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# GROUP 2

## 1. Explain what on-off control means.

The purpose of on/off control is to keep a given physical variable, e.g. the ambient
temperature, within certain limits or to change it according to a predetermined
programme. A control system serves to measure the value of the controlled
variable, compare it with the desired value, and adjust the control unit, by which a
possible deviation is reduced. Thermostats and pressure controls for on/off control
are two-position regulators where the manipulated variable can only lead to two
conditions: cut-in or cut-out.
2. Explain the characteristics of on off control.

## Turn ON Time of SCR

A forward biased thyristor can be turned on by applying a positive voltage
between gate and cathode terminal. But it takes some transition time to go
from forward blocking mode to forward conduction mode. This transition time
is called turn on time of SCR and it can be subdivided into three small
intervals as delay time (td) rise time (tr), spread time(ts)..

## Delay Time of SCR

After application of gate current, the thyristor will start conducting over a
very tiny region. Delay time of SCR can be defined as the time taken by the
gate current to increase from 90% to 100% of its final value Ig. From another
point of view, delay time is the interval in which anode current rises from
forward leakage current to 10% of its final value and at the same time anode
voltage will fall from 100% to 90% of its initial value Va.

## Rise Time of SCR

Rise time of SCR in the time taken by the anode current to rise from 10%
to 90% of its final value. At the same time anode voltage will fall from 90% to
10% of its initial value Va. The phenomenon of decreasing anode voltage and
increasing anode current is entirely dependent upon the type of the load. For
example if we connect a inductive load, voltage will fall in a faster rate than
the current increasing. This is happened because induction does not allow
initially high voltage change through it. On the other hand if we connect a
capacitive load it does not allow initial high voltage change through it, hence
current increasing rate will be faster than the voltage falling rate. High
increasing rate of dia/dt can create local hot spot in the device which is not
suitable for proper operation. So, it is advisable to use a inductor in series
with the device to tackle high dia/dt. Usually value of maximum allowable
di/dt is in the range of 20 to 200 A per microsecond.

It is the time taken by the anode current to rise from 90% to 100% of its final
value. At the same time the anode voltage decreases from 10% of its initial
value to smallest possible value. In this interval of time conduction spreads
all over the area of cathode and the SCR will go to fully ON State. Spread
time of SCR depends upon the cross-sectional area of cathode.

## Turn OFF Time of SCR

Once the thyristor is switched on or in other point of view, the anode current
is above latching current, the gate losses control over it. That means gate
circuit cannot turn off the device. For turning off the SCR anode current must
fall below the holding current. After anode current fall to zero we cannot
apply forward voltage across the device due to presence of carrier charges
into the four layers. So we must sweep out or recombine these charges to
proper turn off of SCR. So turn off time of SCR can be defined as the
interval between anode current falls to zero and device regains its forward
blocking mode. On the basis of removing carrier charges from the four
layers, turn off time of SCR can be divided into two time regions,
1. Reverse Recovery Time.
2. Gate Recovery Time

## Reverse Recovery Time

It is the interval in which change carriers remove from J1, and J3 junction. At
time t1, anode current falls to zero and it will continue to increase in reverse
direction with same slope (di/dt) of the forward decreasing current. This
negative current will help to sweep out the carrier charges from junction J1
and J3. At the time t2 carrier charge density is not sufficient to maintain the
reverse current hence after t2 this negative current will start to decrease. The
value of current at t2 is called reverse recovery current. Due to rapid
decreasing of anode current, a reverse spike of voltage may appear across
the SCR. Total recovery time t3 - t1 is called reverse recovery time. After
that, device will start to follow the applied reverse voltage and it gains the
property to block the forward voltage.

