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Ant Colony Algorithm is an algorithm used for obtaining optimized cost solutions for graphical problems. This paper deals with modifications done in this algorithm and uses it for finding optimal values of PID controller parameters. These modifications are actually the solutions to the problems that were encountered while implementing this algorithm on PID controller. Modifications done to this algorithm provided better results as compared to the simplified version of the algorithm, in terms of lesser number of iterations taken to reach optimal solution, along with improvement in the response obtained. The results have been obtained by making use of MATLAB simulations.

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Controller Parameters Optimization

1

2

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

ABSTRACT

optimized cost solutions for graphical problems. This

paper deals with modifications done in this algorithm

and uses it for finding optimal values of PID controller

parameters. These modifications are actually the

solutions to the problems that were encountered while

implementing this algorithm on PID controller.

Modifications done to this algorithm provided better

results as compared to the simplified version of the

algorithm, in terms of lesser number of iterations taken

to reach optimal solution, along with improvement in the

response obtained. The results have been obtained by

making use of MATLAB simulations.

path which has higher deposition of pheromone.

controller, iterations, MATLAB.

I.

INTRODUCTION

but collectively they are known for their complex social

behavior in terms of gathering food. Due to this behavior

ants are able to find the shortest path from their nest to

the food source. Studies were conducted in the early 90's

on their food gathering mechanisms and the result of

these studies was the Ant Colony Algorithm [1].

Since then it has been applied in numerous fields for

optimization purposes. It is basically a probabilistic

technique used for finding shortest path in graphs. A

number of artificial ants build solutions for a certain

optimization problem and exchange information about

the quality of these solutions making allusion to the

communication systems of the real ants [1]. This

exchange of information is done by the means of a

chemical known as pheromone, towards which ants are

highly responsive [1] [2].

ANTS IN BRIEF

simplified manner. Starting from the top of the figure we

can say that six ants are about to leave the ant nest for

gathering food. It is clear from the figure that there are

two paths available towards the food source, one is the

shorter one the other is the longer one. Now ants release

the chemical pheromone as they travel, along with this

So initially as there is no deposition of pheromone on

any of the paths, so there ants have 50-50 probability to

follow any of the two paths. However ants on the shorter

path will reach the food source first and also return back

to the nest fast, hence pheromone deposition on shorter

path would be higher as compared to the longer path. At

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225

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

would thus have higher tendency to follow shorter path

as compared to the longer path . Pheromone also decays

with time. After a long period of time almost all the ants

would follow the shorter path, thereby optimizing their

path from the nest towards the food source.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Error.

Discritize all the parameters that are to be optimized.

Decide the maximum number of iterations, number of

ants in the nest, path tables for each ant, pheromone

tables and optimal path table.

Set a counter equal to 0 and begin algorithm.

For each ant find the transitional probability to each

node as it travel along a particular path.

where

P

:Probability of kth ant going from source node s

to destination node d.

their path in respective path tables. From this find

objective function value for each ant.

7. At the end of iteration update the pheromone

deposition at each node from the following:

of iterations. Else go to step 5.

Algorithm has been developed using [1] [2][3][4][5]

IV.

MODIFICATIONS DONE IN ANT

COLONY ALGORITHM AND RESULTS

A.

Deposition of pheromone on optimal nodes

It is known that the pheromone deposition on each node

is proportional to the value of objective function

obtained at the end of iteration for each path ants have

travelled for this iteration. The objective function is in

fact inversely proportional to ISE (Integral Square of

Error) [4][5]. Suppose the most optimal path was found

during the second or higher iteration, then the ants would

not settle to the new found optimal path because the

optimal path obtained from previous iterations will have

significant deposition of pheromone on it. From

simulation results it was seen that, although we did found

out the most optimal path but it took significant number

or in most cases maximum number of iterations for all

the ants to settle on it.

We know that at the end of every iteration ,the

pheromone deposition on every node gets updated.

Based on the ISE value, obtained for a particular path,

this update takes place [4][5]. So in order to save time

what we can do is that at the end of each iteration we can

increment the pheromone deposition by certain factor on

the nodes of the most optimal path. Along with this we

need to define a pre optimal path, which we can say that

it was the optimal path in the previous iterations, at the

end of each iteration reduce its pheromone contents by

certain large factor so that the probability of ants

following that path decrease or in other words we are

increasing the probability of rejecting this pre optimal

path and increasing the probability of settling of all the

ants on the optimal path.

