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Ateism

Cuvntul grecesc (atheoi), aa cum apare n Epistola lui


Pavel ctre efeseni 2:12, ntr-un manuscris din secolul al III-lea.
Este tradus ca: [cei ce sunt] fr Dumnezeu[12] sau fr de
Dumnezeu.[13]

n existena zeilor - fr a necesar s cread c zeii nu


exist, deoarece ateismul n sine este absena credinei (i
crezrii) n zei.[14][15]
Se disting dou modele de ateism: ateismul pozitiv (sau
tare) i ateismul negativ (sau moale). n timp ce un
ateu pozitiv arm inexistena divinitii, un ateu negativ
Baronul d'Holbach
nu face dect s nu arme existena sa. Cele dou modele sunt cel mai uor de distins cu ajutorul urmtoarelor
Ateismul reprezint negarea existenei lui Dumnezeu i enunuri: Consider c nu exist zei. (ateu pozitiv); Nu
[1][2][3][4][4][5][5][6][7]
a oricrei alte diviniti sau zeiti.
consider c exist zei. (ateu negativ).
Ateismul este opusul teismului,[8][9] cea mai general forCuvintele din sfera ateismului au fost create mai nti n
m a credinei n existena a cel puin unei zeiti.[9][10]
limba francez (sub formele athe, athiste i athisme)
Cuvantul "ateism" provine din grecescul atheos (greac n secolul al XVI-lea i au intrat apoi i n celelalte limbi
), nsemnnd fr Dumnezeu, i a fost folosit ca europene. nainte de cuvintele franuzeti menionate, a
termen peiorativ celor care respingeau divinitile vene- existat n jurul anului 1534 i forma atheonism, probabil
rate de majoritatea societii. Primii oameni care se iden- derivat din cuvntul italian atheo (ateu). La baza tuturor
ticau ca ind atei, au trit n secolul al XVIII-lea.
acestor cuvinte a stat adjectivul grecesc atheos, format din
Argumentele care susin ateismul variaz de la cele lo- particula privativ - a- (fr) i theos (zeu), care
zoce pn la abordri sociale, istorice i chiar tiini- nsemna iniial fr zei sau fr credin n zei, pentru ca
ce. Cele mai populare argumente care susin ateismul ncepnd din seculul al V-lea .Hr. s capete conotaia
sunt lipsa oricrei evidene empirice, problema forelor care neag zeii, necredincios, pctos.
rului i numeroasele contradicii ntre religii i n cadrul Karen Armstrong scria: "n timpul secolelor XVI i
aceleiai religii. Muli atei susin c lipsa existenei unei XVII, cuvntul 'ateu', era rezervat exclusiv pentru polediviniti este mult mai probabil dect existena aceste- mici...Termenul de 'ateu' era o insult. Nimeni nu visa
ia.Cei care trebuie s aduc dovezi n susinerea punctului s se considere un ateu.[16] n secolul XX, globalizarea
de vedere sunt teitii, pentru c ei sunt cei care arm un a contribuit la claricarea termenului, acesta referindu-se
fapt ca ind adevrat, i nu ateitii care doar le contest la nencrederea n orice form de divinitate.[17]
armaiile .[11]

2 Deniii

Etimologie

Cuvntul "ateism" este format din dou cuvinte greceti: - Ateismul puternic:[18] negare a existenei lui Dumneprexul a (care nseamn fr) i suxul theos (care zeu i a oricrei diviniti; concepie care se bazeaz pe
nseamn zeu). Astfel, un ateu este cineva care nu crede aceast negare.[19]
1

5 MOTIVAII PENTRU ATEISM

- Ateismul de facto:
divinitilor.[18]

lipsa credinei n existena bine de dragul binelui nu de frica unei diviniti inexistente. Printre ateii de renume pot enumerai, Stephen
Hawkings, Richard Dawkins, etc

Istoric

n Grecia antic Epicurismul ncorpora aspecte ale ateismului, dar a disprut din tradiia lozoc pe msura
dezvoltrii cretinismului. n timpul Renaterii conceptul de ateism a reaprut ca o acuz adus celor ce puneau
la ndoial starea de lucruri religioas, ns acesta ctig
prestigiu n epoca Luminilor. n secolul al XX-lea ateismul a devenit o poziie lozoc exprimat cu precdere
n cercurile raionalitilor i ale umanitilor seculari. Dea lungul istoriei, muli oameni de tiin, lozo, scriitori
i oameni politici au fost atei.