## Gate Recovery Time

After sweeping out the carrier charges from junction J1 and J3 during reverse
recovery time, there still remain trapped charges in J2 junction which
prevent the SCR from blocking the forward voltage. These trapped charge

## can be removed by recombination only and the interval in which this

recombination is done, called gate recovery time.
3. Explain how on-off control is utilized.
is a device, or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs or regulates
the behavior of other devices or systems. Industrial control systems are used
in industrial production for controlling equipment or machines. There are two
common classes of control systems, open loop control systems and closed
loop control systems. In open loop control systems output is generated
based on inputs. In closed loop control systems current output is taken into
consideration and corrections are made based on feedback. A closed loop
system is also called a feedback control system. The human body is a classic
example of feedback systems.
4. Lists components comprising on-off control system.
Controller receives input from sensor, processes the input and then produces
intelligent output signal for controlled device.
Controller Types:
1. Temperature Controllers.
2. Relative Humidity Controllers.
3. Enthalpy Controllers.
4. Universal Controllers.

3- Controlled devices
Controlled device acts to modify controlled variable as directed by controller.
Controlled Devices Types
1. Control Valves.
2. Heating and Cooling Coils.
3. Dampers.
4. Actuators.
5. Pumps & Fans.

4- Source of energy
Source of energy is needed to power the control system. Control systems use either a
pneumatic or electric power supply.

## Aims of HVAC Control Systems:

HVAC Control Systems are used for the following benefits:
1. Lower energy cost.
2. Lower operations cost.
3. Increase flexibility.
4. Ensure quality building environment.
Type of Control Systems
There are (5) different type of HVAC Control Systems as follows:
1- Direct Acting Systems
The simplest form of controller is direct-acting, comprising a sensing element which
transmits power to a valve through a capillary, bellows and diaphragm. The measuring
system derives its energy from the process under control without amplification by any
auxiliary source of power which makes it simple and easy to use. The most common
example is the thermostatic radiator valve which adjusts the valve by liquid expansion
or vapor pressure.

## 2- Electric / Electronic Systems

Electric controlled devices provide ON / OFF or two-position control. In residential
and small commercial applications, low voltage electrical controls are most common.
A transformer is used to reduce the 115 volt alternating current (AC) to a nominal 24
volts. This voltage signal is controlled by thermostats, and can open gas solenoid

valves, energize oil burners or solenoid valves on the DX cooling, control electric
heat, operate two position valves and damper or turn on-off fans and pumps.
A relay or contactor is used to switch line voltage equipment with the low voltage
control signal. An electronic control system can be enhanced with visual displays that
show system status and operation.

3- Pneumatic Systems

The most popular control system for large buildings historically has been pneumatics
which can provide both On-Off and modulating control. Pneumatic actuators are
described in terms of their spring range.
Compressed air with an input pressure can be regulated by thermostats and
humidistat. By varying the discharge air pressure from these devices, the signal can
be used directly to open valves, close dampers, and energize other equipment. The
copper or plastic tubing carry the control signals around the building, which is
relatively inexpensive. The pneumatic system is very durable, is safe in hazardous
areas where electrical sparks must be avoided, and most importantly, is capable of
modulation, or operation at part load condition. While the 24-volt electrical control
system could only energize a damper fully open or fully closed, a pneumatic control
system can hold that damper at 25%, 40% or 80% open. This allows more accurate
matching of the supply with the load.
Pneumatic controls use clean, dry & oil free compressed air, both as the control signal
medium and to drive the valve stem with the use of diaphragms

4- Microprocessor Systems

Direct Digital Control (DDC) is the most common deployed control system today. The
sensors and output devices (e.g., actuators, relays) used for electronic control
systems are usually the same ones used on microprocessor-based systems. The
distinction between electronic control systems and microprocessor-based systems is in

the handling of the input signals. In an electronic control system, the analog sensor
signal is amplified, and then compared to a set point or override signal through
voltage or current comparison and control circuits. In a microprocessor-based system,
the sensor input is converted to a digital form, where discrete instructions
(algorithms) perform the process of comparison and control. Most subsystems, from
VAV boxes to boilers and chillers, now have an onboard DDC system to optimize the
performance of that unit. A communication protocol known as BACNet is a standard
protocol that allows control units from different manufacturers to pass data to each
other.

