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In this paper we consider two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) inspired heuristic approaches Ant Colony Optimization and Improved Particle Swarm Optimization to solve classical optimization problem called Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) that cannot be solved conventionally because it is NP hard problem. If one tries to solve TSP using conventional approach it will take years to find optimal solution. Therefore, Heuristic algorithm is the feasible solution to such problem. Interest of researchers has been attracted by Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms because of their simple, effective and efficient nature in solving real world optimization problems. The comparative analyses based on Performance have been done by using ACO and Improved PSO respectively in solving TSP in this paper. The comparative results are shown and it is devised that Improved PSO is better approach to solve the traveling salesman problem.

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Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques

Pratibha Singh1 Dr. K.L. Bansal2

1

Research Scholar 2Professor

1,2

Department of Computer Science

1,2

Himachal Pradesh University Shimla, India

AbstractIn this paper we consider two widely used Swarm

Intelligence (SI) inspired heuristic approaches Ant Colony

Optimization and Improved Particle Swarm Optimization to

solve classical optimization problem called Travelling

Salesman Problem (TSP) that cannot be solved

conventionally because it is NP hard problem. If one tries to

solve TSP using conventional approach it will take years to

find optimal solution. Therefore, Heuristic algorithm is the

feasible solution to such problem. Interest of researchers has

been attracted by Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and

Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms

because of their simple, effective and efficient nature in

solving real world optimization problems. The comparative

analyses based on Performance have been done by using

ACO and Improved PSO respectively in solving TSP in this

paper. The comparative results are shown and it is devised

that Improved PSO is better approach to solve the traveling

salesman problem.

Key words: Particle Swarm Optimization, Swarm

Intelligence, Ant Colony Optimization

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Swarm Intelligence

Swarm intelligence (SI) is based on the collective behavior

of decentralized and self-organized systems in

computational intelligence [9]. Swarm Intelligence consists

of a population which simulates the animals behavior in the

real world. There are several swarm intelligence

optimization algorithms, as bee colony, ant colony, particle

swarm optimization algorithm, genetic algorithms,

differential evolution, fish-warm algorithm, etc. SI is the

property of a system where Coherent functional global

patterns emerge because of the collective behaviors of

agents interacting locally with their environment. The basis

for unguided problem solving is provided by Social

interactions. [1]

B. Solving the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP)

One of the best known NP-hard problems is the Travelling

Salesman Problem, which means that to solve it in

polynomial time there is no exact algorithm. To obtain

optimal solution the minimal expected time is exponential.

For this reason, we use heuristics to help us to obtain an

optimal solution. With more or less success many

algorithms were applied to solve TSP. Travelling salesman

problem is most studied optimization problem and it has

been most favorable among the researchers [5]. Almost

every new approach is first tested on TSP for solving

Optimization problems. Various metaheuristic approaches

like Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA),

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO), Firefly Algorithm (FA) have been

proposed by researchers to solve these kinds of problems

for solving TSP.

II. INVESTIGATED ALGORITHMS:

A. Ant Colony Optimization

The food foraging behavior of real ants is the inspiring

source of ACO. Ants initially explore the area surrounding

their nest when searching for food in a random manner. As

soon as an ant finds a food source, they evaluate the quality

and quantity of the food and bring some of it back to the

nest. Ants deposit a chemical pheromone trail on the ground

during their return trip. The quantity of pheromone

deposited depends on the quantity as well as quality of the

food; guide other ants to the food source. The main idea

behind these interactions or communication through the

environment is termed stigmergy. This feature makes swarm

intelligence very attractive for optimization, network

routing, robotics, etc. To the original ant algorithm a number

of extensions are proposed. Main features of this model are

the use of a constructive greedy heuristic, positive feedback

and distributed computation. The Pheromone trails are

updated in two ways in the Ant colony optimization

algorithm which differentiates it from the classical ant

system. Firstly, when ants construct a tour they change the

amount of pheromone locally by a local updating rule on the

visited edges. Secondly, A global updating rule is applied on

the edges to modify the pheromone level that belong to the

best ant tour found so far after all the ants have built their

individual tours, the Behavior of ants colony is mimicked

by the ACO algorithm while gathering food. Every ant starts

from the nest and walks towards food till intersection is

reached, where it has to decide which path to select. Choice

is random in the beginning, but the majority of ants will be

moving along the optimal path because of the colonys

collective intelligence after some time. Every ant, as he

moves, chemical called pheromone is deposited thus

marking the route taken. As time passes Pheromone trail

evaporates. Hence, a shorter path will have more pheromone

because it will get less time to evaporate before it is

deposited again. Hence shorter routes will be selected with

higher pheromone as every ant chooses paths that have more

pheromone. [8]

B. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

Small birds fly in coordination and show strong

synchronization in the way they turn, flight initiation, and

how they land without any clear leader. Certain rules are

followed for their movement. To develop a particle swarm

optimization (PSO) concept simulation of a bird swarm was

used by Kennedy & Eberhart in 1995. Procedures of

Searching by PSO can be described as follows:

1) Every particle evaluates the maximize function at

each point it visits in space.

