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Some examples about quotient space

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Abhijit Champanerkar

P is a union of parallel lines. Describe the quotient space R2 / .

2. Let X be a topological space and A X. Let P be a partition of X

which consists of the sets A and {x} for x X A. Let X/A denote

the quotient space with respect to this partition. In X/A, the set A is

identified to a point. Describe X/A and draw pictures for the following:

(a) X = {(x, y, z)| x2 + y 2 = 1} and A = {(x, y, 0)| x2 + y 2 = 1}.

(b) X = S 2 and A is the equator in the xy-plane.

3. (Torus) Let T 2 be the torus defined as a quotient space of the square.

Let b > a > 0. Consider the map F : [0, 1] [0, 1] R3 defined by

F (s, t) = ((b+a cos(2t)) cos(2s), (b+a cos(2t)) sin(2s), a sin(2t)).

Show that:

(a) F is a quotient map onto its image.

(b) F factors to a map f from T 2 to R3 .

(c) f is a homeomorphism onto its image.

Note: The image of F is an imbedding of the torus in R3 thought of

as a boundary of a doughnut. The equations in F are obtained by a

parametrization of this torus as a surface of revolution of a circle of

radius a centered at (b, 0, 0) in the xzplane and revolving about the

zaxis in counterclockwise direction. This shows that the torus as a

quotient space of [0, 1] [0, 1] is homeomorphic to the torus we draw in

R3 . Since we know that T 2 is homeomorphic to S 1 S 1 , this exercise

shows that the boundary of a doughnut is homemorphic to S 1 S 1 .

t

s

p

4. For x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn let |x| = x21 + . . . + x2n . |x| is the length

of x. Let B n = {x Rn | |x| < 1 }. B n is the open unit ball in Rn in

the Euclidean metric. Define h : B n Rn and k : Rn B n by

h(x) =

x

,

1 |x|

k(x) =

x

1 + |x|

Show that h and k are continuous and inverses of each other. This

shows that B n is homeomorphic to Rn .

5. (Spheres) Let S n = {x Rn+1 | |x| = 1 }. The n-sphere S n is the set

of all unit vectors in Rn+1 . Let Dn = {x Rn | |x| 1 }. Dn is the

closed unit ball in Rn . Note that the boundary of Dn is S n1 . This

exercise will show that S n is obtained by identifying the boundary of

Dn to one point.

Let N = (0, . . . , 0, 1) S n be the north pole. Define f : S n N Rn

by

x1

xn

,...,

)

f (x) = (

1 xn+1

1 xn+1

This map is called the stereographic projection. Define g : Rn

S n N by

2x1

2xn

|x|2 1

g(x) = ( 2

,..., 2

, 2

)

|x| + 1

|x| + 1 |x| + 1

We can use any any point of S n instead of the north pole. The picture

below illustrates the stereographic projection for S 2 .

N

x

f(y)

f(x)

y

(a) Show that f and g are continuous and inverses of each other. This

shows that S n N and Rn are homeomorphic.

(b) Define F : Dn S n by

F (x) =

N

if |x| = 1

(c) Show that Dn /S n1 is homeomorphic to S n .

6. (Projective spaces) Define the following quotient spaces:

For x S n , let x x. Let X = S n / .

For x Dn , let x x if |x| = 1 otherwise x x. Let Y =

Dn / .

For x, y Rn+1 {0}, let x y if y = x for some non-zero real

. Let Z = Rn+1 / .

Show that

(a) The spaces X, Y and Z are homeomorphic to each other. This

space is known as the n-dimensional real projective space and

denoted by RPn .

(b) RP2 is homeomorphic to the projective plane P 2 .

7. (Hawaiian earring) Let X = {(x, y)| (x n1 )2 + y 2 = ( n1 )2 , n Z+ }.

X is called a Hawaiian earring and it consists of infinitely many circles

glued at one point. Let Y = R/Z. Y also consists of infinitely many

circles glued at one point. Draw pictures of both. Show that X is not

homeomorphic to Y . This is an example where the quotient space is

not homeomorphic to the picture imbedded in R2 .

3

each other. Let X and Y be topological spaces, A Y and f : A X

be a continuous function. Define a relation on X t Y (disjoint union

of X and Y ) as follows:

a f (a) for a A

x x for x X f (A)

y y for x Y A

The quotient space (X t Y )/ is denoted by X f Y and f is called

the attaching map. Find X f Y for the following:

(a) X = Y = D2 , A = S 1 and f : S 1 D2 is the inclusion.

(b) X be the Mobius band, Y = D2 , A = S 1 and f : S 1 M be

the homeomorphism of S 1 with the boundary circle of the Mobius

band.

(c) For > 0 and very small, let B = {(x, y)| (x1/2)2 +(y 1/2)2 <

} [0, 1] [0, 1]. Let X = Y = T 2 B. Note that X and Y

are homeomorphic to a torus with a small open disc removed and

have a circle as boundary. Let A = Y and let f : Y X be

the identification with the boundary of X.

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