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IMPLICATION OF CULTURE ON

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Organizational Behavior

ATITHYA VYAS , DHRUVI BHATT

A Research Proposal
On
IMPLICATION OF CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE

Organizational Behavior
Prepared By: Atithya Vyas (Roll No: 05)
Dhruvi Bhatt (Roll No: 06)

Project Guide:

Submitted To:
L.J .Institute of Engineering & Technology
Ahmedabad

INTRODUCTION

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1. Introduction
What is Organizational Culture?
Most theorists agree that organizational culture exists, and that it has definite effects, but an
explicit definition of its true nature eludes capture. Some given definitions of organizational
culture are:
Learned ways of coping with experience Gregory, 1983
A pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered and developed by a given group as it
learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has
worked well enough to be considered valid and is therefore taught to new members as the
correct way to perceive, think about, and feel in relation to those problems Schein, 1990
A culture is not something an organization has,, it is something an organization is
Pacanowsky and ODonnell-Trujillo, 1983
Whatever the theoretical definitions of organizational culture, every organization has its own
definition. Some examples are:

Company Style

The way we do things around here

Company Philosophy

Why Study Culture?


There are many reasons for wanting to understand the culture of an organization. It may be
particularly important during times of change, merger or acquisition or when planning the
business and human resource strategies. It may also be an important consideration when an
organization is expanding, when the executives may have to decide whether they want to
actively monitor the whole culture or allow each new division or geographical area to
develop its own culture.
Organizational Culture has implications for every aspect of the working environment; some
of these implications are given below.

Culture determines the kinds of responses that the organization makes to required
changes and will make to new problems. It can help predict how well the organization
will deal with change.

It has been said that Good managers make meanings for people, as well as money.

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People may only notice their culture when the routine breaks down and they have to
deal with something unexpected. Having a knowledge and understanding of the
culture can help the members of a culture predict how the company may respond and
deal with the unexpected event.

Culture determines the kind of people who will be attracted to the organization and
who will be successful in it. It also gives clear direction for the training and
development of individuals by defining what is, and what is not important, and what
skills the individual needs to do well in the organization.

In an organization which has divisions or sub-cultures it may be that each is pulling or


pushing in a different way. This can lead to fragmentation or bewilderment, hence to
confusion, conflict, and a lack of co-operation.

Culture implies stability, patterning of behaviors, and reflects all aspects of group life.
It recognizes that our working environments are extensions of ourselves and directs
attention to symbolic significance.

Organizations which have cultures that are too strong can become resistant to change
and will be slow to adapt to their environment.

How Does Organizational Culture Develop?


The culture of a particular organization derives from two sources:

The attitudes, values, and beliefs of senior executives. A whole culture can develop
around the vision of a charismatic leader. The leader can prescribe what is expected of
his or her employees: what the leader values can become what the organization
values.

The past experience people have had in resolving the problems of adapting to the
external environment and maintaining the internal integration of the organization.
Norms of expected behavior can form following certain critical incidents. Myths can
develop around these incidents and be passed on to new people as representing
particular aspects of the culture.

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To build a culture an organization needs three things:

Commitment (to common philosophy and purpose)

Competence (development and reward of competence in key areas)

Consistency (to perpetuate the competence by attracting, developing, and retaining the
right people)

Models of Culture
There are two main approaches to organizational culture:

Type Models
Type models try to categorize the organizational culture into one of a limited number of
classifications. One model suggested that there are four types of organizational culture and
that each is reflected in the structure of an organization and its set of systems. The four types
are:

Type Models

Power

Task

Role

Person

This classification is one of a number of similar classifications and there is still no agreement
about which, if any, is correct.
The results from a Type classification are very difficult to use in developing a change
programmed for an organization. Even if we can find a description that fits the organization,
once we have labeled the organization, what do we do with that label?

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Profile Models
Profile models do not try to categorize the organizational culture, but instead try to identify
and explore its key characteristics. Once they have been identified they can be compared to
the culture that the organization wants to operate and any appropriate changes can be planned
and monitored.
The Human Factors Organizational Culture Questionnaire is based upon a profile model. It
was designed as a practical instrument for the exploration of organizational culture and the
management of change. The Organizational Culture Questionnaire explores the prevailing
culture within an organization across thirteen dimensions:
1. Individual Performance
2. Participation
3. Leadership
4. Innovation
5. Customer Focus
6. Decision Making
7. Organization Structure
8. Professionalism
9. Communication
10. Organizational Goal Integration
11. Conflict Management
12. Fun
13. Human Resource Management
The thirteen dimensions of organizational culture explored in the Organizational Culture
Questionnaire are described below:
1. Individual Performance:
Individual performance is emphasized as an important goal; achievements in increasing
performance are rewarded. Action is taken whenever individuals or procedures seem to be
unproductive.

