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# Inductors and Capacitors

Passive Elements

Capacitors

Capacitor
Is consists of two conducting plates separated by an
insulator (dielectric).

## CAPACITANCE It is the ratio of the charge on one plate

of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two

C
Where:

A
d

## - permittivity of the dielectric material

A - surface area of each plates
d - distance between the plate

## A capacitor is a passive element designed to store

energy in its electric field. (Electro static energy)

q = Cv

## Where: q- charge stored

C- Capacitance
v- applied voltage

## CAPACITORS oppose changes in voltage by

drawing or supplying current as they charge
or discharge to the new voltage level.

## The flow of electrons through a capacitor is

directly proportional to the rate of change of
voltage across the capacitor.

icdt
VC
V (t 0)
C

dVC
iC C
dt

Energy
The energy stored in the capacitor is:

1 2
W Cv
2
Where: C - Capacitance
v - Voltage

## Important Properties of Capacitor

The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.

## Important Properties of Capacitor

The voltage on capacitor cannot change abruptly.
Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor:

(a) is ALLOWED

## (b) NOT ALLOWED

( an abrupt change is not possible)

Capacitors in Series

## The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is

the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal of the individual
capacitance.

Capacitors in Parallel

## The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected

capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance.

Problems:
1.

Problems:
2.

Problems:
3.

4.

Problems:
5.

6.

7.
Change in voltage as shown in the figure :
0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Therefore:
V(t) = mt + b

Recall that:

(a) is ALLOWED

## (b) NOT ALLOWED

( an abrupt change is not possible)

## Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

t = 1, V(t) = 50V
0<t<1

V(t) = mt + b
When t = 0, V(t) = 0V

50 = m*1 + 0
m = 50

0 = m*0 + b

Voltage equation
w/ respect to time:

b=0

V(t) = 50t

1<t<3
t = 1;
50 = m*1 + b
t = 3;
-50 = m*3 + b
m = -50
b = 100
V(t) = -50t + 100

## Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

3<t<4
t = 3;
-50 = m*3 + b
t = 4;
0 = m*4 + b
m = 50
b = -200
V(t) = 50t - 200

0<t<1

dt
i = 10 mA

## Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V bet. 0 sec. to 1 sec ( 0 < t < 1 )
50V (-50V) bet. 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V
bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Inductors

Inductor
It is a passive element designed to store energy in
its magnetic field. (Electro magnetic energy)

- It is consists of coil
of conducting wires.

## INDUCTANCE is the property whereby an inductor

exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing
through it and it is measured in Henrys (H).

N A
L
l
2

## where: N number of turns

- permeability of the core
A cross-sectional area
l - length

## Voltage and Current Relationship

INDUCTOR oppose changes in current
through them, by dropping a voltage
directly proportional to the rate of
change of current.

di
VL L
dt
1
iL VL dt it (t 0)
L

Energy
The energy stored in the inductor is:

1 2
W Li
2
Where: L - Inductance
i - current

## Important Properties of Inductor

The inductor is a short circuit to dc.

## Important Properties of Inductor

The current through an inductor cannot change
instantaneously.
Current though an inductor:

a) Allowed

b) Not allowable
(an abrupt change is not possible)

Inductors in Series

## The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is

the sum of the of the individual inductance.

Inductors in Parallel

## The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected inductors

is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal individual
inductance.

Problems:
1.

Problems:
2.

3.

Problems:
4.