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1. A student investigates the use of pulleys to lift a load.

The student uses two pulleys A and


B to lift a load W, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1
The student uses a newton meter to measure the minimum force F needed to raise the load.
a) The student raises the load at a slow constant speed by pulling on the newton meter.
i.
Explain why the student uses a constant speed.

ii.

[1]
Suggest a reason for using a slow constant speed.
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b) The student measures F for a load W of 0.20 N. Fig. 1.2 shows the newton meter when
the load is raised at a slow steady speed.

Fig. 1.2
i.

State the force F shown by the newton meter.


F= [1]

ii.
On Fig. 1.2, mark the position of the eye of the student when taking the reading. [1]
c) The student takes a series of readings of F for different values of W. The readings are
shown in Table. 1.1.

Table. 1.1
On Table. 1.1, write your value of F from (b) (i).
i.
On Fig. 1.4, plot the graph of F / N on the y-axis against W / N on the x-axis. Start
ii.
iii.

your axes from the origin. Draw the straight line of best fit.
[4]
Use your graph to find the value of F when W = 0.
F =........................................................... [1]
Suggest a reason why the line of best fit does not pass through the
origin. ........................................................................................................................
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Fig. 1.4
(d) Determine the gradient of the line. Show your working. Give your answer to 2
significant figures.
Gradient =........................................................... [2]

2. A solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. A student investigates the
maximum e.m.f. produced by a solar cell in the laboratory. Fig. 2.1 shows the symbol for
a solar cell.

Fig. 2.1
a) The student uses a voltmeter to measure the e.m.f. produced by the solar cell.
i.
Draw a diagram of the circuit he uses. Include a switch in the circuit.

[1]
ii.

When the student closes the switch, he notices that the voltmeter needle moves
backwards, as shown in Fig.2.2.

Fig.2.2
iii.

Explain why this happens and how the student can correct this.
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iv.

The student corrects the problem and, when the switch is closed, the voltmeter now reads
0.96 V. On Fig. 2.2, mark the new position of the needle.

[1]

b) To investigate the solar cell, the student uses light entering the laboratory through a
window. When the student moves his head to read the voltmeter, there is a large decrease
in the reading. Suggest a reason for this, and explain how the student can prevent this
happening when he moves.
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3. A student uses a pendulum to obtain a value for the acceleration of free fall g.
Fig. 3.1 shows the pendulum hanging from a fixed support.

Fig. 3.1
The length l of the pendulum is measured from the support to the centre of mass of the bob.
(i) On Fig. 3.1, mark and label the length l of the pendulum. [1]
(ii) Describe a method of measuring l accurately.
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(b) Three measurements are taken of the time for 20 complete swings of the pendulum.
Explain how to find the average time T for one complete swing.
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(c) The value obtained for l is 0.450 m and for T is 1.33 s.
Using the relationship

Calculate a value for g. Give your answer to 3 significant figures.


g = ........................................... m / s2 [2]

(d) Suggest an improvement to this experiment.


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4. A student finds an old magnet at the back of a drawer containing other magnets. He
designs an experiment to find out if it is still magnetised.
a) He brings a plotting compass near to end A of the old magnet, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

i.

State the polarity of end A of the old magnet.


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b) The plotting compass is then brought near to end B, as shown in Fig. 4.2.

ii.
iii.

State the polarity of end B.


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Suggest a possible explanation for the students result.
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iv.

Describe how the student can use the plotting compass to plot the shape of the
magnetic field around a new magnet. You may use a diagram in your explanation.

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