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# 1 x # of levels ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

## The Purpose of Analysis of Variance

In general, the purpose of analysis of variance (ANOVA) is to test for significant differences
between means.

ANOVA is a general technique that can be used to test the hypothesis that the means among two
or more groups are equal, under the assumption that the sampled populations are normally
distributed.

In the one-way ANOVA, the null hypothesis is  there is no difference in the population means
of the different levels of factor A (the only factor).

## Post hoc Tests (Multiple Comparisons)

Post hoc tests enable the researcher to compare individual treatments two at a time, a process
known as pairwise comparisons.

## Understanding the output

1. The next table tells you the mean, standard deviation, and total count (N) in each group.

## Descriptive Statistics Table from One-Way ANOVA

2. You will then see the actual ANOVA table. You are interested in the third and fourth row.
The third row has the name of your independent variable in capitals; use the F-value and p-value
from there. Your degrees of freedom "between" is also in that row. Use the degrees of freedom in
the next row, labeled "Error," to get your degrees of freedom "within."

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1 x # of levels ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

3. Post-hoc tests. If you used a Tukey test, it will look like the table below. Here, it lists the four
levels of "year" in the first column, and then compares each level to every other level to see if
they are significantly different. It lists the mean difference between levels; here, we see that first
year students do an average of .99 hours less work per night than sophomores. If a two means
differ significantly, SPSS will star the pair; you can also find the p-value of each comparison in
the "Sig." column. SPSS also gives you another table about the Tukey test that gives you similar
information.

## Writing up the data

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1 x # of levels ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

- Briefly summarise univariate descriptive statistics and any notable features. Present the means
and SD for each cell in sentences or in a table. Also include the marginal means and their SDs
(i.e., sub-totals).

Table #

## Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F

Factor
Within Groups (Error)
Total
*p < 0.05

## • To show significance, a * is placed on the F statistic.

An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical tests. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was calculated on Dependent Variable of each specific Independent Variable. The analysis was
significant, F(df between groups, df within groups) = F statistic, p < .05 (p = significance value).
Post hoc analyses using the Tukey’s post hoc criterion for significance indicated that …. (M =,
SD =), ….