5 Motivaii pentru ateism


5.1 ndoieli privind existena unui Dumnezeu

n cadrul raionalismului tiinic se ajunge la ndoieli privind existena lui Dumnezeu nu datorit unei descoperiri
anume, ci progresiv. Pe de o parte e simplu de pus sub
semnul ntrebrii existena creaiei aa cum e descris de
religie: tiina nu a putut dovedi concludent c a existat
un potop mondial iar secvena evoluionar a universului
nu coincide cu nici o versiune a genezei religioase; mai
mult, toate fenomenele care erau explicate ca suprana4 Ateism, etic i religie
turale au cptat n timp explicaii tiinice. n aceste
condiii principiul parcimoniei (Briciul lui Occam) imMulte religii arm c moralitatea este derivat din po- plic ipoteza prezenei divine ca nenecesar.[22][23]
runcile unei anumite zeiti i c teama de zei este un factor major n motivarea oamenilor pentru o conduit etic.
Ca urmare, ateii au fost deseori acuzai ca ind amorali 5.2 Problema rului
sau imorali. Ateii resping aceast acuz i arm c sunt
la fel de motivai de o comportare etic ca oricine altci- Problema rului e probabil cel mai vechi i mai puternic
neva e prin educaie, e prin umanism, legislaie sau argument al ateismului contra religiei. Pe scurt, existena
dorina de a avea o bun reputaie i respectul de sine. Ei rului n lume e incompatibil cu existena unui Dumarm c un comportament cu adevrat etic deriv din nezeu binevoitor, i e mai rezonabil s concluzionezi c
motivaii altruiste, nu din teama de pedeaps sau speran- Dumnezeu nu exist dect c exist dar nu face nimic s
[24]
a n rsplat dup moarte. Mai mult, ei citeaz faptul c opreasc Rul.
n multe religii conceptul de moralitate e prezentat doar Aceast problem a fost formulat prima dat de losoca o list de interdicii (s nu...), ceea ce nu e sucient ful grec antic Epicur, de aceea mai este cunoscut i sub
pentru un comportament cu adevrat etic - moralitatea ar numele de Paradoxul lui Epicur:
trebui s e i pozitiv, nu doar negativ; fac i ce trebuie
s fac, nu doar m abin de la ce trebuie s nu fac.
Vrea Dumnezeu s opreasc rul, dar nu poaDei n mod evident este preferabil o conduit motivate? Atunci nu este atotputernic. Poate Dumnet de pornirea altruist i empatic a omului, dect una
zeu s opreasc rul, dar nu vrea? Atunci el nincitat de teama de pedepse aplicate de o zeitate n imesui este ru. Poate i vrea Dumnezeu s opreasdiatul imanent sau n eluzivul transcendent, fapt rmne
c rul? Atunci de ce mai exist ru n lume?
c exist i studii care susin c virtutea i eciena religiNu poate i nu vrea Dumnezeu s opreasc rei i religiozitii pot funciona uneori ca stimulent moral:
ul? Atunci de ce l numim Dumnezeu?
unele studii arm c credincioii n SUA se dovedesc a
astfel mai altruiti dect ateii, c ei i folosesc timpul
ntr-un mod mai constructiv dect ateii, i, mai important, 5.3 Motivaia istoric
reuesc s-i nfrneze mai bine tentaiile impulsive, fapt
vital n orice planicare pe termen lung, e c e vorba Istoria evreilor, aa cum ne este ea prezentat de istoridespre carier, coal sau nane personale. Cei credin- ograa i arheologia modern, nu corespunde acelei vercioi, deci par a mai sociabili dect ateii, mai implicai siuni mitice redate de Biblie. Teme centrale ale istorin comunitate i, n ne, mai fericii.[20] Voltaire spunea ei relaiei omului (evreilor) cu Dumnezeu, precum istocndva c ar vrea ca avocatul lui, i croitorul lui, i valeii ria Patriarhilor, exodul, cucerirea Canaanului, istoria molui, ba chiar pn i nevasta lui, s cread n Dumnezeu, narhic i exilul, ori nu au existat pur i simplu, ori ele
acestuia plcndu-i s cread c astfel va escrocat mai s-au desfurat sensibil diferit fa de versiunea biblic
rar, i c i se vor pune mai rar coarne.[21] Ateismul pro- a faptelor, aceasta din urm dovedindu-se nalmente o
moveaz etica i moralul fr a nfricoa cu o pedeaps versiune ideologizat i politizat, practic o ncercare de
ulterioar, ci bazndu-se strict pe produse ale raiunii i rescriere naionalist i expansionist a istoriei de ctre
gndirii libere i progresive. Ateii sunt oameni care fac monarhia regatului sudic (Iuda), dup cderea Israelului

5.3

Motivaia istoric

(regatul nordic). Vezi pentru asta recenta lucrare a directorului Institului de Arheologie i Istorie de pe lng
Universitatea din Tel-Aviv, anume profesorul Israel Finkelstein, lucrare numit "Biblia dezgropat" (The Bible
Unearthed).[25]

i ebraic). Faptul c nu avem aceste cuvinte ne arat,


gndeam eu, c el nu le-a pstrat pentru noi netirbite.
Iar dac el nu a produs acest miracol, nu pare s existe
niciun motiv de a crede c el a produs miracolul anterior,
cel de a inspira aceste cuvinte.[28]

Istoria documentelor, anume a textului sacru nsui, i ea,


ofer multiple motive de scepticism: istoria micrii cretine de la nceputuri, istoria canonului biblic, a sinoadelor
i a scrierilor apocrife, dovezile istorice care sprijin poziia hermeneuticii moderne asupra anumitor pasaje biblice introduse sau modicate de-a lungul timpului.

Bart D. Ehrman, Misquoting Jesus. The Story Behind


Who Changed the Bible and Why.

Din punct de vedere arheologic i istoric, redatarea acestor orae de la epoca lui Solomon la perioada omrid are
implicaii enorme. Ea nltur singura dovad arheologic dup care ar existat vreodat o monarhie unit cu
capitala n Ierusalim i arat c David i Solomon erau, n
termeni politici, nimic altceva dect cpitani ai inutului
deluros, a cror raz administrativ era limitat la nivelul
local, adic la inutul deluros.[25]
Israel Finkelstein i Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible
Unearthed. Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel
and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts.
Dar excavrile din oraul lui David au oferit descoperiri
impresionante din Epoca mijlocie a bronzului i din secolele ulterioare ale Epocii erului - dar nu din secolul al
X-lea .e.n. Cea mai optimist evaluare a acestei dovezi
negative este c Ierusalimul din secolul a X-lea era limitat ca suprafa, probabil nu mai mare dect un sat tipic
pentru inutul deluros.[26]

