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INTERNSHIP PROGRAMME

Following topics to be covered;

- Internal comm. / Organization of section / shop


- Process (flowcharts/quality plans)
- Interfaces with other departments

A brief overview of each department in BU-TR has been given in this internship report.

Distribution Transformers
Production & Test Field

MAIN ADVANTAGE OF TRANSFORMERS:


To overcome losses, the electricity from a generator is passed through a step-up transformer
which increases the voltage. Throughout the distribution system, the voltages are changed using
step-down transformers to voltages suitable to the applications at industry and homes.

TRANSFORMER PARTS:
The main parts of which the transformers comprise are:
• Core
• Winding
• Conservator tank
• Radiator
• High and Low voltage bushing
• Oil sample valve
• Oil drain valve
• Breather
• Tap changer switch
• Explosion vent
• Manhole and Cover
• Oil pump
• Terminal board
• Gas relay
Process flow chart; Production flow process (DT≤ 2500 KVA)

LV Layer HV Winding
Winding

≥100 KVA

Coil Drying
Oven

Insulation mat. &


Wooden parts

Not OK
Core Assembly Ratio
Storage Core HV & LV
Testin
Area + Connections
g
Winding
Cores from
Core Sect. OK

Active Part from GK material from Super


Storage Area market

Vacuum Drying
Oven Final Assembly

Powder coated
plates and Red
oxide tanks

Dispatch to yard
Steel Parts from surface Oil Filling Testing FPP
Treatment/ Oxycoat
EXPLANATION FOR TERMINOLOGIES IN PROCESS FLOWCHART:

1. LV WINDING: It is the low voltage winding which is placed on the core beneath the high
voltage winding. It is wound in layer and foil format as required in design.
2. HV WINDING: It is the high voltage winding which is wound on the low voltage winding.
It is wound in layer and disk format as required. Taps are also carried out from the HV winding.
3. ACTIVE PARE: The active part of transformer consists of core, winding, tab changer,
insulation and connections.
4. CORE: The core is made from joining silicon coated steel plates of definite geometrical
shapes. The silicon lamination on steel plates prevents from losses inside core material.
5. VACUUM DRYING OVEN: This oven absorbs moisture from insulation of windings and
active part.
6. GK MATERIALS: These are the different items from nut bolts, washers, bushing to tools
and other inventory items that are required in transformer production.

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ROUTINE TESTS:

1. POWER FREQUENCY TEST (HV): This test is performed on primary side of the
transformer. It determines HV to earth leakage paths.

2. POWER FREQUENCY TEST (LV): This test is performed on secondary side of the
transformer. It determines LV to earth leakage paths.

3. INDUCED OVER VOLTAGE TEST: This test is performed to check inter-turn and inter-
layer insulation of the windings by applying double of rated secondary voltage and frequency.

4. NO LOAD TEST (OPEN CIRCUIT TEST): This test is done to check the no load current
and tolerance level i.e. 15% (IEC standards) on losses by applying rated voltage at secondary
side of transformer.

5. LOAD TEST (SHORT CIRCUIT TEST): This test is done to check the rated current by
shorting the LV side of transformer.

6. TURNS RATIO TEST: This test verify the turns ratio of the transformer given on the name
plate as prescribed by the client.

7. RESISTANCE TEST: This test checks the winding resistance.

8. PRESSURE TEST: Pressure test is performed on t transformer after filling the oil in the
transformer tank and sealing it. Nitrogen gas at 15 psi is applied inside the tank to check the
tanks leakage if any.
Sales and Marketing
This department is concerned dealing with the customers and conveying information to
other departments. First of all the inquiry is received from fax, telephone, E-mail etc. then they
review the data technically and commercially. Contact customer for further clarifications.
Forward the checklist (details of the transformer to be made) to the design Dep. after the design
is finalized planning tells time span and some other measures after which sales Dep. tells
customer the final date of the delivery and cost is set. Cost can be changed if cost of raw material
increases in the market. After that order is placed i.e. production work starts.
This Dep. deals in three ways i.e.

