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Brief Discussion of inductors and capacitors

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Passive Elements

Capacitors

Capacitor

Is consists of two conducting plates separated by an

insulator (dielectric).

of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two

plates and measured in Farads

C

Where:

A

d

A - surface area of each plates

d - distance between the plate

1 Farad = 1 Coulomb/Volt

energy in its electric field. (Electro static energy)

q = Cv

C- Capacitance

v- applied voltage

drawing or supplying current as they charge

or discharge to the new voltage level.

directly proportional to the rate of change of

voltage across the capacitor.

icdt

VC

V (t 0)

C

dVC

iC C

dt

Energy

The energy stored in the capacitor is:

1 2

W Cv

2

Where: C - Capacitance

v - Voltage

The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.

The voltage on capacitor cannot change abruptly.

Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor:

(a) is ALLOWED

( an abrupt change is not possible)

Capacitors in Series

the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal of the individual

capacitance.

Capacitors in Parallel

capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance.

Problems:

1.

Problems:

2.

Problems:

3.

4.

Problems:

5.

6.

7.

Change in voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec

(0<t<1)

50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )

(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Therefore:

V(t) = mt + b

Recall that:

(a) is ALLOWED

( an abrupt change is not possible)

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec

(0<t<1)

50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )

(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

t = 1, V(t) = 50V

0<t<1

V(t) = mt + b

When t = 0, V(t) = 0V

50 = m*1 + 0

m = 50

0 = m*0 + b

Voltage equation

w/ respect to time:

b=0

V(t) = 50t

1<t<3

t = 1;

50 = m*1 + b

t = 3;

-50 = m*3 + b

m = -50

b = 100

V(t) = -50t + 100

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec

(0<t<1)

50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )

(-50V) 0V between 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

3<t<4

t = 3;

-50 = m*3 + b

t = 4;

0 = m*4 + b

m = 50

b = -200

V(t) = 50t - 200

0<t<1

dt

i = 10 mA

0V 50V bet. 0 sec. to 1 sec ( 0 < t < 1 )

50V (-50V) bet. 1 sec. to 3 sec ( 1 < t < 3 )

(-50V) 0V

bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 3 < t < 4 )

Inductors

Inductor

It is a passive element designed to store energy in

its magnetic field. (Electro magnetic energy)

- It is consists of coil

of conducting wires.

exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing

through it and it is measured in Henrys (H).

N A

L

l

2

- permeability of the core

A cross-sectional area

l - length

INDUCTOR oppose changes in current

through them, by dropping a voltage

directly proportional to the rate of

change of current.

di

VL L

dt

1

iL VL dt it (t 0)

L

Energy

The energy stored in the inductor is:

1 2

W Li

2

Where: L - Inductance

i - current

The inductor is a short circuit to dc.

The current through an inductor cannot change

instantaneously.

Current though an inductor:

a) Allowed

b) Not allowable

(an abrupt change is not possible)

Inductors in Series

the sum of the of the individual inductance.

Inductors in Parallel

is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal individual

inductance.

Problems:

1.

Problems:

2.

3.

Problems:

4.

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