Mi s-a cerut ns s predau un curs numit Problema


suferinei n tradiiile biblice. M-am bucurat de aceast
ans deoarece mi s-a prut o cale interesant de a aborda Biblia: examinnd rspunsurile date de diveri autori
biblici ntrebrii de ce exist suferin n lume, n special
printre oamenii Domnului. Credina mea era i este nc:
diveri autori ai Bibliei au avut soluii diferite la ntrebarea de ce sufer poporul lui Dumnezeu: unii (cum ar
profeii) gndeau c suferina provine dintr-o pedeaps
a lui Dumnezeu pentru pcat; unii gndeau c suferina
vine de la inamicii cosmici ai lui Dumnezeu, care produceau suferina precis pentru c oamenii fceau ceea ce era
drept n ochii Domnului; alii gndeau c suferina vine
ca un test pentru a vedea dac oamenii vor rmne credincioi n ciuda suferinei; alii armau c suferina este
un mister i c e greit s ne ntrebm de ce o ngduie
Dumnezeu; iar alii gndeau c lumea aceasta este un dezastru complet i c trebuie s mncm, s bem i s ne
veselim atunci cnd o putem face. .a.m.d. Mi se prea
i mi se pare nc: una din cile de a nelege vasta diversitate a motenirii scripturale a evreilor i cretinilor este
s nelegem cum autori diferii au rspuns la ntrebarea
fundamental a suferinei.[29]

Israel Finkelstein i Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Bart D. Ehrman, Gods Problem. How the Bible Fails
Unearthed. Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel to Answer Our Most Important QuestionWhy We Suer
and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts.
Prima ntrebare era dac Moise putea ntr-adevr auIdolatria poporului lui Iuda nu era o abatere de la un mo- torul celor Cinci Cri ale lui Moise, din moment ce ulnoteism anterior al lor. Ea era de fapt felul n care poporul tima carte, Deuteronomul, descrie n mod foarte detaliat
lui Iuda se nchina de sute de ani.[27]
timpul precis i mprejurrile proprii mori a lui Moise.
Israel Finkelstein i Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Alte incoerene au devenit rapid clare: textul biblic era
Unearthed. Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel ncrcat cu paranteze literare care explicau numele antic
al unor locuri i remarcau n mod frecvent c dovezi ale
and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts.
faimoaselor evenimente biblice erau disponibile pn n
ziua de azi . Aceti factori i-au convins pe unii cercetDac cineva vrea s susin c Dumnezeu a inspirat - tori din secolul al XVII-lea c cel puin primele cinci cri
ecare cuvinel al scripturii, ce rost ar avea asta dac nu ale Bibliei au fost alctuite, amplicate i nfrumuseate
avem cuvintele originare ale scripturii? n anumite lo- de editori ulteriori, anonimi i de revizori din secolele cacuri, aa cum vom vedea, pur i simplu nu putem siguri re au urmat.
c am reconstruit cu acuratee textul original. Este cam Spre sfritul secolului al XVIII-lea i preponderent n cel
greu s tii ce nseamn cuvintele Bibliei dac nici mcar de-al XIX-lea muli cercettori critici ai Bibliei au ncenu tim care sunt cuvintele ei!
put s se ndoiasc de faptul c Moise ar avut ceva deAceasta a devenit o problem pentru viziunea mea asu- a face cu scrierea crilor Pentateuhului; ei au ajuns s
pra inspiraiei, cci mi-am dat seama c nu ar fost mai cread c Biblia era n mod exclusiv opera unor autori
dicil pentru Dumnezeu s pstreze netirbite cuvintele trzii. Aceti cercettori au artat ceea ce preau drept
scripturii dect i-a fost s le inspire iniial. Dac el dorea versiuni diferite ale acelorai poveti din crile Pentateca poporul su s aibe cuvintele sale, cu siguran i le-ar uhului, sugernd c textul biblic era produsul mai multor
transmis lui (i poate le-ar transmis cuvintele ntr-o scriitori care puteau astfel recunoscui. O citire atent a
limb pe care s-o neleag, mai degrab dect n greac

crii Genezei, spre exemplu, a demonstrat dou versiuni


contradictorii ale creaiei (1:1-2:3 i 2:4-25), dou genealogii foarte diferite ale urmailor lui Adam (4:17-26 i
5:1-28), i dou poveti separate i rescrise ale potopului
(6:5-9:17). n plus, erau zeci de dublete i uneori chiar
triplete ale acelorai evenimente n povetile cltoriilor
patriarhilor, Ieirii din Egipt i drii Legii.[30]

DEMOGRAFIE

au nicio religie, o categorie care include i ateii.[35]


ntre 64% i 65% de japonezi[39] i pn la 81% din
vietnamezi[40] sunt atei, agnostici, sau nu cred ntr-un
Dumnezeu[38] .

Israel Finkelstein i Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible


Unearthed. Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel
and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts.

Demograe

Procentajul persoanelor din diferite ri Europene care susin:


Eu nu cred c ar exista orice fel de spirit, Dumnezeu sau for divin. (2005)[31]

Este dicil de cuanticat numrul de atei din lume. Un


sondaj din 2010 publicat n Encyclopdia Britannica a
constatat c circa 9,6% din populaia lumii este nonreligioas iar aproximativ 2,0% sunt atei. Aceast cifr
nu-i include pe cei care urmeaz religii atee, cum ar
buditii.[32][33]
Un sondaj de opinie derulat n noiembrie-decembrie 2006
publicat n Financial Times ofer date pentru Statele Unite i cinci ri europene. Cele mai sczute rate ale ateismului au fost gsite n Statele Unite (4%), n timp ce numrul ateilor n rile europene studiate a fost considerabil mai mare: Italia (7%), Spania (11%), Marea Britanie
(17%), Germania (20%) i Frana (32%).[34][35] Aceste
rezultate sunt similare cu cele ale unui sondaj ocial al
Uniunii Europene, care a raportat c 18% din populaia
UE nu cred ntr-o divinitate.[36] Alte studii au plasat procentul estimat de atei, agnostici i necredincioi ntr-un
Dumnezeu personal la valori mici n Polonia, Romnia,
Cipru[37] i pn la 85% n Suedia, 80% n Danemarca,
72% n Norvegia i 60% n Finlanda[38] . Potrivit Biroului Australian de Statistic, 22% dintre australieni nu

Procentajul ateilor i agnosticilor n lume.