• INTERNAL

• DIRECT / EXTERNAL

• EXPORT

INTERNAL means that if generator or motor dep. needs any thing it will be considered
as internal dealing i.e. with in the siemens head office.

DIRECT / EXTERNAL means to deal with in the country with the help of the sales and
service offices all over the country or to deal with the local customer directly.

EXPORT means to deal internationally. At present they are dealing all over the world
particularly in Asia.

For each type of dealing they have different group of people.


PEQ (Process Excellence & Quality)/ MTL
The PEQ department works for the quality check and fulfillment of costumer requirements.
Fulfillment of requirements is achieved by two ways:
- Quality is checked (inspected)
- Quality is produced (assured)

The PEQ department is categorized as:

PEQ

PRODUCT QUALITY
PROCESS QUALITY
(Inspection)

Receiving
QMS Audits
Inspection (RI)

In process
Quality Reporting
Inspection (IPI)

Final Inspection
Quality Training
(FI)

*Continuous
Material Testing
Improvement
Lab (MTL)
(RCA,CA/PA)

• Continuous Improvement: (RCA, CA/PA)


- RCA: Root cause Analysis
- CA: Corrective action; to prevent recurrence of problem
- PA: Preventive actions; to prevent occurrence of problem

• RECEIVING INSPECTION:

Goal: To inspect all material used in manufacturing of product i.e. copper, steel sheets, testers, tap
changer, brass parts etc.

The receiving inspection department processes the material as follow:

Supplier List of important RI Documents:

1- Approved supplier list (Purchase)


Challan 2- Sampling Plan (No. of samples)
Receive stocks 3- QA Test Plan (What to & how to do?)
4- MIR Material Inspection Report.
5-RMTR (Lab Testing)
Good Report (GR) 6- Request for Testing (Shop Checking)

RI
BAP (Purchase)
Approved Supplier
List

QA Work Instructions
(Sampling Plan)

QA Test Plan
What to do how to do?

Material Inspection Lab RMTR or


Report (MIR) Shop Ref. testing

Checked as per specifications

Good Report Status Rejected

Passed
MATERIAL TESTING LAB (MTL):

• This lab is open for all business units in siemens. This lab is the part of BU-TR.
• It also provides services to external costumers.
• It works its results on RMTR document after testing materials.
• RMTR gives specifications / tests to be performed on the material.

The Tests performed in this lab are:

 Viscosity test for transformer coolant oil


 Pour point test of oil.
 Enameled Copper breakdown voltage
 Tin coating test
 Viscosity test of oil
 Density test of oil
 Flash point of oil
 Acidity of oil
 Aging test for Rubber /Insulations
 Hardness tester of steel(nuts& bolts)
 Tensile & Elongation test of steel/copper parts
 Resistance Test of copper wire
 Spring back angle Test
 Brinell hardness of metal
 Weighing test by precise weighing balance
 Rubber hardness test
 Paint tests i.e. flow, density, adhesiveness, scratch, bend tests.
Power transformers
Production & Test Field

PRODUCTION

If the rating of the transformer is more than 10 MVA then it is considered as Power
transformer and is manufactured here. This is one of the biggest shops of SIEMENS. There are
cranes ranging up to 200 tones. Machines used here are mostly of CHINA, Stoll Berg or of
SIEMENS GERMANY.
This SHOP is divided into three main parts i.e.

1) CORE SECTION.

2) WINDING SECTON.

3) ASSEMBLY SECTION.

Each section has an in charge that runs the section according to the schedule given.
This shop is also proud to manufacture the Auto transformer of the largest rating ever
made in Pakistan of 160 MVA. Its customer is WAPDA. It is expected to be launched by this
year.

Brief view of each section is given.

CORE SECTION
Cutting Of Sheets:

Dimensions given by the design Dep. are feed in the cutting machine which then cuts the
IRON SHEETS to the required size. These sheets are of 0.27 mm in thickness having a layer of
silicon over it. Along with the cutting Punching is also being done. Sheets are cut at 45o and 90o
angle, this is done to achieve maximum flux linkage. FOUR different types of sheets are being
cut i.e. inner, outer, upper and lower sheets.

