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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Cemented Carbide Inserts


Cryogenic treatment, the discipline upon which the present study is based, can be
considered a recent development. A few researchers have studied the impact of
cryogenic treatment on tungsten carbide inserts. The effect of temperature on the
performance of cryotreated WC-Co tools has been investigated by other researchers by
the use of coolants and interrupted machining modes. For instance, Yong et al. [14]
determined that by using coolant, the improvement in tool-life caused by deep cryogenic
treatment could be increased by almost 10% in some cases, when face milling medium
carbon steel with a Sumitomo SPCH 42R G10E tungsten carbide insert. In a turning
operation, Gill et al. [7] observed that using an interrupted machining mode had a greater
beneficial effect on the life of cryotreated tungsten carbide inserts than the use of a
coolant to flood the cutting zone. Studies such as these indicate that both shallow and
deep cryogenic treatments offer significant performance improvements to WC-Co tools,
but that these improvements are strongly dependent on other factors, such as coatings
(where deep cryogenic treatment tends to have adverse effects), machining parameters
(where the benefits of cryogenic treatment are minimised at both low and high cutting
speeds) and tool temperature (where both the use of coolant and interrupted machining
modes can enhance the performance of cryotreated tools).
2.1.1 Physical Characteristics
NurselAltanzbek et al.[1] analyzed the microstructural alterations of (tungsten
carbide), (cobalt binder), (carbide of cubic lattice) and (multiple carbides of
tungsten and at least one metal of the binder) phases within the tungsten carbide tools

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caused by the cryogenic treatment, and links these changes to the corresponding
enhanced tool life. XRD study showed the formation of complex phases like W3Co3C
and W6Co6C after cryo treatment. This phase is known as phase. These complex
phases results in the increase in hardness due to exposure of skeleton carbide matrix due
to later post treatments. Reddy et al.[3] observed that The surface roughness of the work
piece was lower by approximately 20% when the workpiece was machined with deep
cryogenic treated tungsten carbide tool inserts in comparison with untreated inserts for
cutting speeds in the range between 200 and 350 m/min. Reddy et al.[3] concluded that
the surface finish of the workpiece is better, when the workpiece was machined, with
cryogenic treated inserts in comparison with untreated inserts at all cutting speeds.
2.1.2 Mechanical Characteristics
NurselAltanzbek et al [1] his research on the effects of cryogenic treatment of tungsten
carbide, also noted a slight increase in hardness of the cryogenically treated tool. Chen
[5], in his research on the cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide, noted that there were
significant improvements in the hardness of cemented carbides after they were subjected
to cryogenic treatment. He also found that the hardness of the cryogenically treated tools
increased with increasing cobalt content as well. It should also be noted that the decrease
in hardness of the untreated tool as the cobalt content increases is much greater in degree
compared to the increase achieved with cryogenic treatment. Thakur et al.[9] studied that
there is a slight increase in the micro hardness due to the controlled cryogenic treatment
compared to untreated WCCo sample. But other two post treatments showed a
considerable improvement in the hardness. The formation of the complex compounds
such as Co6W6C or Co3W3C might have increased the hardness in the case of the
samples due to forced air cooling and oil quenching. Reddy et al. [2]investigated that the
surface finish of the C45 workpiece is better on machining with low temperature treated
inserts in comparison with untreated inserts at all cutting speeds. Thus there is also a
decrease in main cutting force of 2.0% and improvement in surface roughness of the

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work piece of 8.42%.According to Jiang Yong and Chen Ding [10]Hardness and
compression strength of the YG8 samples treated by cryogenic environment are higher
than that of the untreated ones, while bending strength and toughness show no significant
changes. The improvement of mechanical properties is highly dependent on the soaking
time.
2.2 Effect of Machining Performance of Cemented Carbides inserts
2.2.1 Effect of cryogenic treatment on tool life
Various researchers demonstrated that cryogenic treatment of carbide results in change
in performance of their performance in machining. NurselAltan et al. [1] reported
increase in increase wear resistance of carbides after cryogenic treatment the best wear
resistance was obtained with cutting inserts cryogenically treated for 24 h. This case was
attributed to the increased hardness and improved micro- structure of cemented carbide
inserts.
Gill et al. [6] did comparative investigation of the wear behavior of cryogenically treated
tungsten carbide inserts in dry and wet orthogonal turning conditions to excavate the
affect of coolants on the performance of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts.
The authors claimed that the use of coolant coupled with cryogenic treatment of tungsten
carbide inserts further improved the tool life. They also concluded that considerable
increase in life of cryogenically treated tools can be attained for interrupted machining
mode as compared with continuous machining mode.
Reddy et al.[3] observed that the tool life of deep cryogenic treated coated cemented
tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts of ISO P-40 grade is larger by a factor of 1.27 (27%
increase) when compared to untreated inserts for cutting speeds in the range between
200 and 350m/min.
Gill et al [7] concluded The deep cryogenic treatment has destructive effect on the
performance of TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts especially at lower cutting speeds.