Un studiu internaional a raportat corelaii pozitive ntre


nivelul de educaie i necredina ntr-o divinitate,[41] un
alt studiu al Uniunii Europene constat o corelaie pozitiv ntre abandonul colar timpuriu i credina ntr-o
divinitate.[36] Un articol publicat n Nature n 1998 a prezentat un sondaj care sugereaz c credina ntr-un Dumnezeu personal sau n viaa de dup moarte a fost redus n
rndul membrilor Academiei Nationale de tiine a Statelor Unite (7%) cu mult mai mic dect populaia general
din SUA 85%[42] , dei acest studiu a fost criticat pentru
denirea strict a credinei n Dumnezeu[43][44] . ntr-un
articol publicat de periodicul de informaie al Universitii din Chicago (numit the Chronicle), care a dezbtut
studiul de mai sus, s-a artat c 76% din medicii americani cred n Dumnezeu, procent mai mare dect valoarea
gsit n studiul precedent (7% din oameni de tiin),
dar mai puin dect 85% din populaia general[45] . Un
alt studiu de evaluare a religiozitii printre oamenii de
tiin, membri ai Asociaiei Americane pentru Progresul
tiinei a constatat c 51% dintre oamenii de tiin cred
ntr-o form de divinitate sau o putere superioar sau, mai
precis, 33% din oamenii de tiin cred n Dumnezeu, n
timp ce 18% cred ntr-un spirit universal sau o putere superioar "[46] . Frank Sulloway de la Institutul de Tehnologie din Massachusetts i Michael Shermer de la Universitatea de Stat din California au efectuat un studiu n
care subiecii au fost intelectuali aduli din SUA (12%
au avut doctorat i 62% au fost absolveni de facultate)
64% dintre acestia cred n Dumnezeu existand o corelaie care indic faptul c religiozitatea scade cu creterea
nivelului de educaie[47] . O corelaie invers ntre religiozitate i inteligen s-a constatat, n 39 de studii efectuate
ntre 1927 i 2002, n conformitate cu un articol din revista Mensa Magazine[48] . Aceste constatri coincid n
mare parte cu meta-analiza statistic din 1958 efectuat de profesorul Michael Argyle de la Universitatea din
Oxford. El a analizat apte studii de cercetare care au
investigat corespondena dintre atitudinea fa de religie
i inteligena msurat printre elevi i studeni din SUA.
Dei o corelaie clar negativ a fost gsit, analiza nu a
identicat cauzalitatea, dar a observat c factori precum
mediul familial autoritar i clasa social pot juca, de ase-

5
menea, un rol[49] . Studii privind proporia condamnailor
la nchisoare fr instruire religioas plaseaz procentul
la aproximativ 0.1%[50] . Pe de alt parte, alte analize statistice demonstreaz c procentul de arestri este invers
proporional cu angajamentul religios n comunitate (numrul de participri la serviciile religioase n biserici),
aa cum arat un studiu american al National Opinion Research Center ptr. anii 1974-2004.[51] .

Vezi i
Ateismul n Romnia
Agnosticism
Argumente pro i contra existenei lui Dumnezeu
Controversa creaie-evoluionism
Deism
Dumnezeu
Liste de atei
Monoteism
Panteism
Pandeism
Raionalism
Religie
Scepticism
Secularism

Referine

[1] Nielsen 2011: Instead of saying that an atheist is someone who believes that it is false or probably false that there is a God, a more adequate characterization of atheism
consists in the more complex claim that to be an atheist is
to be someone who rejects belief in God for the following
reasons ... : for an anthropomorphic God, the atheist rejects belief in God because it is false or probably false that
there is a God; for a nonanthropomorphic God ... because
the concept of such a God is either meaningless, unintelligible, contradictory, incomprehensible, or incoherent;
for the God portrayed by some modern or contemporary theologians or philosophers ... because the concept of
God in question is such that it merely masks an atheistic
substancee.g., God is just another name for love, or
... a symbolic term for moral ideals.
[2] Edwards 2005: On our denition, an 'atheist' is a person
who rejects belief in God, regardless of whether or not
his reason for the rejection is the claim that 'God exists
expresses a false proposition. People frequently adopt an
attitude of rejection toward a position for reasons other