Step Formation:
Each type of sheet decreases width wise gradually to achieve a step wise construction.
Step wise assembly is required to have a round figure of the core.
Where steps are being made we place strips of round wood in- odder to have a complete
round assembly of core, also to avoid damage of wire by the sharp edges of step, and technically
to avoid concentration of the Magnetic Density around the step which would result in greater
leakage flux.

Core Assembly:

The core is arranged very carefully by the worker i.e. making proper arrangement as
required with leveling of the sheets being placed on each other and achieving the step wise
assembly. Each step contains a number of sheets as per rating of the transformer.
After the sheets are being properly arranged the core is then coated by RED-OXIDE to
avoid it from rusting.

Core Frame:

Core is enclosed from upper and lower sides in a frame.

WINDING SECTION
Following types of winding are made here:

1) L.V (Low Voltage) Winding.

2) H.V (High Voltage) Winding.

3) TAP Winding.

4) Tertiary Winding.

INSULATION OF WIRE:

Wires are insulated with a paper known as PRESS PHAN. The quality of this paper is
that it doesn't swell in the oil and can be gained in any thickness. Along with all this it is a good
insulator.

1) L.V Winding:

As it is a low voltage winding, the current here is high so we use a thick copper wire. It
is a LAYER TYPE WINDING i.e. it increases axially. As the wire is thick so to have layer
winding is easy. The number of conductors (rolls of wire) to be used depends upon the rating. So
the ends of wire coming out of the winding depend on the rating.

2) H.V Winding:
High voltage so less current i.e. thin wire, As it is required to have greater number of
turns on than L.V winding and that to on the same length so we apply DISC TYPE WINDING.
In this winding increase radially i.e. after completeness of one disc we move to the other. There
is a strip of same paper containing thick pieces of the same paper (press pan) which is placed
with in the disc to make easy flow of oil through the disc for cooling purpose. There are two
stages before a disc is ready:

1) Build Up Disc:

As we move from one disc to the other the wire has to move from top to bottom which
disturbs the symmetry of winding. To avoid that we first make a disc in which wire is brought
down with the help of a wooden piece whose diameter decreases gradually and the disc is made
as the number of turns are required in a disc.

2) Simple Disc:

This disc is then opened and is rebuild in opposite direction so the starting wire i.e. wire
coming from the other disc is at the top. This is the final disc.

3) TAP Winding:

This type of winding has thin wire and it is electrically connected to the H.V winding.
TAP changer is not made here it is imported from SIEMEN Germany. It is on-load and off-loads
both tap changers. In tap winding the taps are coming out after some number of turns as designed
which help us to adjust the voltage accordingly. It is also layer type winding.

4) Tertiary Winding:

This winding is placed inside the L.V winding. As when ever there is a short circuit take
place L.V winding is burned so to avoid we introduce this and more over we can have much
higher voltage across tertiary winding then L.V winding.
Final Adjustment of Windings:

Finally windings are packed tightly in wood frame from top and bottom so that they don't
loosen up, and dried in the oven. The height of the winding is adjusted so that the required
Tolerance could be achieved.

ASSEMBLY SECTION

Here core and windings are arranged and a connection of tap changer with tap winding is
done. Or in simple words active part is prepared. First we place an insulating sheet made of press
pan paper around the core, then L.V winding is placed and adjusted so that it does not rotate
around the core.
After that another insulating sheet is placed and then H.V winding is placed. After it we
place tap winding which is electrically connected with the H.V and then to the tap changer. The
active part is then placed in the oven for 3 to 4 days and approximately 20 to 22 litters of water is
drained out. Then all the connections with the tank are made i.e. of bushings, with the terminal
board, with sensors etc.