5- Mixed Systems
Combinations of controlled devices are possible. For example, electronic controllers
can modulate a pneumatic actuator. Also, proportional electronic signals can be sent
to a device called transducer, which converts these signals into proportional air
pressure signals used by the pneumatic actuators. A sensor-transducer assembly is
called a transmitter.
The definitions for Transducer and Transmitter will be as follows:
Transducer changes the sensor signal to an electrical signal (e.g. a pressure into a
voltage)
Transmitter is the electronic circuitry to enable a suitable strength voltage
proportional to the sensed parameter to be sent to a controller.
Supervisory control (building automation) system
The role of supervisory control is to control the scheduling and interaction of all the
subsystems inside a building to meet building needs with appropriate operator input.
Supervisory control systems have many names; each used for a particular emphasis.
Among the names and their acronyms are the following:
1. BMS: Building management system
2. EMCS: Energy monitoring and control system
3. FMS: Facility management system

## 4. EMS: Energy management system

5. BAS: Building automation system (The most generic of these terms)
BAS is where mechanical and electrical systems and equipment are joined with
microprocessors that communicate with each other and possibly to a computer. This
computer and controllers in the building automation system can be networked to the
internet or serve as a standalone system for the local peer to peer controller network
only. Additionally, the BAS controllers themselves do not need a computer to process
the control functions as the controllers have their own internal processors.. These
microprocessors, communication network in addition to central controller constitute
what is called a direct digital control DDC system.
What is DDC?

It is a control system that uses a computer or many computers linked together via a
network that controls the infrastructure of a building. DDC control consists of
microprocessor-based controllers with the control logic performed by software. Most
systems distribute the software to remote controllers to eliminate the need for
continuous communication capability. The computer is primarily used to monitor the
status of the system, store back-up copies of the programs and record alarming and
trending functions. Complex strategies and energy management functions are readily
available at the lowest level in the system architecture. The central diagnostic
capabilities are also a significant asset.
The DDC is actually a distributed control system with several distributed control
components which are as follows:

1- Controllers
Microprocessor based controllers in DDC system may be divided to two types; Central
(system) Controller and Dedicated Unit (Zone) Controllers as follows:
A- The central controller

controller

## Modern building management systems consist of a central computer, which normally

has a screen that an experienced operator can use to interpret and alter
performance. This is linked to controllers by a network, which operates as a two-way
channel for information and commands throughout the system. Local controllers and
sensors are connected to this data-bus and do the work of controlling individual
systems. In some systems, there may not be any screen, but just box with a small LCD
readout. Such systems normally have the capability of providing a full screen readout.
However, without such a screen they are very difficult for the inexperienced operator
to work with and represent a barrier between the building manager, the energy
manager, or any external consultant and the control system.

## Dedicated Unit Controllers

Also called a terminal controller, it usually has limited capacity to execute factoryloaded computer programs and to provide functional control for a terminal or a piece
of HVAC&R equipment. Unit controllers are often connected in a separate network
and supported by a system controller.
5. Describe on-off control taking some applications as examples.
Logic control

## Logic control systems for industrial and commercial machinery were

historically implemented at mains voltage using interconnected relays,
designed using ladder logic. Today, most such systems are constructed with
programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or microcontrollers. The notation of
ladder logic is still in use as a programming idiom for PLCs.
Logic controllers may respond to switches, light sensors, pressure switches,
etc., and can cause the machinery to start and stop various operations. Logic
systems are used to sequence mechanical operations in many applications.
PLC software can be written in many different ways ladder diagrams, SFC
sequential function charts or in language terms known as statement lists.
Examples include elevators, washing machines and other systems with
interrelated stop-go operations.
Logic systems are quite easy to design, and can handle very complex
operations. Some aspects of logic system design make use of Boolean logic.

Onoff control
For more details on this topic, see Bangbang control.

## A thermostat is a simple negative feedback controller: when the temperature

(the "process variable" or PV) goes below a set point (SP), the heater is
switched on. Another example could be a pressure switch on an air
compressor. When the pressure (PV) drops below the threshold (SP), the
pump is powered. Refrigerators and vacuum pumps contain similar
mechanisms operating in reverse, but still providing negative feedback to
correct errors.
Simple onoff feedback control systems like these are cheap and effective. In
some cases, like the simple compressor example, they may represent a good
design choice.
In most applications of onoff feedback control, some consideration needs to
be given to other costs, such as wear and tear of control valves and perhaps
other start-up costs when power is reapplied each time the PV drops.
Therefore, practical onoff control systems are designed to include hysteresis
which acts as a deadband, a region around the setpoint value in which no
programmable.
Linear control

## Linear control systems use linear negative feedback to produce a control

signal mathematically based on other variables, with a view to maintain the
controlled process within an acceptable operating range.
The output from a linear control system into the controlled process may be in
the form of a directly variable signal, such as a valve that may be 0 or 100%
open or anywhere in between. Sometimes this is not feasible and so, after
calculating the current required corrective signal, a linear control system
may repeatedly switch an actuator, such as a pump, motor or heater, fully on
and then fully off again, regulating the duty cycle using pulse-width
modulation.
Proportional control

## When controlling the temperature of an industrial furnace, it is usually better

to control the opening of the fuel valve in proportion to the current needs of

the furnace. This helps avoid thermal shocks and applies heat more
effectively.
Proportional negative-feedback systems are based on the difference between
the required set point (SP) and process value (PV). This difference is called
the error. Power is applied in direct proportion to the current measured error,
in the correct sense so as to tend to reduce the error and therefore avoid
positive feedback. The amount of corrective action that is applied for a given
error is set by the gain or sensitivity of the control system.
At low gains, only a small corrective action is applied when errors are
detected. The system may be safe and stable, but may be sluggish in
response to changing conditions. Errors will remain uncorrected for relatively
long periods of time and the system is over-damped. If the proportional gain
is increased, such systems become more responsive and errors are dealt
with more quickly. There is an optimal value for the gain setting when the
overall system is said to be critically damped. Increases in loop gain beyond
this point lead to oscillations in the PV and such a system is under-damped.
In real systems, there are practical limits to the range of the manipulated
variable (MV). For example, a heater can be off or fully on, or a valve can be
closed or fully open. Adjustments to the gain simultaneously alter the range
of error values over which the MV is between these limits. The width of this
range, in units of the error variable and therefore of the PV, is called the
proportional band (PB). While the gain is useful in mathematical treatments,
the proportional band is often used in practical situations. They both refer to
the same thing, but the PB has an inverse relationship to gain higher gains
result in narrower PBs, and vice versa.
Under-damped furnace example

## In the furnace example, suppose the temperature is increasing towards a set

point at which, say, 50% of the available power will be required for steadystate. At low temperatures, 100% of available power is applied. When the
process value (PV) is within, say 10 of the SP the heat input begins to be
reduced by the proportional controller (note that this implies a 20
proportional band (PB) from full to no power input, evenly spread around the
setpoint value). At the setpoint the controller will be applying 50% power as
required, but stray stored heat within the heater sub-system and in the walls
of the furnace will keep the measured temperature rising beyond what is
required. At 10 above SP, we reach the top of the proportional band (PB)

and no power is applied, but the temperature may continue to rise even
further before beginning to fall back. Eventually as the PV falls back into the
PB, heat is applied again, but now the heater and the furnace walls are too
cool and the temperature falls too low before its fall is arrested, so that the
oscillations continue.
Over-damped furnace example

## The temperature oscillations that an under-damped furnace control system

produces are unacceptable for many reasons, including the waste of fuel and
time (each oscillation cycle may take many minutes), as well as the
likelihood of seriously overheating both the furnace and its contents.
Suppose that the gain of the control system is reduced drastically and it is
restarted. As the temperature approaches, say 30 below SP (60
proportional band (PB)), the heat input begins to be reduced, the rate of
heating of the furnace has time to slow and, as the heat is still further
reduced, it eventually is brought up to set point, just as 50% power input is
reached and the furnace is operating as required. There was some wasted
time while the furnace crept to its final temperature using only 52% then
51% of available power, but at least no harm was done. By carefully
increasing the gain (i.e. reducing the width of the PB) this over-damped and
sluggish behavior can be improved until the system is critically damped for
this SP temperature. Doing this is known as 'tuning' the control system. A
well-tuned proportional furnace temperature control system will usually be
more effective than on-off control, but will still respond more slowly than the
furnace could under skillful manual control.

Group 2:
Relano, Raymond
Gapo, Mark Joseph
Raposa, Rico John
Gajo, Reymond