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In 1896 Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman discovered that, when a magnetic field

is applied, an energy splitting is observed in the spectra emitted by certain

atom (Nave, 2014; University of Tennessee, 2007). Its known that the potential

energy in a magnetic dipole when a magnetic field is exerted is given by

I ( ) = * B

Where the magnetic dipole given by the orbital angular momentum(University

of Tennessee, 2007) is

=

e

L

2 me

E=m l

eh

B=ml B B

4 m

The equation defined above worked for a fair amount of atoms and the

predictions were very accurate, thats why it was so strange for physicists in

the 19th century when in 1897 Thomas Preston discovered that there were a lot

of atoms that do not follow the rules defined for the normal Zeeman effect,

instead the splitting in the fine structure seemed disorganized and the number

of lines predicted was inconsistent whit the mathematical description for the

normal Zeeman effect, this puzzled physicists from around the word until an

interesting observation made by Alfred Land (Forman, 1970) came through.

If we consider that the total angular momentum of the atom is not only defined

by Bohrs magneton but instead by the sum of the magneton and some extra

momentum, it is possible to predict this anomalous effects, this extra

momentum is called the spin of the electron. Then the explanation of this

phenomena follows like this: when the spin of a particular atom is 0, then a

normal Zeeman effect will be observed, instead if the spin of the atom is

nonzero then the anomalous Zeeman effect will show.

Furthermore, the mathematical description of the Anomalous Zeeman effect is

given by the following (University of California San Diego, 2015)If we consider

an atom whit angular momentum L and spin momentum S, then the total

angular momentum (J) is given by the sum

J =L+ S

Where the total magnetic moment is

=gl B

L2

S2

gs B

h

h

=

B 2

( L+ 2 S )

h

E= g m j

( 4ehmB )= g m B

j

g= 1+

j ( j + 1 )+ s ( s+1 )+l ( l +1 )

2 j ( j+ 1 )

the fine structure of the Argon when a magnetic field close to 1T is applied, we

focused the spectrograph in the infrared spectrum so we could find the lines in

the spectrum with a wavelength of approximately 727,3nm. Then we compared

our observations with a calibrated Neon line with a wavelength close to

724,5nm. Finally we measured the Argon spectrum perpendicular and parallel

to the magnetic field in order to find the places of the sigma and pi lines in the

observed data.

Forman, P. (1970). Alfred Land and the Anomalous Zeeman Effect, 1919-1921.

Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 2, 153261.

http://doi.org/10.2307/27757307

Nave, R. (2014). Zeeman Effect. Retrieved October 26, 2015, from

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/zeeman.html

University of California San Diego. (2015). The Zeeman Effect. Retrieved

November 9, 2015, from

https://physics.ucsd.edu/students/courses/spring2015/physics4e/zeeman.p

df

University of Tennessee, K. (2007). The Zeeman Effect. Retrieved October 26,

2015, from http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/zeeman-split.html

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