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However, at higher cutting speeds, marginal gain in tool life can be obtained. Also, deep
cryogenic treatment weakens coatingsubstrate interfacial adhesion bonding. Overall,
deep cryogenic treatment is not recommended for TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts
as the benefit gained is not significant. Baldissera investigated the effects of varied
cryogenic treatments (soaking temperatures of 143K and 88K, soaking times of 9hrs and
24hrs) on the hardness and tensile properties [21], and the fatigue and corrosion
resistance [22] of AISI 302 stainless steel.
Although reported changes in tensile properties or hardness showed no conclusive
trends, Baldissera highlights the need for an atomic scale approach to investigate the
effects that cryogenic treatment may have on properties such as elastic modulus.
Although DCT displayed no significant effects on the fatigue life or corrosion resistance
of AISI 302 received as standard, it was shown to cause a significant improvement in
the fatigue life of specimens having undergone solubilisation treatment at 1325K prior
to DCT.
Further, the results suggested that this improvement was not dependent on an extensive
soaking time, with no significant differences seen between specimens treated for 9hrs
and 24hrs. Zhirafar et al. [23] performed a range of treatments and mechanical tests on
AISI 4340 steel, differing from many authors by choosing a relatively basic and
commonly used material. After austenitising the steel at 845C and performing an oil
quench, a single tempering cycle of 200C, 300C or 455C was applied, in half of the
samples preceded by DCT using gaseous nitrogen for slow cooling and with a 24 hour
soaking period.

2.2.2 Micro Structural Changes and Taguchi Approach


Alongside their investigations into the wear behaviour of cryotreated AISI D2, Das et al.
[12, 13] conducted thorough microstructural analyses involving optical microscopy, X-

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ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX)
measurements.
It has been suggested that in tool steels, the improvement seen in wear resistance is as a
result of three main phenomena: (i) the reduction or elimination of retained austenite
(R) from the microstructure [16, 17]; (ii) increased precipitation, dispersion and
refinement of secondary carbides [18]; and (iii) the increase in matrix hardness due to
DCT, although increases in bulk hardness are also reported for some tool steels [16, 12].
In their investigations Das et al. identify all three phenomena and quantify the
proportions of retained austenite, martensite and carbides within the matrix after CHT,
CT, SCT and DCT. Measured proportions of each feature along with a breakdown of the
volume fraction of secondary carbides into small (0.11.0m) and large (1-5m) particles.
They confirm the findings of many researchers that CT substantially reduces the
proportion of retained austenite, while SCT and DCT may eliminate it from the matrix
completely as cryotreatment takes steels below their martensite finish temperature; in
the case of AISI D2 steel 148K. It can be seen that cryotreatment has little effect on
primary carbides (5m), which is expected as their characteristics are determined by
the time and temperature of the precryotreatment, high temperature austenitisation [18].
The volume fraction of secondary carbides by contrast, increases by 7%, 14% and 53%
due to CT, SCT and DCT respectively. Also noted is the greater increase in the volume
fraction of smaller secondary carbides (SSCs), than their larger counterparts (LSCs) due
to DCT over any of the other treatments.
Carbides are characterized with a small amount of Cr7C3 in the D2 steel specimens after
all treatments, confirming that cryotreatment has no effect on the nature of primary and
secondary carbides. It is clear from the unchanged primary carbide proportions that
cryogenic treatment results in new dispersions of carbides, as opposed to modifying
existing ones. This can be explained, as low temperatures during cryogenic treatment
may be expected to cause a distortion of the lattice structure leading to dislocation

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concentrations to which carbon atoms may diffuse during subsequent tempering [7].
During tempering these carbide nuclei undergo limited growth based on the diffusion of
local carbide forming elements, but have neither sufficient time nor energy to grow
beyond around 100nm in size, or merge with other nearby carbide nuclei. Tyshchenko
et al. [18] argue that, although the suggested diffusion distances for carbon atoms at low
temperatures are small, at cryogenic temperatures they would be expected to be, to all
intents and purposes, immobile.
Furthermore, Gavriljuk et al. [19] point out that the energy required for carbon atoms to
bond to dislocation sites is greater than that required for the dissolution of transient
carbides and even cementite; hence carbon atoms around such dislocation concentrations
would enter solution with the matrix material before forming new carbide nuclei. In this
sense if carbon concentrations were to be present around dislocation sites during
cryogenic treatment they would not promote new carbide precipitations, but rather
inhibit them. Instead they suggest that such carbon concentrations could only be formed
by the plastic deformation of martensite at cryogenic temperatures and the transport of
carbon atoms by the corresponding movement of dislocations. It is this time-dependent
movement of dislocations that causes the relationship between the duration of the
cryogenic treatment and the number of fine carbides subsequently precipitated. .
In their studies of Fe-12Cr-MoV-1.4C tool steel, Meng et al. [20] observed -carbides;
rod-like structures 5-10nm in cross-section and 20-40nm in length, as opposed to the
larger carbides described by Das et al. [12].
Krishankant et al. [24] author has claimed that taguchi orthogonal array was designed
the three levels are formed they are turning Spindle speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut. the
larger-the-better is made as a quality characteristic for the Taguchi method.
Nikam et al. [25] EN 8 steel has cam shaft applications. Surface roughness is depend on
cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and other parameters .from the experiment bset

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surface finish (lowest Ra) is obtained at the cutting speed of 200 m/min, feed rate of 0.2
mm/revolutions and a depth of cut of 0.5mm.
ieket al [26] author has taken Two cutting tools. And the control factors are cutting
speeds and feed rates. L8 orthogonal array was employed .Minimum surface roughness
and roundness error were obtained with treated drills.Fromderiving the predictive
equations of the multiple regression analysis, the surface roughness and roundness error
are achieved by the experimental design.
Optimization of drilling parameters are carried out in Taguchi method to and obtainthe
optimal surface roughness and roundness error in the drilling of AISI 316 austenitic
stainless