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Inlet Air Cooling & Wet Compression

ETN- Brussels
2006-10-12

Mohsen Assadi
LU ND UN IVE RSITY

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Inlet Air Cooling - Overview

Why do we need inlet air cooling?

Cooling techniques available


A short description of its functionality and
applicability

Operating experience and analysis (PG & PG I)

No time left for questions - do not hesitate to stop


me and ask your question while still in your head

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Why Do We Need Inlet Air Cooling?

The general benefits associated with inlet cooling are:

Decreases the work of compression

Increase air density also means that the gas turbine


can operate with higher mass flow

The compressor discharge temperature is being


lowered giving the possibility to burn more fuel in order
to reach the same TIT, hence increasing power output

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Potential enhancement
Inlet cooling techniques
Potential performance enhancement - GT10B
27000

25000

Chillers

Power output [kW]

23000

Cooling not
applicable due
to icing risk

21000

RH 30%

19000

ISO conditions GT10B


Media based evaporative cooler, RH 60%

RH 60%

Media based evaporative cooler, RH 30%


Fogging, RH 60%

17000

Fogging, RH 30%

ISO

Chiller, RH 60%
Chiller, RH 30%

15000

10

20

30

40

50

60

Ambient temperature [C]

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Mechanical Chiller

Inlet fogging

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

Media based evaporative cooler

Wet compression

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Mechanical Chiller

Mechanical chiller
Refrigerant cooling technique
Has cooling coils placed in the airstream
Consists of

One huge fridge


Inlet coils
Cooling tower

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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Cooling Techniques Available


Mechanical Chiller

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Mechanical Chiller

Found in study
Performance

Can cool the inlet air back to 15C from any ambient condition

Expensive, High investment, and O&M costs


Construction time is 6-9 months and require a turbine down time
about 7-10 days

Advantages

The gas turbine will regain its original efficiency

Economy

Great power output augmentation. 15% at 35C and 50% RH

Not susceptible to ambient conditions

Disadvantages

Large footprint, bulky construction, water tower


Require large face area across chilling coil
Added pressure drop in the air intake system

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Media Based Evaporative Cooler

Based on the principle of adiabatic saturation


Media where water and air interacts is
placed in the airstream
Water evaporates from the surface
The air is cooled by the latent heat of
vaporization
Consist of:
Media based cooler unit
Distribution pads
Media

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Media Based Evaporative Cooler

Found in study
Performance

Economy

Investment cost is low. About 1 00 000 Euro


O&M is low. Media change every 3 year
Construction time: 30 days. Turbine down time 7-10 days

Advantages

Usually have an effectiveness of 85-90 %


Increases the power output. 5 % at 35C and 50% RH

Low risk for overspray, Passive system


Potable water can be used
No integration with GT needed

Disadvantages

The effectiveness is limited by ambient conditions


Added pressure drop in the air intake system

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Inlet Fogging

Based on the adiabatic saturation


process

Water is injected through nozzles

Small droplets in the airstream

Droplets evaporate and air is


cooled

Consists of

Pump skid

Nozzle rack

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Inlet Fogging

Found in study
Performance

Economy

Investment cost is low. About 60 000 Euro


O&M is low. Nozzle replacement every 2nd year
Construction time: 20 days. Turbine down time 2-3 days

Advantages

Effectiveness around 90-97 %


Increases the power output. 6 % at 35C and 50% RH

Achieves lower inlet temperature compared to media based evap.


Requires small footprint
No added pressure loss in air intake system

Disadvantages

Integration with GT control system required


Demineralized water needed
Large droplet can cause erosion
Require inlet drain consideration & careful implementation

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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EU Related Projects

Based on the adiabatic saturation process


Achieves cooling by
Normal evaporative cooling
Intercooling effect in compressor
Water is injected through nozzles
Small droplets in the air stream
Droplets evaporate and air is cooled
Consist of:
Pump skid
Nozzle rack

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

Wet compression
recommended location of
installation

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Cooling Techniques Available


Wet Compression

Power output vs. ambient temperature

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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LUN D UN IV ER SIT Y

Cooling Techniques Available


Wet Compression

Found in study
Performance
Great

power output augmentation. Increases by 10-15 %


Great efficiency augmentation. Improves and regain efficiency by 1-3 %

Economy
Investment

cost about 3 00 000 Euro


Low O&M costs. Nozzle replacements every 2-3 year
Construction time: 30 days. Turbine down 5 days

Advantages
More

independent of ambient conditions


Can be placed downstream of media based cooler or inlet fogging

Disadvantages
Must

be integrated with GT control system


Gas turbine adjustments might be needed to adapt to new operating
conditions for compressor and combustor
Risks associated with wet compression
Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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Wet Compression Evaluation


Results

Velocity triangles

Axial velocity is lowered

Leads to off-design blade operation

Blade angles is no longer optimized to

Rear stage

the flow

Increased risk for stall and surge

Increased fouling is seen in the latter


stages. Increased incidence angles
can be the explanation

C - absolute velocity
W - relative velocity
Ca - axial velocity
U - blade rotational speed
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Cooling Techniques Available


Wet Compression

For a first time wet compression installation a couple of issues needs


to be investigated
Components life

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Pulsation

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Operating Experiences

Operating experience
Leading edge erosion seen. Worst at row 1 blades and
decreases downstream. In a 16 stage compressor, last
signs of erosion can be seen at stage 12.

Pitting corrosion is considered a medium risk if the


system is not running constantly.

Other potential risks have not been encountered or


have successfully been mitigated.

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Operating Experiences

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

Erosion on inlet guide vane


Pitting corrosion potential

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Summation and Analysis

Media based evaporative cooler is well-known and proven technique

Inlet fogging is a cost-effective and promising technique but

Great power output


Expensive and bulky installations. Inconvenient technique for medium
sized gas turbines.

Absorption chillers

Should be used on certain GT with enough inlet duct length

Mechanical chillers

Should be recommended for the present

Great power output


Expensive and bulky installations. Promising technique if cheaper

Wet compression

Great performance enhancement


Cost-effective and flexible. Involves a lot of unknown risks.
If risks can be mitigated, this technique is the best alternative

Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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Prof. Mohsen Assadi

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