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2. Leadership:
Managers are respected for their expertise, and their decisions implemented. They
communicate clearly the company goals and culture.
3. Customer Focus:
Customers current needs are actively identified and future needs anticipated. Customers
views are sought and listened to and feedback is used to make improvements. People take
time to understand their customers markets and business pressures.
4. Organisation Structure:
Responsibilities are clearly defined and individuals understand their role and the extent of
their authority. There are neither too many nor too few managers nor they have enough, but
not too much power. People are clear about the structure of the organization and that changes
to it are made as and when necessary.
5. Communication:
Managers and subordinates communicate readily on an informal basis and meetings are held
when necessary. People say what they really think and information on future plans, etc., is
readily accessible.
6. Conflict Management:
Subordinates as well as management are encouraged to volunteer their views, and
disagreement is seen as a positive attempt to improve things. If there is rivalry between
divisions, then every effort is made to ensure that the outcome is positive for all concerned.
7. Human Resource Management:
The right people are selected in the first place and effort is made to help them develop their
skills. Promotion decisions are fair and objective and good people are valued.
8. Participation:
Ideas are welcomed from any level in the company and everyone's views are taken into
account before important decisions are made. People feel that their views are valuable and
that they will be considered carefully and acted on if they are appropriate.

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9. Innovation:
Time and money are committed to exploring new ideas. These are encouraged from everyone
in the organization and there are always plenty forthcoming. The organization will try
radically new ideas at times, even if it is not guaranteed that they will work.
10. Decision Making:
Decisions are made promptly and on the basis of the facts, not personal prejudice or selfinterest. People take responsibility for their decisions and are not penalized if the results are
not as they expected, so long as the decision was soundly based on the facts available at the
time.
11. Professionalism:
Colleagues co-operate with each other to achieve standards of excellence and do not allow
personal feelings or animosities to interfere. Individuals are well qualified for the jobs that
they do and their technical knowledge is valued. The issue of professionalism is frequently
discussed and regarded as an important asset.
12. Organisational Goal Integration:
The overall organizational goal is clearly understood by all employees. Individual and
subsidiary goals are in line with the overall company goals and all employees understand the
contribution that they are making to them. Individual and group performance targets, reward
systems and training all emphasize the overall company objective and are designed to
expedite its achievements.
13. Fun:
People look forward to going to work and enjoy the work they do. They have a positive view
of the workplace, their colleagues and the company's achievements. The company organizes
social and other events for the enjoyment of its employees.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE
STUDY

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2. OBJECTIVE
To give effect to the problem statement, the primary purpose of this survey research was to
examine the influence of organizational culture on organizational commitment. It was
postulated that organizational culture and the level of commitment, in turn, influence service
delivery. To achieve the purpose of this research, the following objectives have been stated:

To identify the profile of the existing and preferred organizational cultures, namely
power, role, achievement and support, within the organization.

To ascertain the gap between the existing and preferred organizational cultures,
namely power, role, achievement and support, within the organization.

To identify the profile of the organizational commitment, namely affective,


continuance and normative, within the organization.

To gauge the extent to which the existing and preferred organizational.

Cultures influence organizational commitment within the organization.

To gauge the extent to which the organizational culture gap (difference


between existing and preferred organizational culture) influences the organizational
commitment within the within the organization.

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RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

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3. Research Methodology
A way to systematically solve the research problem by logically adopting various steps,
Methodology helps to understand not only the product of scientific inquiry but the process
itself. A science of studying how research is done scientifically.

Hypothesis of Study:

I.

Ho: Implication of culture on organization change is more than 80%.


H1: Implication of culture on organization change is less than 80%.

Sampling Plan

II.

Sample Frame: Ahmedabad.


Sample Size: 100 Employees of an organization.
Sample Method: Using Mail Survey method.

Sample of study:

III.

