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Inductors and Capacitors

Passive Elements

Capacitors

Capacitor
Is consists of two conducting plates separated by an
insulator (dielectric).

CAPACITANCE It is the ratio of the charge on one plate


of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two
plates and measured in Farads

C
Where:

A
d

- permittivity of the dielectric material


A - surface area of each plates
d - distance between the plate

1 Farad = 1 Coulomb/Volt

A capacitor is a passive element designed to store


energy in its electric field. (Electro static energy)

q = Cv

Where: q- charge stored


C- Capacitance
v- applied voltage

Voltage and Current Relation

CAPACITORS oppose changes in voltage by


drawing or supplying current as they charge
or discharge to the new voltage level.

The flow of electrons through a capacitor is


directly proportional to the rate of change of
voltage across the capacitor.

icdt
VC
V (t 0)
C

dVC
iC C
dt

Energy
The energy stored in the capacitor is:

1 2
W Cv
2
Where: C - Capacitance
v - Voltage

Important Properties of Capacitor


The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.

Important Properties of Capacitor


The voltage on capacitor cannot change abruptly.
Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor:

(a) is ALLOWED

(b) NOT ALLOWED


( an abrupt change is not possible)

Capacitors in Series

The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is


the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal of the individual
capacitance.

Capacitors in Parallel

The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected


capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance.

Problems:
1.

Problems:
2.

Problems:
3.

4.

Problems:
5.

6.

7.
Change in voltage as shown in the figure :
0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Note: The line equation is Y = mX + b;


Therefore:
V(t) = mt + b

Recall that:

(a) is ALLOWED

(b) NOT ALLOWED


( an abrupt change is not possible)

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :


0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

t = 1, V(t) = 50V
0<t<1

V(t) = mt + b
When t = 0, V(t) = 0V

50 = m*1 + 0
m = 50

0 = m*0 + b

Voltage equation
w/ respect to time:

b=0

V(t) = 50t

1<t<3
t = 1;
50 = m*1 + b
t = 3;
-50 = m*3 + b
m = -50
b = 100
V(t) = -50t + 100

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :


0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec
(0<t<1)
50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

3<t<4
t = 3;
-50 = m*3 + b
t = 4;
0 = m*4 + b
m = 50
b = -200
V(t) = 50t - 200

0<t<1

i = 200 (1x10-6) d 50t


dt
i = 10 mA

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :


0V 50V bet. 0 sec. to 1 sec ( 0 < t < 1 )
50V (-50V) bet. 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )
(-50V) 0V
bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Inductors

Inductor
It is a passive element designed to store energy in
its magnetic field. (Electro magnetic energy)

- It is consists of coil
of conducting wires.

INDUCTANCE is the property whereby an inductor


exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing
through it and it is measured in Henrys (H).

N A
L
l
2

where: N number of turns


- permeability of the core
A cross-sectional area
l - length

Voltage and Current Relationship


INDUCTOR oppose changes in current
through them, by dropping a voltage
directly proportional to the rate of
change of current.

di
VL L
dt
1
iL VL dt it (t 0)
L

Energy
The energy stored in the inductor is:

1 2
W Li
2
Where: L - Inductance
i - current

Important Properties of Inductor


The inductor is a short circuit to dc.

Important Properties of Inductor


The current through an inductor cannot change
instantaneously.
Current though an inductor:

a) Allowed

b) Not allowable
(an abrupt change is not possible)

Inductors in Series

The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is


the sum of the of the individual inductance.

Inductors in Parallel

The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected inductors


is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal individual
inductance.

Problems:
1.

Problems:
2.

3.

Problems:
4.