539

The Solutions of Travelling Salesman Problem using Ant Colony and Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 08/2015/137)

2)

Every particle remembers the best value and its coordinates found so far (pbest).

3) The global best position (gbest) is known to every

particle that is found by one of the flock fellow.

4) Using the pbest and gbest co-ordinates every particle

calculates its new velocity and position.

The position of a particle is affected by the best

position visited by the particle i.e. its own experience and

the best particles position in its neighborhood which means

the experience of neighboring particles. The best position in

the neighborhood is denoted as the global best particle.

Therefore, the resulting algorithm is referred as the gbest

PSO at times when entire swarm is particles neighborhood.

In general the algorithm is stated as the pbest PSO while

smaller neighborhoods are used. Using fitness function that

varies depending on the problem of optimization the

performance of each particle is measured. Each Particle in

the swarm is represented by the following features:

Current position of the particle

Current velocity of the particle

The particle swarm optimization is one of the

evolutionary optimization techniques that conducts searches

uses a population of particles. By moving through the

problem space every particle has an updating position vector

and updating velocity vector [4]. Boundary conditions are

used in PSO in order to restrict particles to search within the

solution space of interest during optimization procedure.

Hence we used the constrained PSO that includes the

information about the objective function and constraint

violation. This information facilitated communications

among swarm in the population space and assisted in

selecting the leading particle .This algorithm is based on

identifying and excluding the infeasible region of search

space before and during the search i.e. it keeps check on the

boundary conditions. PSO is started with a group of feasible

solutions and to check whether new explored solutions

satisfy all the constraints a feasibility function is used.

Select the particle with the gbest( best fitness value) .

For (every particle)

In the particles neighborhood find the particle with the best

fitness.

Calculation of particle velocity according to the velocity

equation

Apply the velocity constraints

According to the position equation; update particle position

Apply the position constraints

End For loop.

While (max iterations or min error criteria is not attained)

end PSO procedure.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

The Simulation environment used for experimentation is

MATLAB. Both ACO and PSO are implemented to solve

conventional Travelling Salesman Problem to find out

optimal path to generate minimum cost for the problem by

visiting every city exactly once.

Figure 1, 2, 3 shows simulation results for ACO. It

demonstrates following: a) coordinates of 10 cities b)

Average tour distance Vs. Iterations c) Optimal path and

Minimum cost (9,4,6,8,1,10,7,5,2,3 and 60.9622).

A. Pseudo Code for ACO

Begin ACO procedure

Create pheromone trails and other parameters

while(criteria for termination not met)

{

construct solutions

update pheromone Trails

}

After process, results and output

End procedure of ACO

B. Pseudo Code for Improved PSO:

Begin procedure PSO

For (every particle)

Initialize particle

End of For loop

Do

For (every particle)

Compute fitness value

If the fitness value is more then the best fitness value

(pBest) of past .

Then current fitness value is set as the new pBest.

540

The Solutions of Travelling Salesman Problem using Ant Colony and Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 08/2015/137)

demonstrates following: a) coordinates of 10 cities b)

Standard deviation Vs. Iterations c) Optimal path and

Minimum cost(7,10,3,8,6,2,9,4,1,5 and 58.5192)

This paper presents a comparative assessment of most

extensively used optimization algorithm techniques namely

ACO and Improved PSO Optimization. The comparative

results are shown and it is formulated that Improved PSO is

better approach to solve the traveling salesman problem

when it comes to generating optimal path to find the

minimum cost. The ACO and PSO can be analyzed for

future enhancement so that new research can be

concentrated to generate better solution by reducing the

limitations and improving the effectiveness of these

algorithms. More possibilities for determining the best target

through ACO can be developed and a plan to provide PSO

with fitness sharing aiming to examine whether this helps in

improving performance. Further work will be focused on:

finding patterns in the evolved structures and hence this will

help us design PSO algorithms that use larger swarms,

developing better PSO algorithms for optimization and

evolving PSO algorithm for other difficult problems.

Another idea to be discovered is variable velocities in future

researches. These techniques have immense potential and

scope of applicability. For finding suitability of these

techniques to certain applications; they need to be further

explored. Also, there is a necessity to combine two or more

techniques so that they nullify their respective limitations

and complement each other. The idea that these kinds of

techniques could be combined to give a better technique so

as to give better results for more complex TSPs and other

optimization problems has to be tested.

REFERENCE

V. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

Simulation results for both ACO and Improved PSO are

generated by implementing both the algorithms in

MATLAB Simulation tool. Figure 1, 2, 3 shows Simulation

results for ACO whereas; Figure 4, 5, 6 shows Simulation

results for Improved PSO. From Figure 1, 2, 3 and Figure 4,

5, 6 it can be seen that minimum cost for ACO is 60.9622

and minimum cost for PSO is 58.5192 therefore it can be

said that Improved PSO is better than ACO because it gives

optimal path to generate minimum cost in comparison to the

other.

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