than that it is a false proposition. It is common among


contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon in earlier centuries, to reject positions on the ground
that they are meaningless. Sometimes, too, a theory is rejected on such grounds as that it is sterile or redundant or
capricious, and there are many other considerations which
in certain contexts are generally agreed to constitute good
grounds for rejecting an assertion.
[3] Rowe 1998: As commonly understood, atheism is the
position that arms the nonexistence of God. So an atheist is someone who disbelieves in God, whereas a theist
is someone who believes in God. Another meaning of
'atheism' is simply nonbelief in the existence of God, rather than positive belief in the nonexistence of God. ...
an atheist, in the broader sense of the term, is someone
who disbelieves in every form of deity, not just the God
of traditional Western theology.
[4] Harvey, Van A.. Agnosticism and Atheism, in Flynn
2007, p. 35: The terms ATHEISM and AGNOSTICISM
lend themselves to two dierent denitions. The rst takes the privative a both before the Greek theos (divinity)
and gnosis (to know) to mean that atheism is simply the
absence of belief in the gods and agnosticism is simply
lack of knowledge of some specied subject matter. The
second denition takes atheism to mean the explicit denial of the existence of gods and agnosticism as the position of someone who, because the existence of gods is
unknowable, suspends judgment regarding them ... The
rst is the more inclusive and recognizes only two alternatives: Either one believes in the gods or one does not.
Consequently, there is no third alternative, as those who
call themselves agnostics sometimes claim. Insofar as they
lack belief, they are really atheists. Moreover, since absence of belief is the cognitive position in which everyone
is born, the burden of proof falls on those who advocate
religious belief. The proponents of the second denition,
by contrast, regard the rst denition as too broad because it includes uninformed children along with aggressive
and explicit atheists. Consequently, it is unlikely that the
public will adopt it.
[5] Format:Cite dictionary
[6] Most dictionaries (see the OneLook query for atheism)
rst list one of the more narrow denitions.
Runes, Dagobert D.(editor) (1942). Dictionary of
Philosophy. New Jersey: Littleeld, Adams & Co.
Philosophical Library. ISBN 0-06-463461-2. http:
//www.ditext.com/runes/a.html. Accesat la 9 aprilie 2011. (a) the belief that there is no God; (b)
Some philosophers have been called atheistic because they have not held to a belief in a personal
God. Atheism in this sense means not theistic.
The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the
term though widely current in the history of thought entry by Vergilius Ferm
[7] atheism. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/
english/atheism. Accesat la 21 noiembrie 2013.

[8] Denitions: Atheism. Department of Religious Studies, University of Alabama. http://www.as.ua.edu/rel/


aboutreldefinitions.html. Accesat la 1 decembrie 2012.
[9] Oxford English Dictionary (ed. 2nd). 1989. Belief in a
deity, or deities, as opposed to atheism
[10] Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
Arhivat din original la 14 mai 2011.
https:
//web.archive.org/web/20110514194441/http:
//www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/theism.
Accesat la 9 aprilie 2011. belief in the existence of a
god or gods
[11] Stenger 2007, pp. 1718, citing Parsons, Keith M.
(1989). God and the Burden of Proof: Plantinga, Swinburne, and the Analytical Defense of Theism. Amherst,
New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-5515
[12] en Broadman Press. Old Greek word, not in LXX, only
here in N.T
[13] [BIBLIA sau Sfnta Scriptur - ediie jubiliar a Sfntului Sinod, Bucureti, 2001, n traducerea lui Bartolomeu
Anania]
[14] What Is Atheism?
[15] Oxford English Dictionary (OED), Second Edition denes
atheism
[16] en Karen Armstrong, A History of God, 1999, ISBN 009-927367-5
[17] en The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge
University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-521-84270-0.
[18] Dawkins, Richard (2007) [2006]. 4. Why there almost certainly is no God. The poverty of agnosticism.
(n englez) (PDF). The God Delusion. London: Bantam Press. Transworld Publishers. pp. 50-51. ISBN
9780593055489
[19] ateism la DEX online
[20] The scientist David Sloan Wilson, though a nonbeliever, sees biological (group-survival-promoting) wisdom
underlying religion. Working with samplings of peoples
experience from the psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyis studies, he also reports that religious believers are
more prosocial than non-believers, feel better about themselves, use their time more constructively, and engage in
long-term planning rather than gratifying their impulsive
desires. On a moment-by-moment basis, they report being more happy, active, sociable, involved and excited.
- A Friendly Letter To Skeptics And Atheists: Musings On Why God Is Good And Faith Isnt Evil, David G.
Myers, published by Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint 2008
by The David and Carol Myers Foundation
[21] I want my attorney, my tailor, my valets, and even my
wife to believe in God, and I fancy that then I'll be robbed
and cuckolded less often. - Voltaire, Dialogues between A, B and C (1768). - A Friendly Letter To Skeptics
And Atheists: Musings On Why God Is Good And Faith
Isnt Evil, David G. Myers, published by Jossey-Bass, A
Wiley Imprint 2008 by The David and Carol Myers Foundation

