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TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

V.4.0 - D
MEASURING
TROLLEY FOR TRACK GEOMETRY

KRAB
I. THEORETICAL OVERVIEW

Komern eleznin vzkum s.r.o.

Nad dolky 16/276, Praha 6, CZ- 165 00


Tel.: +420 2 20920553, +420 2 33920183
Fax.: +420 2 20920553
2001 Copyright KV 09/2002

KRAB Theoretical Overview

CONTENTS:
1.

1. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL ........................................................................................................... 3


PART I ................................................................................................................................................................. 3
PART II ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
PART III AND IV .................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.

TRACK GEOMETRY ................................................................................................................................ 4


2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.5
2.6

3.

DEFINITIONS OF THE GEOMETRIC VARIABLES ........................................................................................ 4


TRANSFER FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 6
Versine on the there point asymmetric chord .................................................................................. 6
FILTRATION ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Filters used by the software KRAB ............................................................................................. 9
The separation of the long-wave and short-wave part of the signal ............................................. 12
MEASURING OF THE ALIGNMENT AND TOP .......................................................................................... 12
Absolute and relative measuring according to the wave contents ................................................ 12
Direct measuring of the so-called true geometry .......................................................................... 14
Indirect measuring of the so-called true geometry........................................................................ 15
Indirect measuring on the chord geometry ................................................................................... 16
Removal of the design value from the alignment........................................................................... 16
EFFECT OF THE AXLE LOAD ON THE GEOMETRIC VARIABLES ............................................................... 17
SIGN CONVENTION OF GEOMETRY VARIABLES..................................................................................... 20

EVALUATION OF THE GEOMETRIC VALUES ............................................................................... 22


3.1
SECTION EVALUATION......................................................................................................................... 22
3.1.1
Definition of the Quality Index ...................................................................................................... 23
3.1.2
Coefficient of logarithmic transformation relation ....................................................................... 27
3.2
EVALUATING OF THE LOCAL DEFECTS ................................................................................................ 28

4.

SPECIAL GEOMETRY VALUES .......................................................................................................... 31


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

ORE-TWIST ........................................................................................................................................ 31
OVERALL SIGNAL OF THE LOCAL DEFECTS (GSE)................................................................................ 33
EVALUATION OF REPEATED JOINTS-CYCLIC TOP ................................................................................. 33
OVERALL SIGNAL OF THE STANDARD DEVIATIONS (GSS) .................................................................... 34

1.

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1. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL


Technical description for measuring trolley is divided in to four parts:
"Part I.
"Part II.
"Part III.
"Part IV.

- Theoretical Overview",
- How to assemble, dissemble and maintain"
- Description of the measuring program".
- Description of the evaluation program".

Part I
Explaining problems of the track geometry, its measuring and evaluating and to explain these
problems in view of specifications of the measuring trolley Krab. Knowledge of Part 1. is not
necessary for practical work with the Krab. The operator without prior knowledge of the track
geometry problems (Part 1) of this manual would gain a better understanding of the
manipulation with the measuring trolley, it results and evaluating programs. (Part IV).
Part II
Is a practical guide involving operating of the measuring trolley Krab. The operator should
read this part carefully and understand the working of the measuring trolley before the first
use of this equipment. The operator would in this part also find the basic information of the on
board computer HUSKY. More detailed information is available from the original manual for
this computer.
Part III and IV
Explain to the operator workings of the software supplied with the measuring trolley.
Software is divided in the following groups: measuring program, communication program and
evaluating program (you can find it in separate manual). For practical track measuring it is
necessary to be familiar with all facets of the software (Part 3 and 4). Measured data are
transferred with the help of the communication program from the measuring computer to the
evaluating PC. To operate the communication program we advise to read Part 3. chap. 3.2 and
3.3. Detailed knowledge can be gained from the original manual for the communication
program and from the diskette. Evaluation and the printing of the data is done on the
evaluating PC. The operator should be familiar with some of the basic theory in Part 1.
Recommendation: To become familiar with the measuring trolley Krab we recommend:
Study all of Part 2. and chapter 4 from Part 3. Only after understanding you
can begin with the track measuring. Become familiar with chapters 3.2 and
3.3 from Part 3 and transfer of the data to the evaluating PC. When you are
in the mood and have some time to study Part 1. Manual of evaluating
program helps you to overcome the doubts you may have by intuitively
using the evaluating program and you can successfully finished your work
with complete results printed of the geometric variables of the measured
track.