BUSHINGS:
These are insulators made of PORCELANE. In case of WAPDA on H.V side there are 4
bushings and 4 on the L.V side. In KESC 4 on the H.V but on L.V side there are 6 due to tertiary
winding. Oil filled bushings are used for HV side.

SENSORS/INDICATORS:
There different type of sensors or indicators as;

1) OIL LEVEL INDICATOR (On the conservator).


2) TEMPERATURE INDICATOR (winding and Oil both).
3) OIL LEVEL INDICATOR (Tank and Tap changer).
4) BUCHOLZ GAS RELAY.

POWER TRANSFORMERS
TEST FIELD
After the filling of the oil finally the transformer is set for the tests. Tests which are
normally done on the transformer are given below.

ROUTINE TESTS:
These are the tests which are done on every transformer. They are listed below.

1) Measurement of the winding resistance.


2) Measurement of voltage ratio & check of phase displacement.
3) Measurement of short circuit impedance and load losses.
4) Measurement of no load loss and current.
5) Induced over voltage withstand test.
6) Separate source voltage withstand test.
7) Test on on-load tap changer.
8) Lightning impulse voltage withstand test.
9) Measurement of partial discharge.

TYPE TESTS:
These tests are performed not on all the transformers but on some which are
representative of the other. These are normally done only on customer demand.

1) Temperature Rise Test.


2) Lightning Impulse Voltage Withstand Test

SPECIAL TEST:
These tests are not normally done but only on customers demand. These are;
1) Capacitances determination.
2) Transient voltage transfer characteristics
3) Short circuit withstand test
4) Sound level determination
5) Measurement of harmonics of the no load current.
6) Measurement of the power taken by the fan and oil pump motors.
7) Measurement of insulation resistors.
8) Measurement of dissipation factor of the insulation system.
9) Measurement of dielectric strength of oil.
10) Measurement of inductance of the windings.

PLANNING

This department is considered as the heart of the BU-TR.As it co-ordinates directly with
every department.

PURPOSE:

To prepare a documented procedure to define production planning functions.


The mission of this dep. is to plan, execute, monitor and control all activities of product
realization for greater customer satisfaction required quality and delivery reliability at optimum
cost.
The main areas that are covered during planning are;

• DELIVERY CAPABILITY.

• DELIVERY RELIABILITY.

• INDENT CONFIRMATION.

• PRODUCTION DOCUMENTS DELIVERY.

WORKING:

The abbreviations normally used here are;


I/C = Incharge.
P.O = Purchase order.
W.O = Work order.
P.R = Purchase Requisition.
BOM = Bill of Material.

Similarly there are many other. They provide the whole plan i.e. how much time is
required, work division to each section e.g. winding, core, tank etc. PICK LIST or in simple
words the details and quantity of the raw material to be issued from the store is also given by the
planning dep. if some material is to be purchased it is also decided by this dep. There working
flow charts are shown.

STEEL FABRICATION

This shop is concerned with all the steel parts which are used in transformer i.e.

• EXTERNAL PARTS

• TANKS.

• TOP COVER.

• CONSERVATOR.

• PIPING ARRANGEMENT.

• RADIATOR.

INTERNAL PARTS

• CORE FRAMES.

• BASE PLATES.

• HANGING ARRANGEMENT.

• TENSION STRIPS.

There shop is divided into some parts as;

• MACHINE SHOP:

All the steel parts are set here according to the dimensions given by the design dep. such
as the machines used here are;
• SHEARING.
• PUNCHING.
• BENDING
• WELDING.

WORKING:

First the sheets of mild steel are cut. Usually sheets up to 10mm are cut by shearing
machine and rest by GAS CUTTING. Then these sheets are set for punching. The punching
holes are of the shapes such as circle, oval and square. The holes diameter varies from 10mm to
90mm. Some of the punching is done by drilling also. Then the sheets are moved for bending.

• RADIATOR PLANT:

PLATE TYPE RADIATORS:

Thin sheets are cut and designed and then two are joined together from center by welding
known as SPOT WELDING, and from the sides by SEAM WELDING. These radiators are
tested. Air is passed through them with pressure and they are immersed in water to check any
kind of leaking. Then they are coated with red oxide to prevent from rusting.