8 REFERINE

[22] en Stiinta si Religia. http://psy.ucsd.edu/~{}eebbesen/


Psych110/SciRelig.htm. Accesat la 3 noiembrie 2008.
[23] en Despre ateism.
http://www.ebonmusings.org/
atheism/. Accesat la 3 noiembrie 2008.
[24] en Ateismul. http://www.ebonmusings.org/atheism/
allpossibleworlds.html. Accesat la 3 noiembrie 2008.
[25] Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) [2001].
8. In the Shadow of Empire (842-720 BCE) (n
englez). The Bible Unearthed. Archaeologys New
Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred
Texts. (ed. First Touchstone Edition 2002). New York:
Touchstone. pp. 189190. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&
pg=PA190&dq=david+and+solomon+%22little+
more+than+hill-country+chieftains&hl=nl&ei=
36DVTPbjG4ej4Qa7qoniBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=
onepage&q=david%20and%20solomon%20%22little%
20more%20than%20hill-country%20chieftains&f=
false. Archaeologically and historically, the redating of
these cities from Solomons era to the time of Omrides
has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy
based in Jerusalem and suggests that David and Solomon
were, in political terms, little more than hill country
chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a
fairy local level, restricted to the hill country.
[26] Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002)
[2001]. 5. Memories of a Golden Age? (n englez). The Bible Unearthed. Archaeologys New Vision
of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts.
(ed. First Touchstone Edition 2002). New York:
Touchstone. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&pg=
PA133&dq=bible+unearthed+jerusalem+country+
village&hl=nl&ei=kd7VTMG0AY2Z4Aa685mhBw&
sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=
0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Yet excavations in the city of David revealed impressive nds
from the Middle Bronze Age and from later centuries of
the Iron Age--just not from the tenth century BCE. The
most optimistic assessment of this negative evidence is
that tenth century Jerusalem was rather limited in extent,
perhaps not more than a typical hill country village.
[27] Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) [2001].
9. The Transformation of Judah (c. 930-705 BCE)
(n englez). The Bible Unearthed. Archaeologys New
Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred
Texts. (ed. First Touchstone Edition 2002). New
York: Touchstone. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&
pg=PA234&lpg=PA234&dq=The+idolatry+of+the+
people+of+Judah+was+not+a+departure+from+
their+earlier+monotheism.+It+was,+instead,+the+
way+the+people+of+Judah+had+worshipped+for+
hundreds+of+years.&source=bl&ots=lQF2Lqja7D&
sig=2oySBbSqenVKlRf4nE7d6_lo5Qg&hl=nl&ei=
X3e8TPWPHoHm4AbtnbHVDA&sa=X&oi=book_
result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#
v=onepage&q&f=false. The idolatry of the people of

Judah was not a departure from their earlier monotheism. It was, instead, the way the people of Judah had
worshipped for hundreds of years.
[28] Ehrman, Bart (2005).
Introduction (n englez). MISQUOTING JESUS. The Story Behind Who
Changed the Bible and Why (ed.
First Edition).
New York: HarperSanFrancisco. p. 11. ISBN
9780060738174.
http://books.google.nl/books?
id=99chXHGSVH0C&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=
If+one+wants+to+insist+that+God+inspired+the+
very+words+of+scripture,+what+would+be+the+
point+if+we+don%27t+have+the+very+words+of+
scripture%3F&source=bl&ots=yccb9JzRbE&sig=
nbZegPGDnTeaewU4N53TgguDnR4&hl=en&ei=
mvIVTM6sOpLu0wTArqiHCg&sa=X&oi=book_
result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAQ#
v=onepage&q=If%20one%20wants%20to%20insist%
20that%20God%20inspired%20the%20very%
20words%20of%20scripture%2C%20what%20would%
20be%20the%20point%20if%20we%20don%
27t%20have%20the%20very%20words%20of%
20scripture%3F&f=false. If one wants to insist that
God inspired the very words of scripture, what would be
the point if we don't have the very words of scripture?
In some places, as we will see, we simply cannot be sure
that we have reconstructed the original text accurately.
Its a bit hard to know what the words of the Bible mean
if we don't even know what the words are! This became a
problem for my view of inspiration, for I came to realize
that it would have been no more dicult for God to
preserve the words of scripture than it would have been
for him to inspire them in the rst place. If he wanted
his people to have his words, surely he would have given
them to them (and possibly even given them the words in
a language they could understand, rather than Greek and
Hebrew). The fact that we don't have the words surely
must show, I reasoned, that he did not preserve them for
us. And if he didn't perform that miracle, there seemed
to be no reason to think that he performed the earlier
miracle of inspiring those words.
[29] Ehrman, Bart (2008). Suering and a Crisis of Faith (n
englez). Gods Problem. How the Bible Fails to Answer
Our Most Important QuestionWhy We Suer (ed. Adobe Acrobat eBook Reader). New York: HarperCollins. p.
7. ISBN 9780061578311. But I had been asked to teach
a course called The Problem of Suering in the Biblical
Traditions. I welcomed the opportunity because it seemed like an interesting way to approach the Bible: examining the responses given by various biblical authors to the
question of why there is suering in the world, in particular among the people of God. It was my belief then, and
continues to be my belief now, that dierent biblical authors had dierent solutions to the question of why Gods
people suer: some (such as the prophets) thought that
suering came from God as a punishment for sin; some
thought that suering came from Gods cosmic enemies,
who inicted suering precisely because people tried to
do what was right before God; others thought that suering came as a test to see if people would remain faithful
despite suering; others said that suering was a mystery
and that it was wrong even to question why God allowed it;
still others thought that this world is just an inexplicable