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I. BASIC THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES

2.
2.1

TRACK GEOMETRY
Definitions of the geometric variables

Track geometry is given:


a) Geometric Order of the Track (GOT) (alignment and top of the track)
b) Construction Order of the Track (COT) (gauge and cant)

This variables are defined as follows:


- right (left) rail: rail located right (left) from the axis of the rail in the up direction
- top of the rails: points of the common tangent for the opposing rails, coplanar in the
cross section.
- top of the rail head: intersection of the upper running edge of the rail with axis
symmetry of the rail profile.
- running edge of the rail: is a geometric point of the intersection of the inner part of
the rail 14mm under the top of the rail perpendicular to the symmetry of the rail
profile.
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Geometric order of the track (alignment and top) is given by the forming curvature:
alignment of the track: (geometric axis of the track) is given by the centre of the connecting
lines of the running edge of opposing rails.
alignment of the rails: is given by the running edge of the rails.
level of the track on axis (TOP): is given by the centre of the connecting lines on the top of
the rail.
level of the rails (TOP): is given by the running surface of the rails.
Construction order of the track is defined by variables as follows:
gauge: distance between the running edges of the opposing rails.
cant: is given by angle which include common tangent of opposing tops of the rails in
horizontal position. It is measured by the shorter leg of a right angle of the rectangular triangle
where hypotenuse has length of nominal gauge (for example 1500mm).
twist: (in given cross section) is difference of cant in cross cut equidistant by half length of
the base of the twist in up direction and by half length of the base of the twist in down
direction.
Variables of the track geometry could be divided as per following schema:
geometric order of the track-GOR

construction order of the track COR

(deviations from projected placement)

(direct measurements of the track)

horizontal
direction

Alignment Al

Gauge Ga

vertical
direction

Top Tp

Cant Ct

Measurement of the gauge and cant is relatively easy, because these variables are given
in direct cross cut of the track. In comparison, measurements of the top and alignment are
evaluating the deviation from the projected track settlement. Measuring cars and that include
the measuring trolley Krab do not know a projected placement of the track and therefore can
measured and evaluate only "smoothness" of these variables by measuring Deviations from
the substituted centre line. This line has filtered out waves, longer than for example 25m.
There are two ways how to evaluate the smoothness of the track: measuring of versine (rise of
arc above a chord) and measuring of so called true geometry. Between both kind of measuring
exists relationship and it is possible convert them (See Chap.2.4).
Measured primary geometric variables are digitised every 0.25m and are stored in the
memory of the measuring computer. The real measuring however is done every 50mm in
window of 1m so we can remove so called folding effect (anti-aliasing filtration).

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2.2

Transfer Functions

This chapter will explain basic linear dynamic system, which is important, and meaningful,
when measuring Track Geometry. Excitation of the system is done by the signal y(x). The
system itself is fully described by the transfer function H (j/). Echo of the system is exiting
signal z(x):
y(x)

z(x)

H(j/)

Usually independent variable is time. In track geometry application it is length x. More


explanation is in the example, which calculates versine, on the chord.

2.2.1

Versine on the there point asymmetric chord

If unevenness of the forming curve of alignment and top is measured by versine measuring on
the chord, the result is depended on the length of the chord and its asymmetry. From practical
point of view it is obvious that smaller the length of the chord the more we underestimate long
unevenness. This well-known phenomenon is possible to described, by so-called transfer
function. These functions allows calculation of the versine z(x) from the excitation signal y(x):

y
z(x)
b

y(x)

a
y(x)

y(x+b)

y(x-a)
0

z ( x)
a,b

x-a

x+b

y ( x) [ a b+b y ( x a) + a +a b y ( x + b)]

(1)

length of the asymetric chord

The transfer function has advantages shape when we move from independed spatial variable x
to reciprocal value 1/x (number of waves in one meter). To diferenciate spatial, and wavenumber domain, we would mark wave-number with symbol 1/ where [1/m] and length of the
wave with symbol with unit [m]. Transfer from spatial, to wave domain, is achieved by
FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) to be applied on equation (1), and shown in equation (2):

Z ( j 2 )

j
= Y ( j 2 ) 1 ab+b e

2 a

a
a +b

2 b

(2)

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Where j shows imaginary unit.