At the end of iteration let

pheromone at various nodes for the three controller

parameters at the termination of the algorithm, whose

optimal values are being found out. We see that

significant and considerable deposition on several nodes

other than the optimal nodes( optimal nodes in above

case are Kp=2.5, Ki=1.2, Kd=2.9) in case of Kp, nodes

other than optimal one have more pheromone deposition

, thus this can cause the algorithm to not converge

immediately to optimal solution.

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226

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

we got can be seen from fig 5, fig 6 and fig 7. the

optimal nodes here are Kp=2.5 ,Ki=1.1 ,Kd=3. From the

above figures we can say that the deposition on optimal

nodes is significantly high as compared to other nodes.

Greater the deposition of pheromone on a path, greater

will be the ants probability to follow that path. So the

ants can easily converge to the optimal solution. This can

also be seen from table 1.

modification)

modification)

modification)

modification)

modification)

modification)

For the same system, the Ant Colony Algorithm was run

10 times for original algorithm and 10 times after

modification to see whether the algorithm is terminating

or not with modification. The above results also conform

that the solution proposed is giving us an early

termination to the algorithm.

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227

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

solution.

After

modification

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

6

10(max)

10(max)

10(max)

10(max)

10(max)

10(max)

10(max)

9

10(max)

5

8

10(max)

4

6

5

4

5

5

4

1.2

1

Response

Original

1.4

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Time(.003 secs)

10000

12000

1.4

1.2

For any path to be accepted or rejected for being the

most optimal one, depends on the objective

function(inversely proportional to ISE) value obtained

for that path, The logic of this algorithm allows that path

to be chosen which has the least ISE value[4][5]. To

obtain the desired response, it sometimes becomes

necessary to make modifications in the objective

function. One of the major problems that was

encountered was when the offline tuning of scaling

factors of Fuzzy supervised PID for a third order system

was done through the algorithm. The response obtained

is of fashion as shown in figure.

The initial oscillations in the response are undesirable as

can be seen from the figure 8, although best possible ISE

has been obtained for this response. The undesirability is

due to the fact that such sudden and large oscillations can

damage the actuator. To reduce these oscillations we

need to modify the objective function so that such tuned

values can completely be rejected while the algorithm is

being proceeded.

In the algorithm we are actually storing the values of the

error at each sampling instant in an array. Here

modification done was that for each sampling instant and

a future sampling instant (+1 sec and +2 sec) was taken

into consideration, the difference between the values of

output for both of these time instants must be less than

0.2(taking into assumption a value less than or equal to

0.2 is desirable). If this condition is not true the

algorithm immediately rejects that path. This is done by

putting ISE value for that path very large forcefully. The

reason the future sampling instant was taken at +1 and

+2 sec is that the time difference in occurrence of crest

and trough was around 1 to 2 seconds which can be seen

from the response.

This resulted in getting a response with significantly less

oscillatory behavior in the transient section of the

1

Response

S.no

desirable response.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Time(.003sec)

10000

12000

VI. CONCLUSION

encountered while implementation of Ant Colony

Algorithm, in the form of large number of iterations and

improper response, so suitable modifications were done

in the algorithm so as to get proper results.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

REFERENCES

Optimization", A Bradford Book The MIT Press

Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England 2004.

Marco Dorigo, Luca Maria Gambardella, "Ant Colony

System: A Cooperative Learning Approach to the

Travelling Salesman Problem" ,Accepted for publication

in the IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation,

Vol.1, No.1, 1997.PP 1-21.

Oscar Castillo, Witold Pedrycz, and Janusz Kacprzyk

,"Evolutionary Design of Intelligent Systems in

Modelling, Simulation and Control", Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg 2009. pp.3-16.

R. Mitra, Samarth Singh, "Optimal Fuzzy Supervised PID

Controller using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm" ,

published in International Journal of Advance in

Electronic and Electric Engineering, Research India

Publication, vol 3, No.5. pp.543-550.

Yongsheng Zhao, Baoying Li "A New Method for

Optimizing Fuzzy Membership Function", Proceedings of

the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics

and Automation, 2007, Harbin, China. pp. 674-678.

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