Population of study:
In Ahmedabad, People working for reputed organizations.
Sample of the study:
100 Employees (mainly of age group 25 to 35) working for at least 5 different
organizations

IV.

Research Method:
Descriptive Research: Here in we will do a mail survey amongst the Employees.

Thus we would make fact finding enquiries for our study and so it is a descriptive
research.
Fundamental Research: It is mainly concerned with generalizations and

formulation of theory. Here in we find generalized idea of implication of culture so it is a


fundamental research.
Quantitative research: From the sample we find the percentage of Employees

who believe that culture has or not an impact on overall organization, thus we term it as a
quantitative research.

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V.

Questionnaire Type:

It will be a closed type questionnaire with close-ended questions.

Each item is of 5 point Liker scale, that ranges from 1(strongly disagree) to
5(strongly agree). Ranking method will be used for open-ended questions.

VI.

Data Sources
The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research
design plan chalked out. Here we would go for data collection through questionnaire. Sources
we would use those are:

Primary Data:
Questionnaire and personal Interview

Secondary Data:
Previous studies, Social networking sites and blogs.

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VII.

Data Analysis
a. The data will be analyzed manually as well automatically through computer system
b. To analyze automatically the software named SPSS 13.0 will be used in Research
work
Statistical Tools:
Statistical Analysis Tools are required for a thorough and scientifically valid analysis
of survey results. There are several choices available for the researcher to choose from
ranging from the simple tools available with all survey packages that calculate
percentages and totals to the very advanced tools requiring a graduate education to
learn and use.

For Mean:

For Median:

VIII.

Cost & Time


a. Approximate cost: 1000 Rs.
b. Time duration: 4 months

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Questionnaire

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4. Questionnaire
All the answers you provide will be treated in the strictest of confidence
Please complete each section and answer all the questions.
Please hand in the completed questionnaire to the Rhodes official present at
The session.
Thank you for your co-operation.
INSTRUCTIONS
Place an X in the applicable box.
1. How long have you been working for your organization?
Less than 1 year
1-2 years
3-4 years
5-6 years
More than 6 years
2. How many co-workers do you supervise?
None
1-5
6-10
More than 10
3. Please indicate your gender:
Male
Female
4. Please indicate your age:
Less than 20 years
21-30 years
31-40 years
41-50 years
51 years and older

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5. Please indicate your highest level of formal education completed:


Grade 11 and below
Grade 12
Diploma (s) / Certificate
B-Degree
Post-Graduate Degree
6. Please indicate the Department you work for:
Financial Services
Corporate Services
Protection Services
Community Services
Local
Economic
Development Services
Human Resource Services
Technical Services
Marketing department
Other
7. Please indicate your post level:
Levels 1 4
Levels 5 7
Levels 8 10
Levels 11 12
Levels 13 15
8. Do you have any disability or chronic illness?
Yes
No
9. In which town are you currently working?
Ahmedabad
Out of Ahmedabad
10. Are you office bound or do you spend most of your Time in the field?
Office Bound
Field Worker

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ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE QUESTIONNAIRE


1. A good boss is:
a.) Strong, decisive and firm, but fair. He/she is protective, generous and indulgent to
loyal subordinates.
b.) Impersonal and correct, avoiding the exercise of his authority for his own advantage.
He/she demands from subordinates only that which is required by the formal system.
c.) Egalitarian and capable of being influenced in matters concerning the task. He/she
uses his authority to obtain the resources needed to complete the job.
d.) Concerned with and responsive to the personal needs and values of others. He/she
uses his position to provide satisfying and growth stimulating work opportunities for
subordinates.

2. A good subordinate is:


a.) Compliant, hard working and loyal to the interests of his/her superior.
b.) Responsible and reliable, meeting the duties and responsibilities of his/her job and
avoiding actions that surprise or embarrass his/her superior.
c.) Selfmotivated to contribute his/her best the task and is open with his ideas and
suggestions. He is nevertheless willing to give the lead to others when they show
greater expertise or ability.
d.) Vitally interested in the development of his/her own potentialities and is open to
learning and to receiving help. He/she also respects the needs and values of others and
is willing to help and contribute to their development.

3. A good member of the organization gives first priority to the:


a.) Personal demands of the boss.
b.) Duties, responsibilities and requirements of his/her own role and to the
Customary standard of personal behavior.
c.) Requirements of the task for skill, ability, energy and material
Resources.
d.) Personal needs of the individuals involved.