mess and that we should eat, drink, and be merry while


we can. And so on. It seemed to me at the time, and seems so now, that one of the ways to see the rich diversity
of the scriptural heritage of Jews and Christians was to
see how dierent authors responded to this fundamental
question of suering.
[30] Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002)
[2001]. Introduction: Archaeology and the Bible (n
englez). The Bible Unearthed. Archaeologys New
Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred
Texts. (ed. First Touchstone Edition 2002). New
York: Touchstone. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&
pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=The+first+question+was+
whether+Moses+could+really+have+been+the+author+
of+the+Five+Books+of+Moses,+since+the+last+
book,+Deuteronomy,+described+in+great+detail+
the+precise+time+and+circumstances+of+Moses%
27+own+death.+Other+incongruities+soon+became+
apparent:+the+biblical+text+was+filled+with+liter%
C2%ACary+asides,+explaining+the+ancient+names+
of+certain+places+and+frequently+noting+that+
the+evidences+of+famous+biblical+events+were+
still+visible+%22to+this+day.%22+These+factors+
convinced+some+seventeenth+century+scholars+
that+the+Bible%27s+first+five+books,+at+least,
+had+been+shaped,+expanded,+and+embel-lished+
by+later,+anonymous+editors+and+revisers+over+
the+centuries.&source=bl&ots=lQF2LrjaaG&sig=
imK7NOlK0TPAj-HUTl96fPpOho8&hl=nl&ei=
kZ68TKmFE4ntOei8geYM&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=
onepage&q=The%20first%20question%20was%
20whether%20Moses%20could%20really%20have%
20been%20the%20author%20of%20the%20Five%
20Books%20of%20Moses%2C%20since%20the%
20last%20book%2C%20Deuteronomy%2C%
20described%20in%20great%20detail%20the%
20precise%20time%20and%20circumstances%
20of%20Moses%27%20own%20death.%20Other%
20incongruities%20soon%20became%20apparent%
3A%20the%20biblical%20text%20was%20filled%
20with%20liter%C2%ACary%20asides%2C%
20explaining%20the%20ancient%20names%20of%
20certain%20places%20and%20frequently%20noting%
20that%20the%20evidences%20of%20famous%
20biblical%20events%20were%20still%20visible%
20%22to%20this%20day.%22%20These%20factors%
20convinced%20some%20seventeenth%20century%
20scholars%20that%20the%20Bible%27s%20first%
20five%20books%2C%20at%20least%2C%20had%
20been%20shaped%2C%20expanded%2C%20and%
20embel-lished%20by%20later%2C%20anonymous%
20editors%20and%20revisers%20over%20the%
20centuries.&f=false. The rst question was whether
Moses could really have been the author of the Five
Books of Moses, since the last book, Deuteronomy, described in great detail the precise time and circumstances
of Moses own death. Other incongruities soon became
apparent: the biblical text was lled with literary
asides, explaining the ancient names of certain places
and frequently noting that the evidences of famous
biblical events were still visible to this day. These

8 REFERINE

factors convinced some seventeenth century scholars that


the Bibles rst ve books, at least, had been shaped,
expanded, and embel-lished by later, anonymous editors
and revisers over the centuries.
By the late eighteenth century and even more so in the
nineteenth, many critical biblical scholars had begun
to doubt that Moses had any hand in the writing of the
Bible whatsoever; they had come to believe that the
Bible was the work of later writers exclusively. These
scholars pointed to what appeared to be dierent versions
of the same stories within the books of the Pentateuch,
suggesting that the biblical text was the product of several
recognizable hands. A careful reading of the book of
Genesis, for example, revealed two conicting versions
of the creation (1:12:3 and 2:4-25), two quite dierent
genealogies of Adams ospring (4:17-26 and 5:1-28),
and two spliced and rearranged ood stories (6:5-9:17).
In addition, there were dozens more doublets and sometimes even triplets of the same events in the narratives
of the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from
Egypt, and the giving of the Law.
[31] Social values, Science and Technology (PDF). Arhivat
din original la 30 aprilie 2011. https://web.archive.
org/web/20110430163128/http://ec.europa.eu/public_
opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Accesat la
9 aprilie 2011.
[32] Religion:
Year in Review 2010:
Worldwide
Adherents of All Religions.
Encyclopdia Britannica Online.
Encyclopdia Britannica Inc..
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/
1731588/Religion-Year-In-Review-2010/298437/
Worldwide-Adherents-of-All-Religions. Accesat la 21
noiembrie 2013.
[33] Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2005. Encyclopdia Britannica.
2005. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9432620. Retrieved 2007-04-15. 2.3% Atheists: Persons professing
atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the
militantly antireligious (opposed to all religion). 11.9%
Nonreligious: Persons professing no religion, nonbelievers, agnostics, freethinkers, uninterested, or dereligionized secularists indierent to all religion but not militantly
so.
[34] Religious Views and Beliefs Vary Greatly by Country, According to the Latest Financial Times/Harris
Poll. Financial Times/Harris Interactive. 20 decembrie 2006. http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/
allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131. Accesat la 9 aprilie
2011.
[35] Characteristics of the Population. Australian Bureau
of Statistics. 2006. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/
abs@.nsf/Lookup/1301.0Feature+Article7012009%
E2%80%9310. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
[36] (PDF) Social values, Science and Technology. Directorate General Research, European Union. 2005. pp.
711. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/
ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Accesat la 9 aprilie 2011

[37] Zuckerman, Phil (2007).


Martin, Michael T. ed.
The Cambridge companion to atheism.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 51.
ISBN 0-521-84270-0. http://books.google.com/books?
id=tAeFipOVx4MC&pg=PA51. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
[38] Zuckerman, Phil (2007).
Martin, Michael T. ed.
The Cambridge companion to atheism.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 56.
ISBN 0-521-84270-0. http://books.google.com/books?
id=tAeFipOVx4MC&pg=PA56. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
[39] Zuckerman, Phil (2007). Martin, Michael T. ed. The
Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN
978-0-521-60367-6.
http://books.google.com/books?
id=tAeFipOVx4MC&pg=PA56. Accesat la 9 aprilie
2011
[40] Average
intelligence
predicts
atheism
rates across 137 nations.
3 ianuarie 2008.
http://davesource.com/Fringe/Fringe/Religion/
Average-intelligence-predicts-atheism-rates-across-137-nations-Lynn-et-al.
pdf. Accesat la 21 octombrie 2012.
[41] Zuckerman, Phil (2009). Atheism, Secularity, and WellBeing: How the Findings of Social Science Counter Negative Stereotypes and Assumptions. Sociology Compass
3 (6): 949971. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2009.00247.
x. http://www.pitzer.edu/academics/faculty/zuckerman/
Zuckerman_on_Atheism.pdf.
[42] Larson, Edward J.; Larry Witham (1998). Correspondence: Leading scientists still reject God. Nature 394
(6691): 3134. doi:10.1038/28478. PMID 9690462.
Available at StephenJayGould.org, Stephen Jay Gould archive. Retrieved on 2006-12-17
[43] William H. Swatos; Daniel V. A. Olson. The Secularization Debate. Rowman & Littleeld. http://chronicle.
uchicago.edu/050714/doctorsfaith.shtml. Retrieved 19
August 2011. Recently, quite amazing time series data on the beliefs of scientists were published in Nature.
Leubas standard for belief in God is so stringent it would
exlude a substantial portion of mainline clergy. It obviously was an intentional ploy on his part. He wanted to
show that men of science were irreligious.
[44] Rodney Stark; Roger Finke. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. University
of California Press. http://books.google.com/books?
id=N4p9eiXV6dMC&pg=PA73&dq=Leuba{}s+
standard+for+belief+in+God+is+so+stringent&hl=en&
ei=3QNPTpHhDITKsQK65NzRBg&sa=X&oi=book_
result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#
v=onepage&q=Leuba{}s%20standard%20for%
20belief%20in%20God%20is%20so%20stringent&f=
falsel. Retrieved 19 August 2011. Recently, quite
amazing time series data on the beliefs of scientists were
published in Nature. Leubas standard for belief in God
is so stringent it would exlude a substantial portion of
mainline clergy. It obviously was an intentional ploy
on his part. He wanted to show that men of science were
irreligious.

