lv and side slip angle of ( -rlv / u0).
This would produce a side force:
Y = - CLv Qv Sv
CLv (
Hence, Cy =

lv r
) Qv Sv
u0
l r
S
= CLv ( v )v v
QS
u0
S

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(7.159)

(7.160)

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Let, Cyr =

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Cy
S l
, Then, C yr =2CLv v v v
rb
S b
)
(
2u0

Noting that, (Cy )v.tail - CLv v

Cyr = -2(Cy )v.tail


Note that: Yr =

(7.161)

Sv
,
S

lv
b

(7.162)

Q S b Cyr
2 mu0

(7.163)

Remark:

Yr is generally small and in Eq.(7.88) it appears as (u0-Yr). Hence Yr is often


neglected.
7.19.2 Cnr

As mentioned above when an airplane has an angular velocity r the


vertical tail experiences a sideslip angle = (-lv r / u0) . The side force would
also produce a yawing moment given by:
l r
N = CLv Qv Sv lv = -CLv v Qv Sv lv
u0

(7.164)

N
l r
= - CLv ( v )v Vv
qSb
u0

(7.165)

Or Cn =

Let, Cnr =

Cn
,
rb
(
)
2u0

Then, Cnr = - 2CLv v Vv

Note that :

Nr =

(7.166)

lv
b

QSb2 Cnr
2Izzu0

(7.167)

(7.168)

Remark:

When the airplane has a rate of yaw, the two wing halves experience
different velocities (refer to the explanation of Clr in the next subsection) and

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

hence, experience different drags. This would cause a small contribution from
wing to Cnr (see appendix C).
7.19.3 Clr

Consider an airplane experiencing a positive rate of yaw i.e. right wing


back. Then, a section of the right wing at a distance y from the x-axis would
experience a velocity ry or relative wind of (uo-ry). Consequently, the dynamic
pressure is lower on the right wing. For the same reason, the dynamic pressure
is higher on the left wing. The lifts on the two wing halves are different, thus
producing a positive rolling moment. Strip theory (as explanied in subsection
6.10.2) can be used to obtain an approximate estimate of Cl and Clr. In addition
to this the side force on the vertical tail also contributes to Clr. Ref.1.1, chapter 3
gives the following approximate formula:
C'lr =

CL lv Z v
-2
Cytail
4
b b

(7.168a)

Reference 1.8b gives an improved estimates. See also Appendix C.


Note that:

L'r =

QSb2 C'lr
2Ixxu0

(7.169)

7.20 Lateral control derivatives:

Expressions for the derivatives Cnr and Cla are given in Eq.(5.31a) and
(6.27) respectively. The cross derivatives viz. Cna and Clr can be obtained from
Ref. 1.1 and 1.12.
7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

The expressions for the lateral stability derivatives are summarized in


Table 7.7; Table 7.6 presents the list of symbols.

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Y =

QSCy
m

N =
L' =
Ya =

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

(m/s2 )

Yp =

(s-2 )

Np =

QSbCn
Izz
QSbC'l
Ixx

QSCya

(s-2 )

L'p =

(m/s2 )

Yr =

m
QSbCna -2
Na =
(s )
Izz
QSbC'la -2
L'a =
(s )
Ixx

QSCyp
2mu0

Yr =

(s-1 )

Nr =

QSb2Cnr
2Izzu0

(s-1 )

-1

L'r =

QSb2C'lr
2Ixxu0

(s-1 )

QSb2Cnp
2Izzu0
QSb2C'lp

2Ixxu0
QSCyr

QSCyr

(m/s)

(s )

2mu0

(m/s)

(m/s2 )

m
QSbCnr
Nr =
(s-2 )
Izz
QSbC'lr
L'r =
(s-2 )
Ixx

Table 7.7 Lateral stability derivatives


Remarks:

i)

For expressions for Cy, Cn, and Cl see

Eqs. (7.147), (7.149) and (7.151)

respectively.
ii) For expressions for Cyp , Cnp and Clp . See Eqs.(7.152),(7.155) and (7.157).
iii) For expressions for Cyr , Cnr , Clr . See Eqs.(7.162),(7.167) and (7.168a).
Example 7.1

A general aviation airplane has the following characteristics.


W = 12232.6 N, CD = 0.035 + 0.091 CL2 , CL = 4.44 rad-1 , xcg / c = 0.295
Wing : S = 17.09 m2 , b = 10.18 m, CLW = 4.17 rad-1 , x ac /c = 0.25 ,

c = 1.74 m ,
Fuselage : Cm fuselage = 0.212 rad-1

Power :

Cm power

= 0.195 rad-1

H.tail : St = 4.73 m2, CLt = 3.43 rad-1 , t = 0.9 ,


t = 0.9 , lt = 4.63 m ,

d
= 0.438
d

Obtain the values of C X , CZ , Cm , Cm and Cmq in a flight at a velocity of


53.64 m/s at sea level.
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Solution :

Before calculating the desired quantities, the items like CL, CD, Cm and CD are
evaluated below.
Flight is at sea level, hence, = 1.225 kg / m3
CL =

2W
212232.6
=
= 0.406
2
SV
1.22517.0953.642

CD = 0.039+0.0910.4062 = 0.050
From Eq.(2.65)
x x
d
Cm = CLw cq - ac + Cm f,p - V CLt 1
c
d
c

= 4.17[0.295 0.25] + 0.212 + 0.195 -

4.73 4.63

0.93.43 1- 0.438
17.09 1.74

= 0.1877 + 0.407 1.2777 = - 0.683 rad-1


CD =

2CL CL
= 20.4064.440.091 = 0.328
Ae

The desired quantities are evaluated below.


From Eq.(7.117)
C X = CL - CD = 0.406 - 0.328 = 0.078
From Eq.(7.121)
CZ = - CL +CD = - 4.44 +0.05 = 4.49

From Eq.(7.142a)
Cm = - 2CLt VH

lt d
c d

= 23.430.9

4.73 4.63 4.63

0.438 = - 5.3
17.09 1.74 1.74

From Eq.(7.133a)
Cmq = - 2CLt VH

lt
d
= Cm /

c
d

= - 5.3 / 0.438 = -12.1

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras

Flight dynamics II
Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Answers:

C X = 0.078;CZ = 4.49;Cm = - 5.3; Cmq = 12.1.

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras