You are on page 1of 82

ATPL TECHNICAL

The maximum altitude which a pilot can fly without supplementary oxygen is
15000 ft.

Flight decks are designed to maintain a cabin altitude of


6000 to 8000 ft.

At what height does the temperature starts remaining constant and state that
temperature
36090 ft & -56.50 C

The two outward pressure relief valves are called


Safety valves

The two inward Pressure relief valves are termed


Inward relief valves

These valves are provided to


Protect the a/c from damage caused by excessive P due to failure of normal pressure
control system

The cabin is pressurized by


The ventilating air from the air conditioning system

During a climb in a pressurized system


The outflow must be greater than the inflow and the outflow valve, which has to be
sufficiently open to allow the total inflow of air to exhaust to prevent any increase in cabin
pressure,

When a predetermined cabin altitude is maintained


The out flow is equal to the in flow

10

During a descent
The inflow must be greater than the out flow

11

The major part of the pressurization system is


Out flow or discharge Valve

12

For a pressurized a/c the maximum rate of climb and descend are respectively
500 ft/sec and 300 ft/sec

13

The minimum time for the Maximum cabin altitude to reach is


16 minutes

14

The cabin pressure control system consists of


Rate of change control and altitude control that function together to give one output.

15

The cabin altitude selector consists of


1

Barometric capsule connected to a combined rate of change and altitude needle valve at one
end and a threaded selector knob at the other.
16

Discharge valve
Is pneumatically linked to the cabin pressure controller.

17

The discharge valve is located


Within the pressure hull and is subjected to cabin pressure, which acts under the flexible
diaphragm that is connected to the outflow valve.

18

The control chamber of the discharge valve


Is pneumatically linked to the cabin pressure controller

19

The outflow valve will open when


The pressure differential across the diaphragm reaches 0.25 Psi

20

On start up, with the cabin doors closed and air conditioning selected on, the cabin pressure
Will rise more quickly than the pressure in the control chamber due to the restrictor

21

The crew selects the cabin altitude and rate of climb for the flight plan
Prior to the take off run

22

The opening of the out flow valve is achieved by


The control chamber pressure acting on the barometric altitude capsule and the ROC
capsule.

23

During cruise, for a pressurized a/c


The barometric pressure of 1013.2 is set on the controller to ensure that it operates from
MSL.

24

Any increase in cabin pressure will result in


The outflow valve moving further towards open

25

Any reduction in cabin pressure will result in


The outflow valve moving further towards closed.

26

To prevent from occurring Pressure bumping the aircraft should be flown at a level
Lower than the max diff altitude by some 600 to 1000 feet.

27

When the aircraft passes through the 700 feet mark on its final approach the
Cabin pressure and the ambient pressure are equal, so the outflow valve is driven open.

28

In the event of an aborted landing, termed a go around or landing climb, the crew must
Reset the cabin altitude above the airports altitude as the aircraft climbs to minimum safe
altitude

29

Inching in a pressurized a/c means


In the event of the pneumatic controller or discharge valve failing, by driving the discharge
valve shut [termed an off schedule descent] the cabin pressure can be controlled manually
2

by adjusting the position of the dump valve.


30

To clear smoke or fumes from the aircraft the crew can


Inch the dump valve open to increase the through flow, whilst maintaining cabin pressure
within limits.

31

How is it ensured that the aircraft is depressurized on touchdown?


On landing the air / ground logic [squat switch, weight on wheels & weight on ground]
switch will signal the dump valve to drive fully open, ensures that the aircraft is
depressurized on touchdown.

32

To assist in keeping a ditched aircraft afloat for as long as possible


All valves that would be below the aircrafts water line must be able to be physically closed
and held closed against the water pressure.

33

An explosive decompression takes place within


0-4 seconds

34

A rapid decompression takes place within


5-7 seconds

35

In the event of cabin pressure failure at 13000 ft


The out flow valves are cut-off automatically

36

In the event of cabin pressure failure at 14000 ft


14,000 ft passenger oxygen masks are deployed automatically to the half hung position

37

If both inflows are lost or the outflow is greater than the maximum inflow
The crew can open the emergency ram air valve; this will allow ram ambient air into cabin
via the cabin air conditioning distribution ducts.

38

The oxygen masks are deployed to the half hung position by


A baro-static controller

39

That operates above 25,000 ft or those that operate at or below 25,000 ft, but cannot descend
safely within 4 minutes to 13,000 ft.
Must be fitted with automatically deployable oxygen equipment immediately available to
each occupant, wherever seated

40

The aircraft toilet when oxygen is required each aircraft toilet must have
Two facemasks

41

For aircraft to fly above 30,000 ft these masks must be able to be


Automatically deployed before the cabin altitude exceeds 15,000 ft and the crew must be
provided with a manual means to release the masks in the event of failure of the automatic
system.

42

Liquid oxygen is
Not used in the civil aviation industry as it is very expensive and poses handling, storage
and safety problems.
3

43

Crew are always supplied with


Gaseous oxygen

44

Passenger oxygen is
Produced by chemical oxygen generators

45

The pressure in the oxygen cylinder is


1800 Psi

46

The continuous oxygen flow system is normally used in


Light un-pressurized aircraft intending to fly above 10,000 feet or as the passenger
supplementary oxygen system for some pressurized aircraft.

47

An outward relief valve fitted in the mask


Allows the pilot to breathe out

48

The pressure drop in the oxygen for pilot is


10 Psi

49

The pressure drop in the oxygen for passengers if a gas oxygen supply is employed
80 to 100 Psi and then from 8-to 10 Psi for individual use

50

Oxygen is prevented from flowing to the passenger masks during normal operations by a
barometric valve.

51

the barometric valve opens


When the cabin altitude exceeds 14,000 ft

52

The manifold is kept pressurized


To ensure that passengers at the far end of the manifold receive oxygen at the same instant
as the passengers closest to the supply and to prevent the ingress of moisture.

53

For aircraft that operate from airports where the landing field altitude is less than 2000 feet
Below the normal preset automatic passenger mask presentation altitude, the automatic
presentation altitude may be reset to landing field altitude plus 2000 feet.

54

In a diluter demand system, the oxygen cylinder is maintained at


400 Psi

55

The inhalation pressure in the above system for the pilot is


8 Psi

56

The Oxygen generators work on the principle that


Some mono fuels, when ignited, produce more oxygen than the combustion process requires
and that this oxygen can be utilized.

57

The chemical used in oxygen generator are


Sodium chlorate and Iron powder
4

58

For chemical oxygen generators the door latches of the PSUs are released by
A 28 volt DC electrical signal from a barostatic unit

59

For generators that supply more than one mask activation is initiated by
The first passenger to pull a mask from the half hung position down to his face

60

Cabin crew positions are provided with the same supplementary oxygen system as the
Passengers

61

PBE stands for


Protective breathing equipment

62

PSU stands for


Passengers overhead service unit

63

For pressurized aircraft that are certified to operate above 25,000 feet the flight crew oxygen
masks must be of the quick donning type.

64

In the event of cabin pressure failure at 10000 ft and above


An audible and red visual flight deck warning is given

65

Quick donning type means


That they must be able to be fitted one handed and fully functional within 5 seconds then
leave both hands free.

66

When un-pressurised aircraft are operated above 10,000 feet but below 13,000 feet for more
Than 30 minutes, or whenever the aircraft exceeds 13,000 feet, all flight crew on duty must
use supplemental oxygen continuously; the responsibility of ensuring this is the
commanders.

67

First aid oxygen is required to be carried on pressurised aircraft that operate


Above 25,000 ft, and have cabin crew.

68

First aid oxygen is


An undiluted supply for passengers who, for physiological reasons, might require oxygen
following a cabin depressurization

69

Give the specification of the First aid oxygen kit


The minimum number of outlets is two and each outlet should have a normal minimum
mass flow rate of 4 liters of oxygen per minute. However, there may be a means to decrease
this flow to not less than 2 liters per minute at any cabin altitude.

70

The volume of oxygen to be carried for first aid purposes is based on


a decompression happening at the mid point of the flight. The time that remains from this
point until the aircraft touches down [in minutes] multiplied by 3 litres per minute.

71

For a three hour flight carrying 300 passengers, the first aid oxygen required to be carried is
1620 liters [ x 3 hr x 60 minutes x 3 litters x 6 (2% of 300) = 90 x 3 x 6 =1620]

72

The US and UK color coding for oxygen cylinders are respectively


5

Green and Black with white neck and shoulder


73

To avoid the risk of cylinders could explode if they were subjected to excessive temperature
Each cylinder is connected to an external vent via a bursting disc.

74

If the oxygen pressure due to thermal heating exceeds the bursting discs design maximum
pressure
The bursting disc ruptures and allows the entire contents of the cylinder to vent to
atmosphere.

75

The mediums that can be used to lubricate oxygen system components and threads are
graphite, carbon or Teflon based materials.

76

the pressurized cabin pressure and temperature would be around


10.92 Psi and 18-24 degree centigrade

77

The trailing edge flaps are


Plain flaps, Split flaps, slotted flaps, Blown flaps, fowler flaps, and slotted fowler flaps

78

The leading edge flaps are


Kruger flaps only

79

Flaps
Alter the camber and or increase the wing area

80

Plain flaps are generally mounted in


The inboard of the aileron and has the same area as That of the wing to which they are
attached.

81

In plane flaps, when selected up, the tailing edge of the flap is
Aligned with the trailing edge of the wing

82

When the plain flaps are lowered, the position of C.P.


Moves rearward causing a pitch down and increased lift and drag

83

When the plain flaps are lowered, the effective chord is


Slightly less than the chord that in the up position

84

When a split flap is lowered, the chord


Is not altered but increases the effective wing area.

85

In slotted flaps
High energy airflow from the bottom of the wing pass through he slot and make the airflow
laminar

86

The advantage of using slotted flaps are


Increased lift and delay in onset wing stall

87

The advantages of double slotted flap are that


It increases the lift up to 70% and delay the stalling angle to 18 degrees
6

88

Zap flaps
Increase the wing area and camber and thus increase the lift by 90% and reduce the stall
angle from 15 to 13 degree

89

An extension of the Zap flap is


Fowler flap

90

The fowler flaps


Increase the camber and wing area and thus increase the lift by 90% without altering the
stall angle

91

Fowler flaps are engaged with the help of


Rollers and guides

92

In double slotted fowler flaps,


The initial deployment increases the wing area and further deployments increases the wing
camber
The fowler flaps
Produce 100% extra lift and increase the stall angle by 20%

93
94

In blown flap
A strong jet of air taken from the compressor bleed or from a dedicated blower is passed
over the flaps

95

In jet flaps
The mechanically operated blown flaps are completely replaced by a linear vent that can be
rotated through which high velocity air is blown.

96

Slots are fitted to


The leading edge of the wings which will ensure that laminar air is flown over the aileron
and thus maintain the effectiveness of the aileron.

97

Slots
Make re-energize the air by ducting a high energy stream of air from the bottom of the
wings and passing it over the top surface

98

A simple slot
Does not alter the pitching moment of the wing yet increase the lift by 40% and increase the
stall angle to 20 degrees

99

For high speed flight, slots can increase the


Drag

100

A slat is employed to
Achieve the effectiveness of a slot

101

A slat is
An aerodynamically shaped strip of metal fixed on brackets along the leading edge of the
7

wing span to re energize the air flowing over the wing


102

The use of slat


Creates a slot in the leading edge and increase the camber of the wing and moves the lift
forward causing a nose up pitching moment.

103

Fixed slats are common in


Crop sprayers where high lift is required

104

Fixed slats are generally not employed in transport aircraft because


They create high drag at high speeds.

105

Use of slats alone would create


Design problems for the undercarriage due to the nose up tendency

106

Normally, slots and slats are used in conjunction with


The trailing edge flaps

108

In cruise, the movable slats are


Held close and forms the leading edge

109

In automatic slats, the slats are moved forward by


Spring force

110

A vent on the top surface of the slat


Delays the opening of the slat by creating a decreased pressure over the surface

111

A vent on the lower surface of the slat


Hastens opening of the slat by creating an increased pressure under the surface

112

Droop snout is a
Leading edge flap

113

In droop snout design


The forward section of the wing along its length is pivoted.

114

The droop snout design has the advantage of


Increasing the wings camber without unduly shortening the chord

115

Kruger flaps are


Leading edge flaps and were designed for turbine powered a/c as they have thin wing
sections

116

Kruger flaps run from


Wing root to almost wing tip

118

If Kruger flaps are used, they are located


Inboard the inner engines [wing root and the engines]
8

119

Kruger flaps are surpassed by


Movable slats in modern transport a/c

120

Kruger flap is formed by


A hinging panel at the bottom section of the leading edge which are moved by a complex
lever mechanism

121

A Kruger flap when fully deployed


Increases the lift by 50% and cause pitch up moments

122

If the Kruger flaps are set at the intermediate stages


It reduces the lift produced by the wing

123

Slats work by
Re energizing the boundary layer

124

The methods for boundary layer control are


Suction and blowing

125

Suction
Reduces the thickness of the boundary layer

126

Blowing is achieved by
A high speed jet of air just behind the leading edge

127

The use of slats and flaps along with trailing edge flaps result in
No effective pitch

128

The combined use of slotted flaps and slats result in


75% increase in lift and increase in stall angle to 25 degrees

129

The combined use of double slotted flaps and slats result in


120% increase in lift and increase in stall angle to 28 degrees (Transport a/c)

130

The flaps are moved by


Reversible electric motors

131

In the event the limit switch for the flap fails to stop at the actuator at the selected position,
the pilot must
Pull the circuit breaker out to isolate the motor.

132

In the event the motor fails while operating, the disagreement lights will
Remain illuminated

133

To prevent fluttering of flaps, the flaps are fitted with


Fixed tabs which acts to hold the trailing edge up

134

In transport aircraft, the flaps and slats are operated by


Linear hydraulic actuators or hydraulic motors with drive shafts via a gear box
9

135

Wing flaps are fitted with


Separate drive source

136

If mechanical interconnection of the surfaces are employed


The system will be considered as a single surface

137

If the flaps are operated by independent hydraulic actuators, the equal speed of operation is
ensured by
Two Double acting balanced Actuators, one attached to each flaps

138

Blown back system is used in


Flap operation to prevent flap damage

139

Blow back valve is


A pressure relief valve used in hydraulic actuators to operate flaps safely

140

The double slotted fowler flaps are operated by


Screw jack via gearbox and shaft system

141

If one motor or hydraulic system fails, the flaps will


Still operate till the full deployment position

142

In fly by wire flap system, the flap sensors are mounted on


Flap Drive Shafts

143

TOCWS stands for


Take Off Configuration Warning System

144

In TOCWS, if the aircraft is not correctly set up for take off and the release of breaks will
result in
Prevention of take off power being applied to the engines

145

Primary control stops are located at


The control surface ends of the control run and can be adjusted to give full range movement
and can be locked at a particular position

146

Secondary control stops are located at


The input end of the control system and can be adjusted such that there is a small clearance
between the control system when the control surface is fully deflected and then locked

147

The hydraulic control system consists of


Power assisted or Boost system and Power control unit

148

In Boost control system


The pilot is directly linked to the control surface but a parallel hydraulically servo unit assist
the movement
10

149

The ram of the servo unit is attached to


The body of the a/c

150

The body of the control unit is attached to the control surface through
Control lever

151

Air loads means


Airspeed x control deflection

152

Power control units are operated by


The hydraulic pressure

153

In power control units


There is no direct link between the pilot and the control surface

154

PCU stands for


Power Control Unit

155

Each control surface is operated by


Two independent PCU such that in the event of failure of one PCU will not affect the
operation

156

When the pilots control is in neutral position, the spool valve in PCU will be in
Neutral position

157

PCU are physically attached to the


The aircraft structure and the control surface input linkage.

158

In PCU, when the pilot moves a control surface, he, in practice


Operates a servo valve within the PCU and the PCU moves proportionately to the servo
valve

159

In PCU, the pilots linkage is attached to


A servo or spool valve

160

PCU follow up action results in


Trapping the hydraulic fluid in each side of the piston, creating a hydraulic lock

161

In the event of the failure of one PCU or hydraulic system, the control is made possible by a
Release unit which is a single acting actuator

162

In the case of light a/c with one PCU for each control surface,
The operation of the interconnecting valve allows the pilot to gain manual reversion.

163

Control surfaces have their own


C.G and C.P

164

Control surface flutter is the condition where


11

The trailing edge of the control surface oscillate about the neutral position
165

If the C.G of the control surface, the trailing edge will


Deflect without any input from the pilot

166

Mass balance is done to


Avoid flutter by changing the C.G of the control surface by the extra mass

167

Horn mass Balancing is done by


Attaching the mass to an external arm

168

In internal mass balancing


An extra weight is added to the leading edge of the control surface

169

Horn mass balance is preferred to mass balancing because


It can reduce the over all mass of the a/c

170

External mass balancing is done on


Rudder and aileron only of slower a/c because the elevator has enough space for its horn to
move

171

While mass balancing the ailerons, the mass balancing is done


On the lower surface so as not to disturb the airflow over the surface

172

While mass balancing the rudder,


Two small masses are attach to the two sides of the rudder.

173

Aerodynamic balancing is done by


Hinge Balance or Horn Balance

174

In hinge balance, the hinge line is located


Aft of the leading edge of the control surface

175

In aerodynamic horn balancing, the mass is located at the


Tip of the surface and the horn acts as an external mass balance and at the same time
providing the aerodynamic balance

176

The hinge moment increase


With increase in air speed and control surface deflection

177

The hinge moment wrt to C.P is


It increases as the C.P moves aft of the hinge.

178

Stick gearing refers to


The ratio of stick movement in inches to the control surface movement in inches

179

The secondary effect of roll is


Adverse yaw
12

180

Adverse yaw is caused by the


Unequal induced drag on the up going (reduced) and down going (increase) ailerons

181

To counteract the effect of adverse yaw


Apply rudder in the opposite direction of the intended yaw

182

The adverse yaw is induced by


The roll

183

Adverse yaw is greatest at


Full aileron deflection and low airspeeds

184

The methods used to overcome the effect of adverse yaw are


Differential aileron, Frise aileron, and rudder aileron interlink

185

In differential aileron system,


The up going aileron moves more than the down going aileron

186

Differential aileron is done by


Gearing the movement of ailerons differentially

187

In Frise Ailerons
The leading edge of the up going aileron protrudes below the trailing edge of the wing and
creates more drag to compensate for the excess drag produced by the down going aileron

188

Fixed tabs are used for


Counteracting the one wing low flight condition without any effort from the pilot

189

Fixed tabs are fitted to


The ailerons and can be adjusted on ground by qualified engineers only

190

The angle at which the tabs are to be set is determined


After the flight tests

191

Balance tabs are fitted to


The primary controls to improve their handling

192

Balance tabs are hinged to the


Trailing edge of the primary control surface

193

When the balance tabs are deflected, the control surface trailing edge is deflected in the
Opposite direction

194

The balancing tabs are connected to the wing structure by


An adjustable rod

195

Trim tabs
Can be adjusted by the pilot in flight and comes under the category of secondary control
surface
13

196

Trim tabs work on the principle that


When the tabs are moved in one direction, the primary control surface move in the opposite
direction

197

Trim tabs are operated by


Screw jack and cables connected to the trim control

198

Trim tabs help the pilot to fly


Hands off through speed range and different C.G condition

199

Trim tabs are normally fitted to


Rudder and elevator and can be fitted to the ailerons also

200

The elevator control tab wheel is


Mounted in the vertical plane

201

The rudder trim control wheel is mounted


On the horizontal plane

202

For small a/c, Trim indication is given by


A line or index marker on the on the control wheel is aligned with the index marker on the
console

203

For larger aircraft, trim indication is given by


A scale and pointer

204

When a Trim tab is fitted to the primary controls, it must be


Balanced to prevent it from fluttering or its control run designed to be irreversible

205

The trim tab flutter can cause


The primary control surface to flutter

206

Trim functions for the controls operated by PCU are normally done through
Electric trim motors

207

PCU operated a/c cant be directly Trimmed and fly hands off because
When the pilot relieves the control pressure, the control surfaces are hydraulically locked

208

For light aircraft, the electric trim motor is provided for


Elevator or rudder

209

For transport a/c with autopilot system


Each control surface has separate electrical system

210

For a large a/c, the elevator and trimmable tail range for take of is indicated by
A green arc on the scale and pointer system

211

In servo tabs, the control surface move


In the opposite direction that of the trim tab movement
14

212

When an a/c with servo tabs are parked, the control surfaces will
Appear to hang down

213

When the a/c is stationary, the movement of the servo tab will
Result only in the movement of the servo tab

214

For a servo tab fitted a/c control surface, during take off run
Will slack until sufficient air flow is passing over them

215

A/c fitted with servo tabs are subject to


Low speed handling problem

216

Spring servo tabs are used to


Overcome the low speed handling problems

217

In a spring tab, the tab takes the charge when


Air loads are greater than the spring force

218

In spring tabs
The forces of the spring locks the control surface to the input horn

219

Anti balance tab is used in


Stabilators

220

Stabilator surfaces have


More authority over the elevators

221

Anti balance tabs are fitted to control surfaces that requires


Increased stick force

222

Anti- balance Trim tab


Combines the both functions-trimming and anti balancing

223

The ROM of anti balancing tab is set by


The length of the connecting rod

224

In anti balance trim tab, by adjusting the trim, the pilot


Displaces the anti balance tab

225

A Slab is
An all flying tail plane

226

Slabs are used on a/c


With Powered Flying Controls

227

Trim in the slab system


Is incorporated within the control run
15

228

Elevons are used in


Delta wing a/c and they combine the functions of ailerons and elevators-found in Cnocord

229

Longitudinal dihedral refers to


The tail planes leading edge is mounted 3 degrees below the horizontal

230

In cruise, the load on the tail plane with longitudinal dihedral is


Zero

231

If the a/c is correctly trimmed for economy flight


The nose will be slightly pitched up and the tail load will be zero

232

Trimmable tail planes are operated by


An actuator which is an electric screw jack

233

The actuator to the trimmable tail plane can be controlled


Both manually and automatically

234

The trimmable tail plane is manually set by the pilot according to


The position of the C.G and the trailing edge flap setting

235

The automatic action of the tail plane trim actuator


Does not alter the pilots control column position

236

When the tail trim actuator is automatically operated, it will


Alter the leading edges AoA and at the same time reduce the elevator deflection

237

The automatic action of the tail plane trim actuator takes place when
The air loads acting on the elevator reach a pre-set value

238

Trimming tail plane is also known as


Variable incident tail plane

239

In high speed, high altitude flight, the elevator


Remains locked with the tailpane and act as a single surface

240

At low air speeds, the tail plane


Locks and the elevator deflects

241

Transport aircraft generally have high


Static stability

242

The down spring attached to the control run and a/c structure is
A safety device to make sure that the a/c will always have a nose down tendency

243

When parked, an aircraft fitted with down spring, the elevators will be in the
Fully down position

244

The force from the spring


Is independent of the airs peed and stick position
16

245

The bob weight attached to the control run of the elevator


Has the same effect of the down spring

246

Bob weight is added to


Improve the maneuvering stick force

247

Q-feel is provided on a/c those operate with


PCU

248

Roll control in transport a/c is done by


Locking the outer aileron in the neutral position and the inner aileron or flippers give roll
control

249

Spoilers
When erected stand across the chord to create drag and turbulence and thus reduce the lift

250

A/c that use spoilers for roll control employs


Hinged spoilers

251

Speed barkers, when suitably designed can be used for


Roll control also

252

The advantages of using spoilers are


They help to reduce the length of the outward aileron, make it possible to use longer trailing
edge flaps and hence lower landing speed. In addition, they allow lift/speed ratio reduced
without reduction in engine power. Also they allow higher maximum control speed

253

The general use of outer panels, middle panels, and inner panels respectively used for
Roll control at low airspeeds, Speed breaking and lift dumping in flight, and lift dumping
while landing

254

As the speed of the a/c increases, the outer spoilers


Cease to operate

255

The spoilers can be used to


Reduce the airspeed and/or increase the rate of descent

256

When the spoiler lever is in the flight detent position, the amount of extension of spoilers
The inner will not extend as much as the middle one so as to prevent buffeting and the outer
one will not be extended so as not to over stress the wings

257

To improve roll control, most aircraft control wheel


Automatically link to the spoilers and ailerons

258

While banking, the spoilers on the down going wing


Partially extended out to create more drag and allow roll control and adverse yaw while the
spoilers on the up going wing remain inside

259

At high speeds
17

The outer ailerons cease to function and the inboard ailerons and mid wing spoilers take the
roll control
260

During a banked descent at high speeds,


The input from the control wheel and speed break are fed into a control or mixing unit

261

The mixing unit ensures that


All spoilers are raised to achieve the desired descent bur at a proportionate level so that the
spoilers on the down going wing deflects further

262

Air brakes are used


In flight to prevent the aircraft from exceeding the Mach speed so as not to allow a shock
stall

263

If the airspeed breaker lever is armed during landing, it


Reduces the lift by 80% and all the spoilers are in the extended position

264

If the pilot moves the throttle lever for increased power, other than for reverse thrust
All the spoilers are retracted automatically and the lever moves automatically to the down
position

265

The conditions needed for the spoilers to operate are


Speed breaker lever in the armed position
Thrust lever in the flight idle position, and main wheels rotating

266

In Droop aileron design


When the pilot selects the flap position for landing, both outboard ailerons are extended
fully downward and create extra lift and at the same time roll control inputs are fed into roll
control spoilers and enables the a/c to land at low speeds.

267

In fly by wire system


The pilot is not directly linked to the control surfaces.

268

In Fly by wire system, the commands are routed


Through electrical cables to a servo valve attached to the hydraulic power control unit

269

LRU stands for


Local replacement units (associated with fly by wire system)

270

When encountered a sudden gust


The spoilers will be extended to reduce lift

271

The forward movement of the C.G


Increases the stability but reduces the controllability

272

The aft movement of the C.G


Reduces the stability but increases the controllability

273

The flyby wire system enables the designer to


Move the C.G rearward making the a/c more unstable within the limits to improve
18

controllability
274

The nose up tendency at high altitude and high speed flight is due to
The location Of the C.G. rearward to increase the AoA to get additional lift without increase
in the power and thus save fuel in long range cruise

275

In anti balance servo tabs, the control surface is deflected


In the same direction of the tab movement

276

The main structural component of the wing is


Spar

277

Ribs run
Chord wise connecting the spar

278

Stringers run
Span wise inter connecting the ribs

279

In a/c wing, the skin is supported by


Stringers

280

The shape of the wing is provided by


Ribs

281

The weight of engines, undercarriage are transmitted trough


Ribs

282

The front spar is designed to pick up


The air loads

283

The main spar


Carries the majority of the load and transfer it to the fuselage

284

The rear spar acts as


A mounting place for trailing edge devices

285

The spars are subject to


Vertical loads and torsion load imparted by ailerons

286

When a wing is deflected, the greatest strain will be experienced at the


Root

287

The upper and lower surface and the spars can for
Torsion box

288

The advantage of torsion box structure is that


It increases rigidity, torsion and mending moments without additional material and save
weight
19

289

Wing loading is
Maximum take off mass / wing area

290

As the g forces increases, the wing loading


Increases

291

Low wing a/ c have


A high C.G than the high wing a/c

292

Mid wing a/c have the advantage of


High aerodynamics for high speed flight

293

In Hip wing structure


The wing is mounted between the mid and bottom of the fuselage

294

The total drag is the sum of


Induced drag and profile drag

295

The major part of the profile drag comes from


Interference drag

296

Fairing in fuselage is done to


Allow smooth airflow

297

Dihedral is the angle between


The main plane and the horizontal when the wing is above the horizontal

298

Anhedral is the angle between


The main plane and the horizontal when the wing is below the horizontal

299

A single acting linear actuator requires a


Mechanical force to return as they work only in one direction

300

In the case of double acting unbalanced linear actuators


For equal inputs, the outputs will vary due to unequal areas on both sides of the piston

301

For double acting balanced actuators


The area on each side of the piston is equal

302

Engine driven pumps [EDP] are


Direct driven pumps and they start pumping as soon as the engine starts

303

An internal leakage occurs when


The fluid leaks from the pressure side of the piston to the return side

304

The S.G of Avgas and Avtur are


0.72 And 0.75 to 0.85

305

The flash point of Avgas is approximately


20

- 40 degree centigrade
306

The freezing point of Avgas has to be


- 58 degree centigrade or below

307

80 grade Avgas is colored


Red

308

100 Grade Avgas is colored


Green

309

100LL Grade Avgas is colored


Blue

310

Jet A1 has a freezing point of


- 47 Degree centigrade

311

The pressure for the Fuel pressure is taken


Just before the carburetor

312

Fuel gauges are generally


Electrically operated

313

Skin, Frames and formers are joined together by


Riveting or bonding

314

In pressurized a/c the pressure cabin terminates


In front and rear bulk heads

315

In modern a/c design, the passenger cabin and cargo hold are
Equally pressurized to avoid separate floor design

316

The pilots vision is limited to


28 degrees up and 20 degrees down

317

What is the primary instrument for bank during a straight stabilized climb?
Heading Indicator

318

What are the supporting instruments for bank during a straight stabilized climb?
Attitude indicator and Turn coordinator

319

Can the magnetic compass be used as an attitude indicator?


No. It is not an attitude indicating instrument and it is used to correct the Heading Indicator

320

What are the Primary and supporting instruments while establishing a level standard turn?
Attitude indicator and turn coordinator

321

What are the Primary and supporting instruments after establishing a level standard turn?
Turn coordinator and Attitude Indicator
21

322

What is the role of a Heading Indicator during a turn?


It is neither a primary or secondary instrument during a turn

323

Which instrument provides the most pertinent information for bank control in straight and
level flight?
Heading indicator

324

Which instruments are tuned pitch instruments?


Altimeter, Attitude Indicator, VSI, and ASI

325

Which is the primary instrument for pitch control in straight and level flight?
Altimeter

326

What are the supporting instruments for pitch control in straight and level flight?
Attitude indicator and VSI

327

Which is the primary power control instrument in straight and level flight?
ASI

328

For maintaining level flight, which pitch instrument will be least appropriate for
determining a pitch change?
ASI

329

If the gyroscopic heading indicator is inoperative, which instrument will give the primary
bank information in straight and level flight?
Magnetic compass

330

When entering a constant air speed climb, which is the primary instrument for pitch
indication?
Attitude indicator

331

When entering a constant air speed climb, which is the primary instrument for power
indication?
Tachometer or Manifold pressure gauge (MPG)

332

When entering a constant air speed climb, which is the primary instrument for bank
indication?
Heading Indicator

333

What is the primary bank instrument once the standard rate turn is established?
Turn coordinator

334

What is the primary bank instrument for establishing a standard rate turn?
Attitude indicator

335

Which instrument cant be used for maintaining a turn once the turn is established?
Attitude indicator
22

336

What is the primary pitch instrument while establishing a level standard turn?
Altimeter

337

What is the initial primary bank instrument while establishing a standard rate turn?
Attitude indicator

338

What is the primary bank instrument when entering a constant airspeed climb from a
straight and level flight?
Heading Indicator

339

What are the supporting bank instruments when entering a constant airspeed climb from a
straight and level flight?
Attitude indicator and turn coordinator

340

What is the primary pitch instrument during a stabilized climbing turn at cruise climb
speed?
Air speed indicator

341

Which instruments are not used for pitch control once the climb is stabilized?
Power instruments (Tachometer or MPG)

342

Speed of sound at sea level and stratospheric conditions are respectively


660 and 575 knots

343

The effect of increase in Mach No wrt stability is


That it becomes increasingly unstable

344

The effect of critical Mach No is that


At critical Mach No, the shock wave is formed on the wing and compressibility effect
becomes more apparent and the movement of C.P affects the pitch change and there is a
reduction in downwash

345

The swept wing design helps the critical Mach No to be


Raised

346

In a swept wing the shock waves first appears at the


Root

347

An increase in temperature at constant Mach No will result in


Increase in TAS

348

A decrease in temperature at constant Mach No will result in


Decrease in TAS

349

If the OAT changes with the Mach No constant, the IAS will
Remain unchanged

350

At a constant flight level


The mach meter and IAS complement each other
23

351

While flying at a constant FL and constant Mach No, the IAS will
Remain unchanged

352

A mach meter uses


The same Pitot and static port of the ASI

353

While flying at constant Mach No, the TAS decrease in cold air because
The speed of sound is reduced in cold air

354

Mmo stands for


Maximum operating mach number

355

The speed of sound in air is proportional to


The absolute temperature (A= 38.92K)

356

The formula to find the speed of sound in varying condition is


New A / Old A = NewK / OldK

357

The stability about the lateral, longitudinal and vertical axes are respectively known as
Longitudinal stability, lateral stability and directional stability

358

Longitudinal stability, lateral stability and directional stability are respectively controlled by
Elevators, ailerons and rudder

359

Transport category a/c are


More stable than light a/c

360

In trimmed condition, the net moment acting on the a/c is


Zero

361

In stabilized condition, the net moment acting on the a/c is


Zero

362

Trimming of an a/c is normally attributed to


Trimming tabs

363

Whenever an a/c is displaced from its normal position, the air loads acting on it will damp
out the motion is termed as
Aerodynamic damping

364

Aerodynamic damping greatly affects the a/cs


Dynamic stability

365

An a/c posses
Static and dynamic stabilities

366

Rules regarding Registration and marking of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part IV
24

367

Rules regarding airworthiness of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules


Part VI

368

Rules regarding investigation of accidents of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part X

369

Rules regarding general safety conditions of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part III

370

Rules regarding general conditions of flying of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part II

371

Rules regarding radio telegraph apparatus of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part VII

372

Rules regarding Aerodromes can be found in Indian Aircraft rules


Part XI

373

Rules regarding Air Transport Service can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part XIII

374

Rules regarding log books can be found in Indian Aircraft rules


Part IX

375

Rules regarding personnel of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft rules


Part V

376

Rules regarding engineering inspection,, operators of a/c can be found in Indian Aircraft
rules
Part XIII-A

377

Rules regarding aeronautical beacons and ground light can be found in Indian Aircraft rules
Part VIII

378

Issue of special regulatory provision/special directions by DGCA can be found in


Part XII A

379

After being displaced, if the a/c returns to its normal position, it is known as
Statically stable

380

After being displaced, if the a/c continues in the direction of the displacement, it is known as
Statically unstable

381

After being displaced, if the a/remains in its displaced position, it is known as


Neutral static stability

382

Static stability is
The initial tendency an a/c displays after it has been displaced from its normal position
25

383

Dynamic stability is defined as


The movement with respect to time of an a/c in response to its static stability following a
displacement from a given position

384

If the oscillations damp out after being displaced, the a/c has
Dynamic stability

385

If the oscillations increase after being displaced, the a/c has


Dynamically unstable

386

If the oscillations remain the same after being displaced, the a/c has
Neutral Dynamic Stability

387

Static longitudinal stability is defined as the


Inbuilt tendency of the a/c to return to its trimmed condition after being disturbed in Pitch
conditions, without any input from the pilot

388

The stability which is desirable throughout the a/c speed range is


Static longitudinal stability

389

If the a/c continues to diverge from its trimmed condition after being disturbed in Pitch
conditions the a/c is known as
Statically longitudinally unstable a/c

390

If the a/c continues in the disturbed condition of whatever AoA from its trimmed condition
after being disturbed in Pitch conditions
Is known as Longitudinally Neutrally Statically Stable

391

Longitudinal dihedral is
The angle between the chord lines of tail plane and main plane

392

When an a/c is trimmed for Static longitudinal stability, there will be always
A down load on the tail plane

393

The balanced forces conditions on Static longitudinal stable a/c


Dragline above thrust line, lift behind weight and a tail load

394

An a/c has 8 tones of lift produced. The CP is 4 m away from the CG. What is the tail load
experienced on the tail plane whose CP is 8 meters from the a/c CG
4 Tones

395

The factors affecting the Static longitudinal stability are


Position of CG, CP, position of tail plane, and wing downwash

396

As the CG moves forward, the Static longitudinal stability


Increases

397

As the CG moves forward, the stick force


Increase
26

398

If the CG is too forward, the a/c at low air speeds will experience
Nose heaviness

399

The above condition will result in


High speed for landing to provide elevator authority to flare out

400

If the CG moves aft the


Stability decreases and the stick forces reduce

401

If the CG of the a/c is at its neutral point, the a/c will show
Static neutral stability

402

The aft movement of CG from neutral point will make the a/c
Statically longitudinally unstable

403

The position of CP is a function of


AoA

404

The range of movement of CP depends on


The camber of the aerofoil

405

If the CP is behind CG, the a/c will be


More stable

406

If the CP is ahead of CG, the a/c will be


Less stable

407

The degree of longitudinal stability is determined by


The interaction between CG, area and position of tailpane

408

The CP of the tail plane


Does not vary much in flight as it is symmetrical in shape

409

If the nose pitches up in flight,


The downwash angle increases and the effective AoA of the tail plane will be reduced

410

For statically longitudinally stable a/c


The pitching moment must decrease as the AoA increases

411

The aft movement of CG will


Reduce the degree of static longitudinal stability

412

In an a/c having stick free static longitudinal stability


The control surfaces have their own freedom to find their own position depending upon the
aerodynamic forces acting on them, after a disturbance

413

In an a/c having stick fixed static longitudinal stability


The a/c will have a natural tendency to return to its original trimmed position after a
disturbance
27

414

Stick free static longitudinal stability is applicable


Only to a/c with manual flying control

415

Stick free static longitudinal stability is not applicable to power controlled a/c because
The power controlled control surfaces are not free to float

416

Stick free static longitudinal stability and stick fixed static longitudinal stability are not
applicable
To a/c with PCU operated flying controls

417

If the position of CG is fixed, then the degree of longitudinal static stability will
Remain constant for any deflection angle of elevator but the change in pitching moment will
alter the lift coefficient at which the equilibrium will occur

418

For an a/c which posses stick position stability, in order to reduce the AoA, the control
column
Must be moved forward and trim at higher speeds

419

For an a/c, which posses stick position stability, in order to maintain level flight,
Increasing forward stick force will have to be applied as the speed increase

420

In manually controlled a/c, the control stick forces are depend upon
The basic stick force stability where the force is independent of the air speed and the trim
tab position which varies with speed

421

For an a/c, which posses stick position instability, in order to trim at higher airspeeds?
The control column should be moved aft

422

If positive stick stability exists, and correctly trimmed, with increasing EAS
Less and less nose up tab is required.

423

DOWN SPRING
Is a pre loaded spring that tends to rotate the elevators down and increase the air speed stick
force stability without changing the static longitudinal stability

424

In long range cruise, at constant temperature and Mach No. the TAS will
Decrease as the flight progresses

425

Which is true regarding Mach no. flight for long cruise?


Light a/c should fly at low mach No. and heavy a/c may fly at higher mach no.

426

The climb to change over level is done at


Constant IAS and TAS decreases

427

The climb over change over level is done at


A constant mach No. and TAS decreases.

428

The initial descend of a jet a/c is done at


A constant Mach No.
28

429

While descending on a constant Mach No.


The IAS and TAS increases

430

While descending on a constant IAS


Mach No. and TAs decreases

431

Altimeters are calibrated to read


100, 1000, 10000 ft

432

The maximum allowable tolerance in Altimeter is


+ 20 ft.

433

When does an altimeter require service/maintenance?


If the current setting on the altimeter and the known airport elevation differs in excess of
+ 50ft

434

When flying from a warm area to a cold area, the altimeter will read
High (High-low-High)

435

In N-hemisphere, you are drifting starboard; you are flying towards an area of
Low pressure

436

Continued drift towards starboard in N-hemisphere over a long period for an uncorrected
altimeter will
Read high

437

What is the altimeter setting for excess atmospheric pressure?


Set 31.00, increase ceiling by 100 ft VIS 1/4 S.M for each 0.10" Hg over 31.00" Hg

438

If the air is colder than standard, the true altitude will be


Lower than he indicated altitude

439

If the air is warmer than the standard, the true altitude will be
Higher than the indicated altitude

440

In any region, Pilots fly


Indicated altitude

441

Pressure Altimeters are calibrated to register true altitude under


ISA conditions

442

In very cold conditions, the altimeter may read


20% less than the true altitude

443

The indicated altitude in very cold temperature is


6400 ft

444

The correction to the indicated altitude is based on


Pressure altitude
29

445

Density altitude is
Pressure altitude corrected for temperature

446

While flying through valleys, the indicated altitude may be


Higher than the true altitude or the true altitude will be less than that of the Indicated altitude

447

In severe mountain wave, the indicated altitude may read as high as


3000 ft higher than the true altitude

448

While entering an intense mountain wave downdraft, the altimeter will not register the
descent
Until the a/c has descended the altitude level equal to the alttimeter error caused by the
mountain wave

449

Pressure altitude is the altitude indicated by the altimeter when


29.90" Hg is set (1013 Hp)

450

Indicated altitude is obtained when


Current barometric pressure is set on the dial

451

True altitude is the exact height above the


Mean sea level

452

Absolute altitude is the exact height above the


The earth's surface (when the altimeter is set to the field elevation

453

Pitot pressure is
The sum of dynamic and atmospheric pressure

454

The upper and lower limit of Green arc in ASI are


VNO and Power off stalling speed with flaps and gears up (VSL)

455

White arc in the ASI indicates


Flaps extended speed range

456

The upper and lower limit of white arc are


VFE and Vso (Flaps extended speed and power off stalling speed with flaps and gear down

457

Which speed is not color coded in ASI?


Maneuvering speed

458

The enough method to correct IAS to get TAS is


Add 2 % of the IAS to the IAS for every 1000 feet

459

an a/c is flying at FL 100, IAS is 130 Knots, what is the TAS?


156 Kts [130 + 10(20/100 x 130)]

460

TAS is the
CAS corrected for density errors and temperature
30

461

To determine TAS,
Pressure altitude and OAT must be known

462

There is a complete block of Pitot source. ASI


Will read ZERO

463

The performance data on airplane flight manual is based on


Calibrated air speed

464

EAS is the
CAS corrected for compressibility factors

465

VSI is
Not an altitude indicating instrument

466

The lag in VSI before correct rate of climb/ descend is registered


6 - 9 seconds

467

Immediately after level off, the VSI will


Still show a rate of climb

468

A radio altimeter works on a signal which


Is received as echo at the transmitter which is now sending a different frequency

469

A RADALT works on the principles of


ECHO

470

RADALT in combination with pressure altimeter can be used to determine the position of
The pressure system by setting the pressure altimeter to the pressure altitude

471

The Gyro instruments are


Attitude indicator, Heading indicator & urn and slip indicator

472

Gyroscopes work on the Newton's


I law, II law and III law of motion

473

If the stick force is too low, the pilot will


Endanger the a/c by over stressing

474

The characteristics of gyroscope are


Rigidity (Inertia) and precession

475

The gyro instruments require a suction force of


4 -6 " Hg suction

476

The vacuum pressure gauge indicates the difference between


The outside air pressure and the air in the vacuum system

477

The advantage of Engine driven vacuum system is that


It starts operating as soon as the engine is started
31

478

When the Gyro is operated by engine driven pump, it operates on


Positive pressure

479

In venturi driven vacuum system, the efficiency depends up on


The air speed

480

The venturi is fitted on the


Side of the airplane in a position to be in the airflow from the propeller

481

The Turn and Slip indicator is generally operated by


An electrically driven gyroscope

482

Attitude indicator and heading indicator are generally operated by


An engine driven vacuum system ia also available

483

If the engine driven vacuum pump fails,


A three way valve ties the venturi into the system automatically

484

Electric driven Gyro system is operated by


A.C from engine driven alternators / generators

485

Gyroscopic inertia is the property of a rotating body


To maintain its plane of rotation if undisturbed

486

Precession is
The property of a rotating body, when a force is applied perpendicular to its plane of
rotation, to turn in the direction of rotation 90 degree to the axis of rotation and take up a
new plane of rotation parallel to the applied force

487

The disadvantage of engine driven Gyro is that


It fails to give any indication in the event of engine failure

488

One precaution to be taken before aerobatics is that


They should be caged to avoid tumbling

489

If the stick force is too low, the pilot will


Endanger the a/c by over stressing

490

If the gyro instruments are operated by engine driven vaccum system


A stand by venturi system is also available

491

The air used to rotate the gyro is


Filtered air

492

Which gyro are preffered for aertobatic flight?


Electrically driven as they will not tumble

493

Abbrupt braking should be avided because, they will


Imparrt acceleration or decceleration loads on gyros
32

494

In heading indicator, the gyro spins about the


Horizontal axis at 12000 RPM

495

The Heading Indicator is


Not North- seeking and must be synchronized with the magnetic compass at the beggning of
a flight

496

The Heading Indicator is caged by


Pushing the knob in

497

Turning the knob in the Heading Indicator causes


The compass card to rotate

498

The advantage of a Heading Indicator during a turn is that


Precise turning can be made or stopped at any desired heading as the instrument responds
instantly without any lag

499

Precession error is caused by


Frictional forces in the instrument

500

Precession causes creep or drift approximately


3 degree in 15 minutes

501

Apparent precession in Heading Indicator is caused by


The rotation of earth

502

Apparent precession causes


Apparent drift or precession which varies with latitude

503

The value of apparent precession at equator and poles respectively


Zero and 15 degree per hour

504

While synchronizing the Heading Indicator with the compass


The a/c should be in St. & level conditions to ensure there is no compass error

505

The precession error must be corrected for


Every 15 minutes

506

A vacuum driven Heading Indicator should not be used for take off until it has rin for
5 minutes

507

A vacuum driven Heading Indicator requires


4-6 of Hg

508

If the Heading Indicator is operated by venturi


It cannot be used for take off at all

509

Spill proof gyros are reliable up to


33

85 degree bank, glide and climb angles


510

Spill proof gyros operated beyond 85 degrees


Must be re set

511

Attitude Indicator shows the relation between


Wings and nose of the a/c and the horizon of the earth

512

The Artificial Horizon can show


0-90 degree left or right bank

513

The Attitude Indicator is mounted


Horizontally and spins on the vertical axis

514

The Artificial Horizon is mounted


On Universal gimbals free of Pitching and rolling axes

515

In Artificial Horizon, the miniature a/c can be


Adjusted by a Knob at the bottom

516

In the caged position,


The gyro is locked with miniature a/c showing level flight

517

An Artificial Horizon needs


4 or more Hg of vacuum and 5 minutes to get to operational speed

518

An Electrically driven Artificial Horizon is operational


Immediately

519

An electrical driven attitude indicator has


No limit on pitch and roll and accurately indicates pitch up to 85 degree and will not tumble
even at 360 degree roll

520

What are the limitations of traditional attitude indicator?


Dives/climbs up to 70 degree and banks up to 90 degree beyond which it will tumble and
needs caging
In a skidding turn,
The gyro precise towards the inside of the turn

521
522

After the recovery from a skidding turn, the Artificial Horizon will
Still show a turn in the direction of skid

523

An a/c with static stability will require


Increased stick force as the load factor increases

524

In a normal turn, the Artificial Horizon will


Precess towards the inside of the turn and will be corrected by erecting mechanisms after the
turn

525

Acceleration and deceleration may


34

Induce precession errors


526

During acceleration, attitude indicator


The horizon bar moves down and shows a false climb

527

During deceleration, attitude indicator


The horizon bar moves up and shows a false Descent

528

In a side slip
There is not enough rat of turn for the excessive bank

529

In a skidding
There is not enough bank for the excessive rate of turn

530

In Turn and Slip Indicator, the rotor RPM is


9000 RPM

531

In Turn and Slip Indicator


The gyro is mounted vertically and rotates in the horizontal axis

532

In Turn and Slip Indicator, the needle and ball indicate


The rate of turn and amount of bank

533

Rate one turn means


360 degree in two minutes or three degree in one second or 180 degree in one minute

534

A Turn coordinator
Reacts to roll and yaw

535

A Turn coordinator gyro is


Canted approximately at 35 degree instead of rotating horizontally as it is the case in a Turn
and Slip Indicator

536

Which of the instruments combines the function of Directional gyro and magnetic compass?
Gyrossyn

537

Gyrossyn provides
Stable compass heading in rough air

538

The qualities of a Gyrossyn are


It is not affected by northerly turning errors and north seeking and free from oscillating
errors and does not require re-setting
A Gyrossyn incorporates
A flux valve that senses earths magnetic lines of forces through EMI

539
540

A flux valve is
Pendulously installed, usually at the wing tip

541

The directional gyro in Gyrossyn is


Slaved to the earths magnetic lines of forces by the signals received from the flux valve
35

542

Gyrossyn compass is
Un- reliable in Polar Regions

543

Gyrossyn compass has


Two sets of operating system. As a complete system when the flux valve is open and only as
a directional gyro when the flux valve is shut off

544

The indicated stall speed is unaffected by


C.G, Weight of a/c, angle of bank

545

The stagnation point moves


Aft as the AoA increases and forward as the AoA decreases

546

The AoA indicator has


A red left zone as AoA increase and a right zone when the AoA decrease

547

AoA indicator shows


Current position of the stagnation point and the position at which the a/c will stall

548

The lower limit of the Critical Mach No. is


The maximum operating Mach No (MMO)

549

The formula to find the speed of sound from OAT is


A = [644 + 1.2t] where t is the OAT in degree centigrade

550

The formula to calculate the ISA temperature is


ISA = 15 [Pressure Altitude x 2/1000]

551

Mach No is
TAS/Local speed of sound

552

The pressure in the pressure capsule is


Dynamic pressure which is the difference between the Pitot and Static pressures [P S]

553

TAS is a function of
Dynamic pressure and local air density

554

The Mach meter measures the


Difference between the dynamic and static pressures

555

The Mach No in terms of Pitot-static pressure is given by


Mach No = [ P S ] / S

556

The variation in CAS, IAS and MACH No under ISA and increasing altitude is given by

36

557

The effect of increasing altitude on LSS is


LSS decreases as the altitude increases

558

The variation in CAS, IAS and MACH No under ISA and decreasing altitude is given by
The opposite (mirror image of the above given diagram.

559

Two airplanes are traveling at same Mach No but at different flight levels, then
The aero plane at the lower level will have the higher TAS

560

If an a/c climbs or descends through an isothermal layer

561

If an a/c climbs or descends through an inversion layer

37

562

The capsules in the Mach meter are


Air speed capsule connected to Pitot tube and aneroid capsule connected to static changes

563

The critical Mach No in the Mach meter is indicated by a


Lubber line which is adjustable

564

In Mach meter

564

The accuracy of mach meter during normal operations is


+ 0.01M

565

The Altitude Alerting System provides


Aural and Visual warning of an aeroplane reaching or deviating from a pre selected altitude

566

In sensitive ASI
Mechanical linkage is used

567

In servo ASI
Electrical linkage is used

568

The color coding of ASI are

569

The blue line in an ASI of a twin engine aeroplane indicates


The maximum rate of climb speed with one engine inoperative

570

The various corrections in ASI are

38

571

A block in pitot during a climb and descend

572

A block in static during a climb and descend

573

The leaks in pitot static system will result in

39

574

The different GPWS modes are

575

The various GPWS limits are

40

576

Manifold pressure and boost pressure are measured respectively in


Inches of mercury and Pounds per square inch

577

MAP of a super charged engine is


The absolute pressure

578

Engine torque
Acts on the output shaft of the engine and can used for power control

579

The Parameters to be monitored for a Turbo prop engine are


RPM, Torque, EGT, Oil Pressure & temperature, fuel pressure, flow and quantity of fuel

580

The Parameters to be monitored for a Gas Turbine engine are


EPR, N1, N2, N3, EGT, Oil Temperature, Fuel Pressure & temperature,

581

The turn coordinator is


Not an attitude indicator

582

The turn coordinator


Reacts to pitch and roll and gives no pitch information

583

When one wing suddenly goes down slightly, the reactions on


Turn coordinator will react instantly but turn and slip indicator will not react until there is
some yaw

584

The basic difference between a turn coordinator and a Turn & Slip indicator is that
In turn coordinator the axis is set approximately at 30 degrees to the for and aft axis of a/c

585

Comparing the miniature a/c in turn coordinator and in artificial horizon


In turn coordinator, the miniature a/c rolls in the direction of roll but in artificial horizon, the
miniature a/c is fixed and the horizon bar moves

586

The gyroscope of Turn coordinator


Has RPM of 6000 and operated by D.C

587

TCAS II is
Not connected to the Auto pilot

588

If TCAS responds to Mode A only


It is assumed that both a/c are in the same flight level and traffic advisories are generated

589

The TCAS protected airspace defined horizontally and vertically by


Time to Convergence and ATC vertical separation minima (Usually 400- 750 ft)

590

TA & RA in TCAS will appear


30 45/ 15-35 seconds & 20 -30/5- 20 seconds from possible collision

591

TCAS uses
41

Mode S transponder and identification is sent in every one second and the broadcast is
known as SQUITTER
592

The TCAS equipped aeroplanes will monitor for frequency of


1090 MHz

593

TCAS is able to track


Individual replies

594

The display in TCAS are

595

In TCAS, own a/c is given by


Cyan or white a/c symbol

596

The nominal maximum tracking range of TCAS is


27 high closing speed a/c/30 within 14 NM ( in high traffic area it may be 5 NM only)

597

TCAS II uses a
Separate VSI which uses a color crystal display

598

The RA is commanded by
The part of the VSI turning red and the green sector shows the required rate of
climb/descent

599

The altitude selection switch on TCAS has


No effect on the generation of the advisories

600

Below certain altitudes

601

RA and TA will be generated

602

The acceleration error/take off error in an artificial horizon is that


A false climbing turn to the right during the take off phase of the flight

603

The turning error in an artificial horizon is that


42

A reduced turn while banking left or right


604

The freedoms of gyroscopes are

605

A space gyro has


Freedom to move in all three axes

606

A tied gyro
Is a space gyro with external control

607

Direction Indicator is a
Tied Gyro

608

Earth Gyro is
A tied gyro controlled by gravity of earth

609

Artificial horizon is
An earth gyro

610

A rate gyro has


One degree of freedom only and the rotation is 90 degree removed from the axis

611

Turn and balance indicator, and turn coordinators are


Rate gyros

612

INS stabilized platforms employs


Rate integrating gyros

613

The real wander in gyros are caused by


The physical deviation of the spin axis and generally is a result of friction

614

Apparent wander is caused by


The rotation of the earth

615

The drift in mid latitudes is given by


Drift = 15.04 x sine of the latitude

616

The topple in mid latitudes is given by


Topple = 15.04 x cosine of the latitude

617

The gyro topple at equator and poles are respectively


360 degrees in 24 Hr. and ZERO
43

618

Vertical gyros
Suffer from topple but not from drift

619

Horizontal axis gyros


Experience drift but no topple

620

The transport wander is given by

621

622

623

AoA indicator doesn't relate to


Air speed

624

The stagnation point moves


Chord wise along the undersurface of the wing as the AoA changes

625

A Mach meter measures airspeed by


Correlating dynamic and static pressure

626

The Mach meter consists of


Two aneroid capsules connected to a/c static pressure system

627

In a/c the electrical system is generally


Grounded (single wire) system

628

The strength an electromagnet is determined by


Ampere - turns
44

629

The magnetizing force of a 5 amp 200 Turn electromagnet is


1000 amp. turns

630

Polarity of electromagnets is determined by


Left hand rule for coils

631

Permeability is
The ability of a substance to carry magnetic lines of forces

632

The permeability of air and Permalloy respectively are


1 and 80,000

633

Reluctance is
The opposite nature of permeability

634

Magnetic flux is equal to


M.M.F/ Reluctance or MMF x Permeability

635

Lenz' law is
Another form of law of conservation of energy

636

In transformers, the core is made of thin laminations to


Prevent eddy currents flowing out ( It will cause the core heating up)

637

In an a.c circuit
The current doesn't flow through the capacitor

638

In d.c circuits
The current flows through capacitors momentarily and then reaches saturation

639

An Inductor in an a.c circuit


Resists the changes in the current flow

640

The function of a capacitor in a power plant circuit is to


Store surges of current and release them when the voltage drops

641

The essential component of starting system is


Capacitor

642

To reduce radio interference


Filter capacitors are used

643

In a capacitive circuit
Current leads the voltage by 180 dgree

644

While charging a capacitor


Current is flowing but voltage is held down

645

In a fully charged capacitor,


45

Current is Zero
646

In a pure circuit, the lag of voltage


Can't be 180 degree due to some resistance

647

A resonant circuit has


Zero reactance (XL = XC) only R is present in the circuit

648

Inductive reactance in a.c circuit causes


Voltage to lead the current

649

The resonance frequency is determined by


f = 1/ 2Pai Root of L x C

650

In a resonating circuit
XL = Vc

651

As the frequency increases,


Xc will decrease and XL will increase

652

Three phase a.c is converted to d.c by


Connecting the three phases to a three phase full wave rectifier

653

A.C is converted to d.c by using


Diodes and filters

654

A full wave rectifier ( three phase) has


6 diodes

655

A shunt type generator has


The field windings connected in parallel with the armature

656

The voltage of a generator depends on


The speed of the armature, no. of windings and field strength

657

The field strength of the generator is controlled by


Changing the current through a variable resistor

658

Voltage control unit for light a/c is


Vibrator type

659

Reverse current cut out relay is used


As an automatic switch to open the main generator circuit whenever the generator voltage
drops slightly below the battery voltage

660

when the generator first starts running, the reverse current cut out relay points are
Open

661

When the generator voltage remains above that of the battery, it will
Charge the battery and supply all the system load
46

662

If the generator is nor cut off from battery when Idling or stopped
The battery will get discharged

663

Which device is used to prevent the generator current output from becoming excessive?
Current regulator

664

To regulate the voltage


Carbon-pile voltage regulator is used

665

A rheostat is
a variable resistor

666

A typical 24 V d.c system employs


Differential reverse current relay

667

D.C motors can be used as


Generators and motors

668

D.C motor types generally found are


Shunt wound, series wound and compound wound

669

The shunt wound motor is also called


A constant speed motor ( Same RPM under variety of loads)

670

The speed in shunt wound motor is made constant when


The back emf is equal to the applied voltage

671

When the mechanical load to the motor increases


The current through the armature also increases

672

As the motor speed increases


The armature current decreases and field current increase

673

For starting the engine


Series wound D.C motors are used (Because high torque is required)

674

What precaution must be observed while using a series wound motor?


It shouldn't be operated without mechanical load applied

675

In a series motor, the speed


Varies according to the load

676

Series motors can't be used with loads


Requiring constant speed

677

A compound wound motor has


Good starting torque and stable speed characteristics

678

Which motor is useful when heavy starting load and steady RPM is required?
47

Compound wound
679

The negative and positive plate of a storage battery is made of


Lead & lead Peroxide (PbO2)

680

The P.D between the plates of a lead acid battery is approximately


2.2 V

681

The Positive and negative plates of N.C battery is made of


Nickel Hydroxide mixed with special type of Graphite and cadmium oxide and iron oxide
mixture

682

The working potential of N.C battery is


1.2 V

683

The capacity of an N.C battery depends upon


The total plate area and plate thickness

684

The advantage of N.C battery is


It has a long life and can be left in any charged condition for several years without any
appreciable deterioration

685

In Lead acid batteries, separators are made of


Wood or glass fiber wool mat and porous

686

The positive plates are


Softer and less durable

687

The electrolyte in Lead acid Battery is


Sulphuric acid and distilled water

688

During charging, a Lead acid Battery produces


Hydrogen

689

During discharge oxygen is formed at


Positive plate

690

Storage cells are rated according to


Voltage and ampere hour capacity

692

The ampere hour rate is based upon a discharge period of


5 Hours

693

A 34 amp- Hr. battery can supply


6.8 A for 5 hours

694

When the area and thickness of two batteries are same, the capacity depends upon
The number of plates

695

The S.G of a fully charged Lead acid Battery is


48

1.300 (1.275 and 1.300)


696

When is a Lead acid Battery considered low charged for a/c?


S.g less than 1.240

697

If a battery shows S.G less than 1.7 and discharges immediately, it means
The battery is discharged or worn out

698

An a/c storage battery is charged by


Constant voltage method

699

The voltage of a fully charged cell, in a 24 V system, will be


26.4 V

700

To consider a battery fully charged, the voltage difference between the genertor and battery
should be
1.6 V

701

After starting the engine,


The generator amperage is increased to take care of the additional load and battery is not
required to supply the
power to the circuit

702

During normal operation, the battery


Doesn't supply any power for a/c's electrical system

703

During normal operation, if the battery is switched off,


The a/c electrical system will continue to operate satisfactorily

704

During normal operation, a battery serves to


Stabilize the electrical system by absorbing a surge of voltage and filling in when the
voltage falls momentarily

705

A constant voltage charging system may be employed to charge large number of batteries
provided that
The source is capable of maintaining voltage and all the batteries have the same voltage
rating

706

In a constant voltage charging system, the cells are connected in


Parallel

707

In constant ampere charging system, all batteries must have


Same ampere rating

708

In constant ampere charging system, the batteries are connected in


Series

709

In the process of charging,


The low capacity battery will be charged first

710

During Charging, the temperature should be kept


49

Below 110 degree F


711

What is the procedure for charging batteries by constant current system?


Connect to a source for given amperage for a specified no. of hours and reduce the
amperage in steps

712

While mixing acid and water, the correct procedure is to


Pour acid into water carefully

713

The metal structures of a/c in the vicinity of the battery is protected by


Bituminous acid proof paint

714

The venting system should be designed such that


The hydrogen concentration will not exceed 1 % under any flight condition

715

When a battery is located in a sealed compartment


Scoop air is taken in vented on the opposite side

716

The purpose of shielding around a magneto is


To receive and ground the radiation from the ignition system

717

Magneto ignition is superior to battery ignition because


It produces a hotter spark and is a self contained device

718

In radial engines, the front row of spark plugs are fired by


Right hand magneto

719

In dual ignition system


The magnetos are fired at the same time or approximately at the same time

720

In staggered ignition
The two sparks occur at different times

721

The magneto material made up of


Alnico

722

The no. of high voltage impulses produced by the magnet is equal to


The no. of poles

723

The no. of cylinder firing per complete revolution of the engine is eqal to
1 1/2 No. of engine cylinders

724

E-gap is defined as
The no. of degrees between the neutral position and the position where the contact point
opens

725

E-gap varies between


5 degree to 17 degree

726

A magneto is a form of
50

A.C generator
727

The spark produced by magneto has


Alternate polarity

728

A magneto has
Primary (a few turns) and a secondary 13000 fine wire

729

A capacitor in a magneto is connected


In between primary and secondary windings

730

What is the method of connecting the wire of the primary in a magneto


One end is grounded to the core and other end is connected to the breaker assembly

731

When the breaker points are closed,


Current flows from coil to ground and from ground to coil

732

How is the secondary winding connected?


One end of the wire is connected (grounded) inside the coil and the other end is connected to
the distributor

733

Which statement is correct w.r.t. a magneto?


The ratio of the magneto shaft speed to that of the engine crankshaft speed is equal to the no.
of cylinders divided by twice the no. of poles on the rotating magnet
Magneto shaft speed
Crank shaft speed

No. of cylinders
2 x No. of poles

734

The contact points in the breaker assembly is actuated by


Rotating cam

735

A four stroke engine fires each cylinder once in every


Two turns of the crankshaft

736

For a twelve cylinder four - pole magneto, the magneto speed is


1 1/2 times the speed of crank shaft ( see above formula in 733)

737

A magneto has 4 poles. It will produce ------- sparks for each turn of cam
4 sparks

738

The purpose of the primary capacitor in a magneto is to


Prevent arcing

739

The primary capacitor is connected


Across the contact points

740

In a magneto the distributor is driven at a speed


Which is of the crank shaft speed

741

The magneto sparking order depends upon


51

The No. of distributor cell


742

The "coming up speed" is defined as


The speed of rotating magneto to start producing sparks

743

The "coming up speed" of magnetos varies from


100 to 200 RPM

744

A low tension magneto has


Only one primary winding and low voltage is transformed into high voltage by a
transformer

745

The nature of winding on rotating type magneto is


The primary and secondary are wound on the same core

746

For a high tension magneto


The current produced in the primary induces a high voltage in the secondary when the
primary circuit is broken

747

Radial type engine employ


Single type magneto

748

In- line engines generally employ


Double type magnetos

749

Magneto safety gap is equipped to


Provide a return ground when the secondary circuit is open

750

The high speed required for magneto during engine start is provided by
Impulse coupling

751

The "Ignition Boosters' are


A source of external high tension current for starting purpose

752

A booster coil in a magneto is


A small induction coil providing small shower of sparks to the spark plugs until the magneto
fires properly

753

The booster coil is connected to


Starter switch

754

In modern a/c booster coil is replaced by


Induction vibrator

755

The advantage of induction vibrator is that it


Reduces the tendency of the magneto to flash over at high altitudes

756

If the switch wire is disconnected, the magneto is in


"Switch- On" position
52

757

Flash over is defined as


The jumping over of high voltage in a distributor at high altitudes

758

To reduce burning and erosion of spark plugs


Resistor type spark plugs are used

759

The 'heat range" refers to the


Ability to transfer heat from firing end to cylinder head

760

A hot engine requires a


Cold spark plug and vice versa

761

If a hot spark plug is fitted to a hot engine, the result


May be a pre- ignition

762

If a cold spark plug is fitted to a cold engine, the probable result will be
The fouling of the spark plug

763

The principle factor in spark plug servicing is


Maintaining the width of the gap

764

While using spark plugs , the most important thing to remember is to


Use the correct spark plug gap specified by the manufacturers

765

If a spark plug has been dropped on a hard surface


It should be rejected

766

Which of the following should not be used for cleaning spark plugs?
CCl4

767

A bomb test is used for testing


Spark plugs

768

A spark plug which is operating under normal atmospheric condition


May fail under pressure due to increased resistance

769

For tightening spark plugs the torque required is


For 18 mm 360- 420 lbs and for 14 mm 240-300lb

770

After the installation of spark plug, there must be


A magneto check

771

Direct hand cranking starter is used for engines


250 H.P or less or Gear ratio of 6 : 1

772

The automatic disengage starting system uses an


Adjustable torque- overload release clutch

773

Whenever the left engines are started,


The doors must be closed and locked
53

774

The right engine may be started and run with


The passenger steps extended and nose wheel blocked

775

The correct procedure to start large engine is


The engine must be rotated with starter with magneto in the 'Off 'position until 12 propeller
blades have passed a fixed point

776

If the propeller is seen to stop suddenly during the starting operation, the next step is
Starter switch must be released immediately

777

The propeller is seen to stop suddenly during starting process of large engines, the cause
may be
A hydraulic lock in the lower cylinders

778

An induction fire is indicated by


A rapid rise in the Carburetor Air Temperature

779

If an induction fire is detected, the correct procedure is


Release starting switch immediately, throttle closed, Mixture turned to Idle cut Off, Booster
pump turned Off and ignition switch turned Off

780

An engine that developed induction fire may be


Restarted after 30 seconds or more

781

If an engine doesn't start aster 30-45 seconds of the rotation with the starter
Wait at least 3 minutes before attempting another start

782

During the waiting period


Turn the booster pump and ignition switch off

783

The waiting period is to allow


The cooling of the starter

784

If the engine oil pressure is not indicated within 30 seconds ( 60 seconds in winter)
The engine must be shut down immediately

785

Which engine is started first?


No. 2 engine

786

For pressure carburetor equipped engine, while starting, the mixture control is set at
Idle cut - Off

787

What time should one wait after turning on the fuel booster pump
10- 15 seconds

788

While starting
Keep the throttle 1 1/2 inch open

789

If the engine is hot


54

Allow the engine to run one or two revolution and then apply Prime
790

As soon as the engine starts,


Hold the prime and set 500 - 800 RPM slowly set the mixture control to auto lean

791

After the start of the engine, the engine starts to die, the correct procedure is
Set mixture control to IDLE CUT OFF

792

Under the above condition, the moving of throttle rapidly is not encouraged because
This may damage the carburetor balance diaphragm

793

For warming up, set the throttle to


900-1000 RPM

794

When a L.P Air turbine starter is used,


The air flow the starter rotates the N2 Rotors

795

The start switch in turbine engines is


Held in the start position until the Light off occurs and the output shaft speed reaches the
calibrated cut off point

796

The flow of air to the starter is stopped


Automatically and then the Ground start switch is released

797

The L.P Air turbine starter employs


Radial inward flow turbine

798

A H.P air turbine starter is equipped with


An axial flow turbine

799

The source of H.P. air turbine starter is


A High .Pressure ( 3000 Psi) bottle mounted on the a/c

800

The High pressure air bottle is usually available for


No 2 and No 3 engines

801

After the start of any of the engines ( No.2 or No .3)


The low pressure from the turbo compressor is fed to the airplane manifold, which is used
for starting the other engines

802

The air pressure required for fuel/air starter is approximately


300 Psi

803

The air pressure for fuel/air starter is obtained from


The high pressure bottle by means of a pressure regulator

804

In fuel/ air starter, the fuel accumulator is mounted on the


Starter

805

Manifold pressure is the


55

Absolute pressure of the fuel/air mixture just before it enters the intake port
806

The high performance engine operation is mainly monitored by


Manifold pressure

807

Absolute pressure is the pressure


Above vacuum

808

Gauge pressure is the pressure above


Ambient pressure

809

An a/c is said to have stick position instability when


The a/c requires the control column to be moved rearward to trim at high air speeds

810

The Manifold pressure gauge Pressure at sea level when the engine is not running will be
29.92" of Hg

811

When the engine is idling, Manifold pressure gauge may read


10 - 15" of Hg

812

Excessive Manifold pressure will result in


Excessive cylinder pressure and temperature

813

Naturally aspirated engine using variable pitch propeller must be equipped with
Manifold pressure gauge

814

The greatest pressure in the cylinder occurs


5 degree to 15 degree after TDC

815

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is defined as the


No. of pounds of fuel burnt per hour for each BHP produced

816

Unit of BSFC is
lb/HP/Hr (0.40 to 0.50 lb/HP/Hr)

817

BSFC is the highest during


Take off because a rich mixture is used

818

Weight/Power ratio of reciprocating engines vary between


1.0 to 2.0

819

Volumetric efficiency
Decreases as the RPM increases

820

The Volumetric efficiency for a naturally aspirated engine is approximately


75%

821

Valve overlap results in


Increased Volumetric efficiency
56

822

The power required to drive the propeller varies


Directly as the cube of the RPM

823

If the speed of the propeller is doubled, the power required will be


8 Times the initial power

824

At full throttle
Manifold pressure decreases and RPM increases

825

What correction should be applied to get the real power as the temperature increase or
decrease from the standard
1% increase of power for every 6 degree Celsius decrease of temperature & vice versa

826

If the engine is equipped with a super charger


Manifold mixture temperature must be observed

827

Humidity
Reduces the Maximum rated Power

828

Humidity factor for engine performance is not considerable


Above 5000 feet

829

Increase exhaust back pressure will


Decrease engine performance

830

Prior to Take off, the engine must be given


A magneto check and full power test

831

A magneto check is done at


1500-1600 RPM

832

The correct procedure for magneto check is


Both - Left - Both - Right - Both

833

The allowed magneto drop is


50-125 RPM

834

Wile doing magneto check of a constant speed propeller, the propeller should be in
High RPM ( Low Pitch)

835

The movement of the throttle from full open to close position should be done in
2 -3 seconds

836

After take off, the power setting must be changed to


Climb setting

837

Continuous climb on take off power setting will result in


Excessive CHT and Detonation

838

While reducing the power of a constant speed propeller


57

Reduce MP with throttle and then RPM with propeller control


839

When increasing power for a controllable pitch propeller


Increase the RPM with Propeller control and Increase Manifold pressure with throttle

840

For a controllable pitch propeller, when the throttle is moved forward


The propeller blade angle increases and the MP increase RPM remains the same

841

When the engine is operated at or near full power, the


Mixture control should be kept in Full Rich position ( To prevent Overheating)

842

When the power is reduced to let down, the mixture control should be placed in
Full rich position

843

At high altitudes, the mixture control should be placed


At a less rich position than it used to be at low altitudes

844

For a super charged engine, the mixture control position is indicated by


Manifold Pressure gauge

845

At a given RPM and power setting, the MP must be


Reduced as the altitude increases to maintain constant power

846

When an engine is operated at a higher RPM, in order to maintain a constant power


The MP must be reduced

847

The correct procedure for starting an engine is


Ignition - ON
Throttle 1/2",
Propeller pitch lever full forward -HIGH RPM
Mixture - Full Rich
Clear the propeller
Auxiliary fuel pump - Prime
Turn the Ignition Switch to START
When fuel flow reaches 2-4 gph
Start the engine
Turn the auxiliary fuel pump OFF

848

If the engine is warm


Turn the start switch first and then turn the Auxiliary fuel pump to prime

849

A vapour lock in the fuel system is indicated by


Fluctuation in the fluid flow

850

During starting in hot weather, if a vapour lock is detected,


The Auxiliary fuel pump should be switched on until the flow becomes normal

851

Warming up of the engine is done at


800 - 1000RPM
58

852

Which is the correct combination


Propeller control for RPM and Throttle for Manifold Pressure

853

During starting, if the engine is equipped with an oil cooler flaps


They should be in closed position until the engine is warm

854

If the engine is equipped with cowl flaps, during starting


They should be open

855

Before stopping, CHT should indicate


Some what under 400 degree F

856

An engine equipped with mixture control should be


Shut off by placing the control in the Idle Cut - OFF position

857

Immediately after the engine stops,


The ignition must be turned OFF

858

For a counter weight propeller, the propeller should be placed, shortly befor take off
At low RPM (High Pitch)

859

When the above procedure is followed


The oil will move to the engine and prevent congealing of oil in the cylinder during cold Wx

860

When the propeller position is in low RPM (counter weight)


The propeller cylinder moves forward where it will cover the piston

861

In the low RPM position, the cylinder is


Rearward

862

If the engine is cold, prime it


3 -4 times

863

Extremely cold engines, before starting


Should be pulled through by hand 4-6 times

864

Priming is done by
Pushing the throttle controls

865

While starting, the throttle must be


Pushed 1/4"

866

When there are two engines, the engine to be started first is


The left engine

867

Warming up is done at
800 - 1200 Rpm for two minutes ( 4 minutes in cold WX)

868

If the battery is low, before starting the right engine


Run the left engine above 1200 rpm to cut in the generator
59

869

If the engine doesn't start in the first few revolutions


Open the throttle in that engine with switch in the START position

870

If the engine doesn't start using the normal procedure


Re prime and repeat the process. If it still doesn't start, check for ignition malfunction

871

When the engine is warm, the correct procedure to start is


Don't prime the engine but turn the ignition switch on BOTH before engaging the starter

872

If electrical power is needed from generator while warming up


Warm up the engine at 1200 RPM (At which the generator cuts in)

873

Correct magneto check procedure is


2000 RPM, 15" M.P and drop in RPM should not exceed 125 RPM

874

When an engine looses MP without apparent cause, the cause and correction are
A carburetor Icing and use carburetor heat

875

During warm up, propeller controls should be


Moved through their normal ranges to check for proper operation and then leave it in the full
low pitch
(High RPM) position

876

If the Feathering action is to be checked on ground, the correct procedure is


Momentarily draw the propeller control to Fx ing position and allow the RPM not to drop
more than 1500 and then return to the normal operating position

877

During warm up, the electric pump should be


Switched off to make sure that the engine driven pumps are operating normally

878

During prior to take off, the electric fuel pumps


Should be turned on again to prevent loss of power during take off

879

An Idle cut off valve


Stops the fuel into the engine

880

After a flight or a few minutes of taxiing, the engine may be stopped by


Placing the mixture control in the Idle Cut Off position

881

An excessively hot engine should be switched off


Only after Idling for a short period

882

An engine over heat is indicated by


CHT & oil temperature gauge

883

After the engine is stopped,


The magneto switch should be kept in OFF position and all other switches should be
60

switched OFF only after that


884

The missing of the engine at high speed and load is due to


Increased MP and Cylinder pressure or a weak breaker point spring

885

A FLOATING POINT is
A condition where the breaker points do not close completely after they are opened by the
Cam

886

There is an excessive RPM during a magneto check. The reason may be


A faulty spark plug

887

A cold cylinder check will help to locate


The bad spark plug

888

A MAGIC WAND is
A temperature gauge using thermocouple

889

If the oil relief valve passage is blocked, it will result in


High Oil Pressure

890

A blue oil smoke emission indicates


Piston rings are worn

891

Operating the engine at high power and temperature will result in


Excessive oil consumption

892

Backfiring usually occurs when


Starting a cold engine

893

A backfiring can be caused by


An excessive lean mixture or a defect in carburetor or fuel control system or sticking of
intake valves

894

"After firing" is usually caused by


Excessive rich mixture or Over priming or poor ignition or improper timing

895

A leak in the exhaust valve can be detected by


A 'hissing' sound when the propeller is hand rotated

896

A change in blade angle by one degree will result in


Change of RPM between 60 and 90

897

Blade angle is the angle between


Chord and p[lane of rotation

898

AoA of a propeller is the


Angle between the Face of the blade and the direction of the relative Slip stream

899

Blade angle is
61

The sum of AoA and pitch angle


900

The pitch distribution (twist) is done to


Compensate the speed variation from hub to tip

901

Relative wind is the direction of the


Air wrt the movement of the airfoil

902

The normal AoA for a propeller may vary between


0 degree to 15 degree

903

In a power dive
The AoA of propeller is negative and will tend to hold back the aeroplane

904

In a steep climb with forward speed reduces


The AoA is increase

905

When the aeroplane is in steep climb or power dive, the aerodynamic efficiency is
Low

906

An adjustable propeller is suitable for an a/c for


Maximum distance and economy

907

The relative air motion is along the


Pitch angle

908

Effective pitch is defined as the


Actual distance the airplane will move forward during on revolution of the propeller in
flight

909

An a/c designed for fast climb and quick take off has
A low blade angle propeller

910

When an a/c with fixed pitch propeller dives forward, the forward speed of the a/c
Increases

911

The forward airspeed in the above case increases due to


Low AoA and reduction in both lift and drag

912

By increasing or decreasing the rotational speed, the propeller can absorb


Only a limited amount of excess power

913

Geometrical pitch is defined as


The distance an element of the propeller would advance through one revolution along a
helix having an angle equal to the blade angle

914

Geometrical pitch is mathematically calculated by


Geometrical pitch = 2 R Tan

62

915

The experimental mean pitch ( Zero thrust pitch) is defined as


The distance the propeller would advance in one revolution to give no thrust

916

Slip is defined as the


Difference between Geometrical pitch and effective mean pitch

917

Slip function is defined as


The ratio of the speed of advance through undisturbed air to the product of diameter and No.
of revolution (V/nD)

918

A fixed pitch propeller is made in


A single piece

919

An Adjustable pitch propeller can be adjusted


Only with tools when on ground when the engine is not operating

920

A controllable pitch propeller may be adjusted in pitch


When in flight or on ground when the engine is in operation

921

The pitch changing mechanism of controllable pitch propeller is operated


Mechanically/ hydraulically or electrically

922

For a constant speed propeller, pitch changing mechanism is operated


Hydraulically or electrically

923

The governor in constant speed propeller is operated with


RPM lever

924

When power is increase in a constant speed propeller aircraft, the blade angle is
Automatically increased to absorb the additional power

925

The forces acting on a propeller in flight are


Thrust, Centrifugal force and torsion

926

Centrifugal force tends to


Reduce the blade angle

927

The Centrifugal turning moment is used to


Reduce/ lower the blade angle

928

The tensional stress


Increases with the (RPM) square

929

The maximum efficiency that can be obtained using conventional engine and propellers is
approximately
92%

930

The power developed by the engine at the crank shaft is called


Brake H.P
63

931

Thrust H.P is defined as the


Actual amount of the power the propeller converts into thrust

932

Concerning thrust and torque, which is the correct statement?


Thrust force acts parallel to the axis of rotation of the propeller and torque acts parallel to
the plane of rotation of
the propeller

933

Propeller efficiency is defined as


The ratio of Thrust H.P to Torque H.P

934

At take off, the controllable pitch propeller is set at


Low pitch- High RPM to develop maximum power

935

The two pitch position propeller has two principle assemblies namely
The HUB assembly and the Counter weight & Bracket assembly

936

In two position pitch propeller, the blade angle is decreased by the


Action of the cylinder and piston assembly

937

In the cylinder and piston assembly,


The Engine oil enters the cylinder and pushes the piston connected to the counter weight
bracket, rotating the bracket inward and turn the blade to a lower angle

938

The blade from low angle is brought back to higher angle by


The centrifugal force acting on the counter weight outward

939

The pitch range is set by


Adjusting the counter weight adjusting screw nuts in the counterweight bracket

940

When the counter weight type propeller is controlled by propeller governor,


The flow of oil (to and from) is controlled by the governor according to the engine RPM

941

When propeller governor senses an increase in RPM, it


Increases the blade angle to maintain constant speed

942

The blade angle changes of propeller are depend upon


The balance between governor boosted oil pressure and the inherent centrifugal tendency of
the propeller blades to maintain a low pitch angle.

943

A propeller Fx ing Mechanism employs


Spring and counter force weight to increase the pitch

944

A jet engine works on the principles of Newton's


II law of motion

945

How is the thrust converted into H.P


THP = Thrust x Airspeed (mph)
375

or

64

Mass flow (lbs) x final velocity(fps)


32 feet square

946

Jet aircraft performance is best at


High speeds and at high altitudes

947

The function of the diffuser is to


Convert the KE of the air leaving the compressor into PE

948

Pressure ratio defined as the ratio of


The compressor inlet pressure to compressor discharge pressure

949

An annular chamber consists of


One burning compartment surrounds the turbine shaft

950

In double annular chamber


There are two concentric rings of fuel spray nozzle separated by the combustion chamber

951

A dual compressor jet engine has


Two separate compressors driven by its own turbines (Twin spool or Split spool
compressors)

952

LP turbine is driven by
The two stager rear turbine

953

The HP turbine is Driven by


Single stage outer co-axial turbine shaft

954

The HP rotor turns at


A higher speed than the LP rotor

955

The advantage of the split compressor is


Low danger of compressor stall

956

The HP compressor is
Speed governed

957

The PR of a dual compressor is


More than 13:1

958

For a single axial compressor, the PR is


6 or 7 : 1 unless variable stator vanes are employed

959

A turbo fan engine is


A cross between turbojet and turbo prop engine

960

A turbofan accelerates a
Smaller volume of air than a turbo prop but a larger volume than a turbo jet

961

The effect of a Turbofan is to


Increase the power/weight ratio and increase TSFC

962

The aft fan is driven by


65

A free turbine driven by the exhaust gases


963

For a double sided turbine the air enters at


The front and at the rear

964

The temperature of air entering the combustion chamber is approximately


250 degree Celsius to 400 degree Celsius

965

The temperature of air entering the turbine is about


900 degree Celsius

966

The temperature of the air at the jet pipe exit is


600 degree Celsius

967

The temperature of the gas at jet pipe depends upon


The turbine expansion ratio and the expansion efficiency

968

The pressure at the exhaust nozzle is


Above atmospheric pressure

969

In a double sided turbine, the air reaches the compressor


By flowing through the compressor outlet adapters

970

The rotor and stator blades become


Small towards the high pressure end of the compressor

971

The LP compressor is
Free to operate at its best speed

972

HP compressor rotor is speed regulated by


Fuel control unit

973

Compressor stall occurs when


The air velocity in the first stage is reduced to where the AoA of the blade reaches a stall
value

974

The variable inlet guide vanes and variable stator vanes are
Automatically regulated in pitch angle by means of fuel control unit

975

What is the effect of the variable vanes?


To provide a means for controlling the direction of compressor inter stage airflow

976

The speed regulating factors of vanes are


Compressor inlet temperature and engine speed

977

The diffuser portion of a jet engine is


The portion of the air passage between the compressor and the combustion chambers
66

978

The fuel nozzle is located at the


Front end of the combustion chamber

979

The flame burns


In the centre of the inner liner

980

The liner is prevented from burning by


A blanket of excess air entering through the holes in the liner surrounding the flame

981

All the burning is completed


Before the gases leave the combustion chamber

982

Turbine Nozzle Diaphragm (TND) is located at


The rear of the combustion section of the gas turbine engine

983

The function of the TND is


To control the speed, direction and the pressure of the hot gases as they enter the turbine

984

The compressor requires approximately


Three fourth of the energy available from the burning of the gases

985

Turbo jet engines normally employ


Reaction- impulse type turbine

986

The pressure and speed of gases passing through the impulse turbine
Remains essentially the same, the only change is in direction

987

The impulse turbine


Absorbs the energy required for the change in direction of the gases

988

A reaction turbine changes


The speed and pressure of the gases

989

In a reaction turbine there is


A decrease in pressure and increase in velocity

990

In a reaction turbine,
The turbine absorbs the energy required for the change in velocity of the gases

991

What is the function of the exhaust nozzle ( cone)


To control velocity and temperature of the gases and develop some thrust

992

"Mice" is installed
In the exhaust cone to control the exhaust nozzle area

993

What is the effect of too large Nozzle area?


Reduced thrust

994

What is the effect of reduced nozzle area?


67

Increased velocity and excessively high temperature which might damage the engine

995

The exhaust duct in turbojet engines with exhaust gas velocity reaching supersonic velocity
is a
Convergent divergent duct

996

The divergent path is accommodated to allow


Rate of change in volume after the gas velocity becomes sonic

997

Thrust reversers and noise suppressors are included in


Exhaust nozzle

998

The Thrust reversers are operated by


Moving the thrust lever rear of the idle position

999

When Thrust reversers are engaged


THE VANES ARE DEFLECTED into the exhaust stream and direct the gases in the reverse
direction by 45 degrees

1000

When thrust lever is engaged,


The fuel flow to the engine is increased according to the position of the thrust lever

1001

Oil supply to the Jet Engine is done by


Oil Pump

1002

The fuel oil cooler serves to


Cool the oil and heat the fuel

1003

The lubricant oil usually used in turbojet engine is


Synthetic type

1004

The Lubrication system provides the oil to


Bearings and gear system

1005

The parts of a Lubrication system are


Oil Tank, oil pump, pressure relief valve, fuel - oil cooler

1006

The parameters governing the fuel control unit are


Throttle lever position ( for fuel flow)
Compressor inlet temperature (CIT)
Engine speed
Compressor discharge pressure (CDP)
Burner pressure
EGT

1007

Excess fuel can't be supplied to the engine


Regardless of the throttle position
68

1008

The thrust lever is moved into full power position, the fuel flow will
Increase according to engine speed and airflow to provide a proper rate of acceleration

1009

A "Rich blow out" danger develops when


The throttle is moved from idle to full power suddenly

1010

A "Lean blow out" may occur when


The throttle lever is moved from full throttle to idle suddenly

1011

The function of flow divider in fuel nozzle is to


Cut the fuel spray to the outer when the fuel pressure is low and route the fuel spray to the
concentric outlets when the fuel pressure is high

1012

The atomizing of fuel is done by


Spin chambers at the end of discharge nozzle

1013

The energy produced by spark in turbo jet engine in comparison to four stroke engine is
Many times greater

1014

The ignition in turbo jet engine is done by


Large flaming spark

1015

In cannular type, the spark igniters are provided in


Two cans and the flame is carried to other cans by flame tubes

1016

The ignition system of a gas turbine engine consists of


Capacitors, transformers and gas diode tubes

1017

the ignition unit is connected to


100 V - 400 Hz a.c

1018

The function of L1 and C1 is to


Filter the radio frequency noise pulses

1019

In the ignition system the transformer ( T1)


Boost the a.c voltage to 3500 across the secondary winding

1020

What is the function of the trigger capacitor C4?


To block the d.c component flowing to ground instead of going through the igniter plug

1021

What is the function of the trigger transformer?


To boost the voltage above the level provided by the voltage doublers

1022

After start up
The high voltage lead is disconnected and grounded to discharge any voltage stored in the
capacitor

1023

Commercial engines use


Pneumatic type starter
69

1024

Air for heating purpose is bled from


The last stage of the compressor

1025

Automatic air bleed s are operated during


The start of the engine to avoid piling up of compressed air to prevent chocking and
compressor stall

1026

The cooling of the turbine is done by


Hot air from compressor

1027

The internal areas and oil flow through the labyrinth is done by
Air flow from the compressor

1028

The oil to the sump is moved with the help of


Compressed air from the compressor

1029

Air used to operate accessories with pressure from compressor is called


Customer air supply

1030

Pneumatic devises are operated by


Compressed air from the compressor

1031

Turbo-prop engine extract power to drive mechanical shafts and propeller from the
Exhaust gas stream

1032

The reduction gear assembly in a Turbo-prop engine is


Combination of spur and planetary type

1034

The total reduction gear ratio in Turbo-prop engine is


11 : 1

1035

The power extracted by Turbo-prop engine is


90% FROM EXHAST STERAM AND 10% FROM EXHAUST JET

1036

Helicopters generally employ


Turbo-shaft engines

1037

The oil consumption of JT 3 engine is


3.1 - 4.0 lb / Hr

1038

The forward section and rear section of the compressor is known as


N1 and N2 respectively

1039

N1 and N2 are driven respectively by


Rear inner axial turbine shaft and forward outer co-axial turbine shaft

1040

The compressor blades are made of


Titanium alloys
70

1041

The front compressor is


Free to rotate at its best speed

1042

The no. of discs in N1 and N2 sections of JT-3 engine is


9 and 7 respectively

1043

The inner high pressure rotor is geared to


The starter driver

1044

The pressure ratio in JT-3 engine is


13 : 1

1045

While starting the engine, the starter rotates


The N2 compressor blades

1046

The mass flow rate and N2 RPM in JT-3 engine is


183 lbs/second and 9550 RPM

1047

The front compressor is made of


Two sections Titanium

1048

The rear compressor is made of


One piece conical steel construction

1049

The guide vanes are located


Between the front and rear compressors to give proper direction as it enters teh rear
compressor

1050

Flame holders are located


Rear of the turbine exhaust cone ( In the afterburner)

1051

The function of the diffuser is to reduce the velocity of the air before it reaches the
Burner section

1052

After burner is a
Thrust augmentation device

1053

The flame holders work by


Creating turbulence in which the flame can burn

1054

The oil - fuel cooler is operated by


Thermo valve

1055

An oil pressure valve is provided


Beyond the oil pressure strainer

1056

The pressure developed in the oil system is approximately


45 psi + 5 at 75% thrust

1057

Oil is withdrawn from the engine by


71

Scavenging system
1058

The oil strainer assembly is equipped with


A by-pass valve

1059

The oil tank is provided around the


Upper left hand quadrant of the compressor

1060

De- aerator is
An integral part of oil tank which separates the oil and air before entering the oil tank and
after it has passed through fuel oil cooler

1061

The pressure with the breather system is controlled by


Breather pressurizing valve

1062

An a/c is to be operated at 300 - 400 mph, which propulsion will be most efficient?
Propeller propulsion

1063

The modification of straight jet engine is


By- pass engine

1064

A turbo-prop can be efficiently operated up to


400 mph

1065

The approximate compression ratio of centrifugal compressors of single and two stage
compressors are
4:1 and 6:1

1066

For that of axial engine


Single spool 9:1 and twin spool 18:1

1067

The expansion ratio of single stage compressor is


4:1 (2ft diameter, 15000 SHP)

1068

Each turbine blade can develop


50 SHP and above

1069

The factor that limits the design of a jet engine is


The turbine inlet temperature

1070

The theoretical pressure at the jet pipe is


Atmospheric

1071

The actual pressure at the jet pipe is


Just above atmospheric

1072

The air velocities in an axial flow compressor is


Less than that of the centrifugal compressor
72

1073

The static condition pressure at jet pipe nozzle is approx.


7 Psi

1074

The max. Jet pressure at sea level full speed operation is


App. 15 psi

1075

Air velocities in the axial and centrifugal flow compressor is determined by


Comparing the maximum Mach No. achieved

1076

Double sided compressors help to


Reduce the diameter required to handle a given quantity of air

1077

The "Bullet" or Inner cone fitted inside the exhaust unit serves as
Diffuser or expansion package

1078

The factors affecting the reduction gear ratio of a turbo prop engine is
The RPM of the turbine driving the propeller and propeller diameter

1079

The equipment driven by a gas tubine engine are


Fuel pumps, generators, oil pumps, accessory gear box, starter.

1080

What additional equipment are driven by a turbo prop engine


PROPELLER, RPM control unit, Torque meter, oil pump

1081

The limiting factors of a gas turbine engine are


Jet pipe temperature, TGIT, TGT, EGT

1082

In a turbo prop engine, the engine RPM is controlled by


The propeller control unit

1083

In a straight jet engine the RPM is controlled by


FUEL input

1084

The jet pipe temperature is controlled by


Regulation of fuel supply by throttle position

1085

The trimmer in the jet pipe is used to


Adjust the jet pipe temperature

1086

An a/c is flying at 300 mph develops 4000 lb thrust, the thrust H.P is
4000
x
300
=
3200 THP
375
For the above question, what is the BHP for a propeller?
3200 x 100
= 4000 BHP
80

1087

1088

At 600 mph, the bhp is about


50% of THP [3200 x 600 x 100 = 12800]
[
375 x 50
]
73

1089

What is the effect of altitude on thrust at constant RPM


Reduced density of air reduces the thrust increasingly

1090

For a jet engine performance, air temperature is taken as constant at about


36000 ft

1091

What is the thrust output above 36000ft?


It falls more rapidly

1092

Comparing jet engine performance under tropic and Arctic conditions,


Arctic condition thrust is (>15 %) that of the tropic condition

1093

The loss of performance for a turboprop engine during take off can be compensated by
Water or water -methanol injection

1094

The increased performance of a turboprop engine on a cold day is limited by


A Built in power limiter or manual limitation

1095

The SFC for centrifugal jet engine is expressed in


1 lb/Hr/1lb
ie 1 lb thrust/ hour/ 1 lb of fuel

1096

What are the values of SFC for turbo prop engine


0.75 lb/hr/lb for centrifugal and 0.5 lb/hr/lb for axial at msl

1097

The jet engine thrust/weight ratio is


3:1

1098

Hp/ Weight ratio of 1 .5 : 1 means ( for turboprop centrifugal)


1.5 Hp for every pound of engine weight

1099

The Hp/ Weight ratio of axial flow engine is


2.3 : 1

1100

The tail plane assembly at the front of the a/c is called


CANARD

1101

Fire wall is the section between


Main structure and engine made of stainless steel which is sandwiched by asbestos

1102

Single leaf cantilever spring steel type of landing gears are fond in
Cessna a/c

1103

For shock absorbing, single strut type generally employs


Hydraulic cylinders or rubber biscuits

1104

In tripod system utilizes


Oleo type shock absorbers with two rigid structures
74

1105

Most retractable under carriages are


Cantilever- single oleo leg with no external bracing

1106

The nose/ Tail wheel assembly is


Controllable by the pilot

1107

Low pressure tyres are used as


Shock absorbers yet they don't dissipate shock but store it and keep the a/c back into the air

1108

An oleo structure consists of


An inner and outer cylinder and oil

1109

An Oleo-aero shock absorber has


Oil and spring combination

1110

Oleo helps to absorb shock


While landing only

1111

The shock experienced while T/o or taxiing is absorbed by


Spring or oleo pneumatic

1112

The oil displaced in the oleo system


Will return only after T/o or leaving the ground

1113

Brake discs are generally operated by


Hydraulic

1114

For disk brakes, visual inspection is required


Every 50 hr of flight operations

1115

While parking with disk brakes


The hand/parking brakes should be left off and chokes should be used

1116

Mixing of brake fluids will


Negate the effectiveness of the brake

1117

In pneumatic brake system


A pressure bag is used

1118

The control system usually used to operate ailerons


Cable and pulleys push and pull rode and torque tubes when stick control is used

1119

When wheel control is used, ailerons are operated by


Cables & pulleys and in some cases push -pull rods

1120

In transport category, ailerons are operated by


Wheel and pulley aided by Hydraulic pressure

1121

"Bungees" are
Spring that exert pressure in tubes to maintain trimmed condition
75

1122

Ground adjustable trim tabs are attached to


Ailerons or rudder

1123

Anti- servo tabs are


Trimming tabs on stabilators

1124

Large a/c use


Servo- tabs

1125

In servo - tab
The control surface moves in the opposite direction of tab movement

1126

Span loading is
Gross weight divided by span (lb/foot0

1127

Wing loading is expressed in


Lb/square feet

1128

Power loading is
Gross weight divided by H.P (Lb/ HP)

1129

Dead load is the


Weight of the a/c standing on the ground

1130

Live load is
The additional load imposed by acceleration, turns etc

1131

Load factor is
Actual load divided by gross weight = live load divided by dead load

1132

In straight and level flight, the load factor is


1

1133

An a/c is said to have stick position stability when


The a/c requires the control column to be moved rearward to increase the AoA and to trim at
low airspeeds and move forward with decreasing AoA and trim at high air speeds

1134

When flying in turbulence or gust


Reduce the speed to that below the normal smooth air cruising speed

1135

The turbulence penetrating speed should be


At least 10 Knots below the maneuvering speed, to compensate for stall delaying of power
and wind shear

1136

While flying in turbulence,


A lightly loaded a/c should be flown slower than a heavily loaded a/c (20% decrease in
weight will require 10%
in VA

1137

The stall speed


76

Decreases as the weight decrease


1138

The procedure to fly in turbulence is


Wing level attitude, maintain airspeed not altitude

1139

While approach to land


Use a speed higher (near) than the published speed for landing to avoid a gust imposed stall

1140

A/c technical log consists of


Air frame log, Engine log for each engine and propeller log for each propeller

1141

Air time flight time should be recorded


The nearest 5 minutes or Nearest to the six minutes when using the decimal system

1142

Air time is
Time from T/o to touch down

1143

Flight time is
Time between chokes off to chokes on

1144

Camber is defined as
The curvature of upper and lower surface of an aerofoil

1145

Flight path and relative air flow are


Opposite but parallel

1146

Induced drag is the drag produced by


Lift generating devices ( Wings)

1147

Wing tip vortices indicates


The presence of Induced drag

1148

Wing tip vortices rotate


Anticlockwise on right wing and clockwise on left wing

1149

Ground effect
Reduces the induced drag

1150

The point at which the laminar flow changes to turbulent flow is called
Transition point

1151

At cruise, the power setting is


Between 65% and 75 % of the rated full power

1152

The greatest thrust is available when


The engine is at full power and the a/c is stationary

1153

As the speed increases, the thrust


Decreases
77

1154

The weight of a/c in CL/CD ratio


Affect induced drag

1155

The Profile of a/c in CL/CD ratio


Affect the parasite drag

1156

Wing fences provide


Slow speed handling and stall characteristics

1157

In straight wing a/c, the wing fence


Control the airflow over the flap are

1158

Adverse yaw is caused by


Aileron drag

1159

Lateral stability is provided by


Dihedral, Sweep back, Keel effect and proper distribution of weight

1160

Excessive dihedral will


Reduce lift

1161

Keel effect and sweep back


Contribute to directional stability to some extent

1162

The RoC is
Not affected by wind

1163

Absolute ceiling is the


Altitude at which the RoC is impossible

1164

The AoC is
Affected by wing

1165

Vy - Best RoC
Gives most altitude in Least time

1166

Vx - Best AoC
Gives most altitude in a given distance

1167

Vx is used for
Obstacle clearance

1168

The stronger the wind


The greater the AoC

1169

Normal climb speed is


5-10 knots greater than that for Vy

1170

During glide
Thrust is absent and balance is maintained by lift, weight and drag
78

1171

The wind milling propeller produce


Negative thrust or Drag

1172

A strong H/W will


Steepen the Glide path

1173

A strong tail wind will


Flatten the G/P

1174

During a level turn, as the bank increases,


The back pressure required to increase the AoA increases

1175

When airspeed remains constant, as the angle of bank increase, what happens to the
following?
Rate of turn Increase
Radius of turn Decreases
Stall speed
Increases
Wing loading Increases

1176

When the bank angle remains constant, the airspeed is increased during a turn, what happens
to the following?
Rate of turn Decreases
Radius of turn Increases
Stall speed
Decreases
Wing loading Decreases

1177

Climbing and descending turns are executed


Like level turns

1178

Holding the bank is necessary in a


Climbing turn

1179

A 60 degree turn imposes a load factor of


2

1180

When gliding into a strong wind, greater distance may be achieved by


Keeping the nose just below the best L/D ratio

1181

Best glide speed for endurance is


1.1 times the Power -off stall speed

1182

The power approach landing speed is


1.3 times the power-off landing speed

1183

During a stall, the section in which the stall first occurs is


The wing root (due to wash out)

1184

The Stall speed for an a/c


Remains constant irrespective of the altitude
79

1185

If C.G moves forward from most aft position, the Stall speed
Increases

1186

If C.G moves aft, the Stall speed


Decreases

1187

Decreased longitudinal stability results in


Violent stall characteristics

1188

During a turn, the stall angle is reached


At a higher speed than in a level flight

1189

Stall speed during a turn is given by


Normal stall speed x square root of the load factor

1190

Frost, snow and ice


Alter the lifting characteristics of the aerofoil, increase stall speed, decrease stall AoA

1191

Frost
Spoils the smooth airflow by
Separating the boundary layer

1192

The effect of weight on stall speed is


As the weight increases, critical AoA reaches at a higher airspeed and stall occurs early

1193

"Cold soaking" is
Formation of clear ice / frost over the wing above fuel tanks after a high altitude flight

1194

Stall warning devices


Do not help to warn the pilot about an imminent stall due to frost, ice,

1195

Stall warning devices are


Set to operate at a speed just before it stalls

1196

If a pilot happens to enter a heavy rain,


The ROD will increase, airspeed will decrease

1197

The stall recovery process is


Lower the nose, apply more power

1198

Spinning is defined as
An auto rotation which develops after an aggravated stall

1199

In spinning,
The down going wing gets less lift and up going wing gets more lift

1200

Spinning can't be recovered with the help of


Ailerons
80

snow or rain

1201

The spinning of a/c involves


Pitch, Roll and Yaw

1202

In the incipient stage of a spin, the spin axis becomes


Vertical

1203

In the developed stage of a spin, the flight path is


Vertical

1204

The third stage of spin is


Recovery

1205

The spin recovery procedure is


Power idle, aileron neutral, Rudder opposite spin, control column forward ; when rotation
stops, neutralize rudder, level wings

1206

In spin,
Airspeed is constant and low

1207

In spiral dive,
Airspeed, RoD Increases

1208

A spiral dive is
A steep descending turn

1209

VB represents
Max. gust intensity speed

1210

An a/c can stall at any speed if subject to


Sufficiently high load for that speed

1211

Aerobatic category a/c load factors are


+ 6g and - 5g

1212

For normal category, negative load limit is


-1.52g

1213

For utility category, negative load limit is


-1.76g

1214

Which are the leading edge lift augmentation devices?


Slots, Fixed slats, Retractable slats and droop nose.

1215

In the event of a runaway situation of a Trim Jack,


The leading edge is deflected full up/down and the pilot must control the a/c using elevators
only

1216

In Butter fly model a/c,


The rudder and elevator is replaced by two aerofoil in V-shape
81

1217

V-tails in a/c provides


Directional and pitch stabilities

1218

In V-tail a/c, the pitch and roll control surface are called
Rudervator

1219

For pitch control, the ruddervators move in the


Same direction

1220

For roll control, the ruddervators move in the


Opposite direction

82