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4. People who do well in the organization are:


a.) Shrewd and competitive, with a strong drive for power.
b.) Conscientious and responsible, with a strong sense of loyalty to the
organization.
c.) Technically effective and competent, with a strong commitment to
getting the job done.
d.) Effective and competent in personal relationships, with a strong
commitment to the growth and development of people.

5. The organization treats the individual as:


a.) Though his time and energy were at the disposal of persons higher in
the hierarchy.
b.) Though his time and energy were available through a contract with
rights and responsibilities for both sides.
c.) A co-worker who has committed his/her skills and abilities to the
common cause.
d.) An interesting and worthwhile person in his/her own right.

6. People are controlled and influenced by the:


a.) Personal exercise of economic and political power (rewards and
Punishments).
b.) Impersonal exercise of economic and political power to enforce
Procedures and standards of performance.
c.) Communication and discussion of task requirements leading to
appropriate action motivated by personal commitment to goal
achievement.
d.) Intrinsic interest and enjoyment to be found in their activities and/or
concern and caring for the needs of the other persons involved.

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7. It is legitimate for one person to control anothers activities if:


a.) He/she has more authority and power in the organization.
b.) His/her role prescribes that he is responsible for directing the other.
c.) He/she has more knowledge relevant to the task.
d.) The other accepts that the first persons help or instruction can
contribute to his/her learning and growth.

8. The basis of task assignment is the:


a.) Personal needs and judgment of those in authority.
b.) Formal divisions of functions and responsibilities in the system.
c.) Resource and expertise requirements of the job to be done.
d.) Personal wishes and needs for learning and growth of individual
Organization members.

9. Work is performed out of:


a.) Hope of reward, fear of punishment, or personal loyalty toward a
powerful individual.
b.) Respect for contractual obligations backed up by sanctions and loyalty
toward the organization or system.
c.) Satisfaction in excellence of work and achievement and/or personal
commitment to the task or goal.
d.) Enjoyment of the activity for its own sake and concern and respect for
the needs and values of the other persons involved.

10. People work together when:


a.) They are required to by higher authority or when they believe they can
use each other for personal advantage.
b.) Coordination and exchange are specified by the formal system.
c.) Their joint contribution is needed to perform the task.
d.) The collaboration is personally satisfying, stimulating, or challenging.

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11. The purpose of competition is to:


a.) Gain personal power and advantage.
b.) Gain high-status positions in the formal system.
c.) Increase the excellence of the contribution to the task.
d.) Draw attention to ones own personal needs.

12 Conflict is:
a.) Controlled by the intervention of higher authorities and often fostered by
them to maintain their own power.
b.) Suppressed by reference to rules, procedures and definitions of responsibility.
c.) Resolved through full discussion of the merits of the work issues
involved.
d.) Resolved by open and deep discussion of personal needs and values
involved.

13. Decisions are made by the:


a.) Person with the higher power and authority.
b.) Person whose job description carries the responsibility.
c.) Persons with the most knowledge and expertise about the problem.
d.) Persons most personally involved and affected by the outcome.

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14. In an appropriate control and communication structure:


a.) Command flows from the top down in a simple pyramid so that anyone
who is higher in the pyramid has authority over anyone who is lower.
Information slows up through the chain of command.
b.) Directives flow from the top down and information flows upwards within
functional pyramids which meet at the top. The authority and
responsibility of a role is limited to the roles beneath it in its own
pyramid. Cross-functional exchange is constricted.
c.) Information about task requirements and problems flows from the
centre of task activity upwards and outwards, with those closest to the
task determining the resources and support needed from the rest of the organization.
d.) Information and influence flow from person to person, based on
voluntary relationships initiated for purposes of work, learning, mutual
support and enjoyment and shared values. A coordinating function may
establish overall levels of contribution needed for the maintenance of
the organization. These tasks are assigned by mutual agreement.

15. The environment is responded to as though it were:


a.) A competitive jungle in which everyone is against everyone else and
those who do not exploit others are themselves exploited.
b.) An orderly and rational system in which competition is limited by law
and there can be negotiation or compromise to resolve conflicts.
c.) A complex of imperfect forms and systems which are to be reshaped
and improved by the achievements of the organization.
d.) A complex of potential threats and support. It is used and manipulated
by the organization both as a means of self-nourishment and as a play andwork space for the enjoyment and growth of organization members.

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