[45] Survey on physicians religious beliefs shows majority faithful. The University of Chicago. http://
chronicle.uchicago.edu/050714/doctorsfaith.shtml. Retrieved 201104-08. The rst study of physician religious beliefs has found that 76 percent of doctors believe in
God and 59 percent believe in some sort of afterlife. The
survey, performed by researchers at the University and published in the July issue of the Journal of General Internal
Medicine, found that 90 percent of doctors in the United
States attend religious services at least occasionally compared to 81 percent of all adults.
[46] Scientists and Belief.
Pew Research Cenhttp://pewforum.org/Science-and-Bioethics/
ter.
Scientists-and-Belief.aspx. Retrieved 201104-08. A
survey of scientists who are members of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science, conducted
by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
in May and June 2009, nds that members of this group
are, on the whole, much less religious than the general
public.1 Indeed, the survey shows that scientists are
roughly half as likely as the general public to believe in
God or a higher power. According to the poll, just over
half of scientists (51%) believe in some form of deity
or higher power; specically, 33% of scientists say they
believe in God, while 18% believe in a universal spirit or
higher power.
[47] Shermer, Michael (1999). How We Believe: Science,
Skepticism, and the Search for God. New York: William H Freeman. pp. pp7679. ISBN 0-7167-3561-X.
[48] According to Dawkins (2006), p. 103. Dawkins cites Bell, Paul. Would you believe it?" Mensa Magazine, UK
Edition, Feb. 2002, pp. 1213. Analyzing 43 studies carried out since 1927, Bell found that all but four reported
such a connection, and he concluded that the higher ones
intelligence or education level, the less one is likely to be
religious or hold 'beliefs of any kind.
[49] Argyle, Michael (1958). Religious Behaviour. London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 9396. ISBN 0-41517589-5.

Barker, Dan (2008). Godless: How an Evangelical


Preacher Became One of Americas Leading Atheists.
New York: Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1-56975-6775
Bradlaugh, Charles; Besant, Annie; Bradlaugh, Alice; Moss, A. B.; Cattell, C. C.; Standring, G.; Aveling, E. (1884). The Atheistic Platform. London:
Freethought Publishing
Dawkins, Richard (2006).
The God Delusion.
Bantam Press.
ISBN 0-593-055489.
http://books.google.com/books?id=
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20Delusion&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true
Edwards, Paul (2005) [1967]. Atheism. in Donald
M. Borchert. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol.
1 (ed. 2nd). MacMillan Reference USA (Gale). p.
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Flint, Robert (1903). Agnosticism: The Croall Lecture for 188788. William Blackwood and Sons
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Harris, Sam (2005). The End of Faith: Religion,
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[50] http://current.com/community/92831935_
atheists-supply-less-than-1-of-prison-populations-while-christians-make-up-75.
Harris, Sam (31 martie 2006).
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[51] A Friendly Letter To Skeptics And Atheists: Musings On
Why God Is Good And Faith Isnt Evil, David G. Myers,
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11
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Sharpe, R.A. (1997). The Moral Case Against Religious Belief. London: SCM Press. ISBN 0-33402680-6
Thrower, James (1971). A Short History of Western
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Walters, Kerry (2010). Atheism: A Guide for the
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Zuckerman, Phil (2010). Society without God: What
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Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.]: Praeger. ISBN 978-0313-35183-9

10 Legturi externe
Pagina romneasc despre ateism
The New Atheists in The Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy

Onfray, Michel (2007).


Atheist Manifesto.
New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1http://books.google.ca/books?
55970-820-3.
id=QpEAYMo7pFkC&lpg=PP1&dq=Atheist%
20Manifesto&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true.
Accesat la 9 aprilie 2011

Atheism la Open Directory Project Includes links to organizations and websites.

Oppy, Graham (2006). Arguing about Gods.


ISBN 0-521Cambridge University Press.
86386-4.
http://books.google.ca/books?id=

Secular Web library Library of both historical and


modern writings, a comprehensive online resource
for freely available material on atheism.

Positive atheism: Great Historical Writings Historical writing sorted by authors.


Religion & EthicsAtheism at bbc.co.uk.

12
The Demand for Religion A study on the demographics of Atheism by Wolfgang Jagodzinski (University of Cologne) and Andrew Greeley (University
of Chicago and University of Arizona).

10

LEGTURI EXTERNE

13

11

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