PIPE TYPE RADIATORS:

These are in shapes of pipe and are quite large in number. They are prepared by bending
and welding. Then they are shot blasted and coated with red-oxide.

TESTING OF TANKS:

Oil named as PENETRATING OIL is poured just on the inside walls of the tank and after
5 to 6 hrs it is tested from outside with the help of test lamp for any kind of leakage.

SHOT BLASTING:

In case of DT this is done in a machine with in 15 minutes. At a time two transformers


are put in the machine and are fired with small balls of iron to remove any kind of rusting. This
is done before coating of red-oxide.
In case of PT it is done manually. Worker wearing oxygen kit moves into a room where
PT tank is placed and shot blasts it.

FINAL ASSEMBLY OF DT AND PT:

Both DT and PT are prepared in different areas of the shop. After all these steps the tanks
are sent for paint and then are dispatched to the required shops.

EFFICIENCY OF WORK:
This shop provides 100% to DT 2, DT 3 & DT 4. Where as instead of tanks all other
material is given to DT 1. It deals PT 80%.

MAINTENANCE & TOOL ENGINEERING

This department deals with the maintenance work of the machines that are being used in
the production of the transformer. They have distributed there work into three main areas.

• BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE.

• PREVENTIVE / CHARACTIVE MAINTENANCE.

• PREDECTIVE MAINTENANCE.

More over them have categorized their machines into three areas as A, B & C.

A type machines are given YEARLY maintenance. 87 in number


B type machines are given MONTHLY maintenance. 39 in number
C type machines are given QUATERLY maintenance. 8 in number

WORKING:

If some machine goes out of order any time they respond to that and immediately move
their crew to the machine for quick maintenance and to make it work as soon as possible so
there is no delay in work.
Most of the times they take help from lifters. They also co-ordinate with the manufacturer
of the machine if required. Manual of the machine is also given a reading at times.
As SIEMENS is a manufacturing plant and not a process plant so there is no shut down
maintenance. Heavy and light machines are tuned and checked accordingly to their category.
If there is some major fault they co-ordinate with the respective dep. and to the planning
dep. for maintenance or a change. So the back bone of the production area is this dep. If any
machine goes down this mean the chain of work has broken so for this purpose maintenance puts
in its effort to chain up the work again.
DESIGN DEPARTMENT

This area is responsible for the design of the required TRANSFORMER. The design is
made according to the requirement of the customer. They receive their data from the SALES
dep. The design of the Transformer comprises of following main steps.

1) Search of the pre-existing data.

2) Electrical and Mechanical calculations.

The first step as they get the CHECK LIST i.e. the details of the Transformer to be
designed, put the data and compare it with the already designed transformer, if it matches or
some of the features are the same then they continue their work from there otherwise they start
designing it.

The first step of the design is ELECTRICAL calculations. These calculations are done
using two soft wares.

1) Excel Sheets.

2) CADWIG software (made by SIEMENS).

From here we get the information that how many numbers of turns are to be use, Length
of the coil, Diameter of the winding etc.

If Round coil winding is to be done then Excel Sheets are used and if Foil (using copper
sheets) winding is to be used then CADWIG software is applied. These calculations complete the
electrical part of the Transformer. The kind of the windings designed here are HV, LV & TAP
winding. If required then TERTIARY winding is also designed (only in case of K.E.S.C).
Then come the design of the Mechanical part i.e. the CORE and the TANK. Core is
design keeping in view the value of the losses. The core is design in the form of the layers of the
steel sheets to control the losses and its size varies with the rating of the transformer. The TANK
is designed leaving some spaces from the windings from all sides, keeping in view all the
parameters. The CONSERVATOR, RADIATORS, HEAT and other SENSORS along with the
BREATHER are also designed i.e. giving all the information of the dimensions of each part the
tank. All the design work is done on the software named AUTOCAD. Then the final file is
forwarded to the respective departments.