Transfer function of the versine on the three point asymmetric chord with sections a, b have
shape:

H( j

b
a +b

2 a

a
a +b

2 b

(3)

Because we are dealing with complex function, Fig. 1 contains course of only absolute values
of this function, for three different chord lengths:
1. blue - 2.5m (a,b =1.15 , 1.35m) chord used by KRAB
2. black - 5.6m (a,b =2.5 , 3.1m) chord used on KRAB with the chord extension arm
3. red -10m (a,b =4, 6m), chord to evaluate alignment deflection for DB (German Railways)

Fig. 1
On horizontal axis of the graph, is reciprocal length of the wave. To the left, are waves long
as 100m, and on the right wave to 1m lengths. If the entry signal, have a shape of the pure
sinus-wave, y(x)=sin(2x/), value, of the transfer function for given length of the wave
coefficient, is enough to calculate the ordinate of the entry sinusoid, of the seeking versine,
z(x) also in the shape of the sinus wave.

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Fig. 2
These hypotheses, verified in practical test, are described in Fig. 1. In this drawing, in green is
a sinusoid in length of 2m, with unitary amplitude, as an entry signal y (x). To this sinusoid,
are superimposed first, and third chord from Fig. 1. First chord of 2.5m long, in blue colour,
we could see, that measured amplitude, is about 1.7, which correspond to the value of the
transfer function, for wave length of 2m. Second chord, of 10m in red, when moved anywhere
over the green sinus wave, its centre, always lie on the sinusoid, and will measure zero
value. This corresponds to the zero value, of the transfer function from Fig. 1. In other words,
chord of 10m, with chord distribution 4 and 6m, is completely blind to 2m waves. We can
also conclude, by pure observation from Fig. 1, that chords, of any length, have common
problem. They are unable to measure long wave. This is a disadvantage of measuring on the
chord.
If chord of 10m, will be symmetrical, it will be blind, to the waves of 5m, which would be
more serious. Waves of 5m are represented abundantly, in course of measuring. Asymmetry of
the chord, to certain point, helps to remove, this drawback.
Procedure used for the versine calculation by means of the transfer function was used for pure
sinusoidal signals in our example. This procedure can be generalized on the signals occurring
in practice. Every continuous signal can be projected as sum of sinusoids with different
wavelength. For each sinusoid, we know the multiplication coefficient. After application,
partial results are sum-up. If, for decomposition of the entry signal, we use Fast Fourier
Transformation (FFT), the procedure is very effective. It is called Fast Convolution or Fast
de-convolution. It is depending, if we know the entry signal and calculating the versine, or if
we know versine, and calculating the entry signal. In case of de-convolutions, the calculations
also need to take in count, the properties of the transfer function; the suggested process is only
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to explain the procedure. In practice the calculation of the de-convolution, need to take in
consideration, also the noise of the measured signal.
2.3

Filtration

By filtration, we understand method, how to remove some unwanted wave components. We


can describe the used filters, as a linear dynamic system. The transferred functions, has
characteristics of the frequency filter.
2.3.1

Filters used by the software KRAB

Software KRAB use these type of filters:

FIR-Kaiser (blue)
Trapezoidal (green)
Triangular (red)
Butterworth (violet)

First three filters, are non-recursive, and are applied in the spatial domain, by analogue
equation (1), and last, is equivalent to Butterworth recursive filter of the 4th order. It is used in
the manner there-back, to prevent phase displacement. In the KRAB software,
application is by method of Fast convolution in frequency domain as an analogue equation (2).

Fig. 3
On the Fig. 3 we see absolute values, of the frequency transfer function, of all four filters, in
the shape of low-pass filtration of up to 25m.
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Definice: Bordering wavelength of the filters, used by software KRAB, are defined as a
wavelength, for which frequency transfer function, has a characteristic value 0.5.

First three non-recursive filters, in the track domain, are applied as weighted moving average.
Weighted windows, of these filters, are on the Fig. 4. From their shape, it becomes obvious,
from where the two remaining filters have they name. The name of the first filter, FIR-Kaiser,
is adapted from English Finite Impulse Response, which is the characteristic of the nonrecursive filters. The attribute Kaiser, means, that when calculating weight, we used Kaisers
window of the order 3.5.
The chosen filters are very often used by other measuring systems. Butterworth and Triangular
filters are very common. The Trapezoidal filter is an improvement of the Triangular filter, as
we can see from the frequency characteristics. Trapezoidal filters do not have so large side
lobes, as a Triangular filter. Both can be transferred to double filtration, simply by the moving
average. The Triangular filter has both moving averages of the same length, and in case of the
Trapezoidal filter; one moving average has a 2/3 length of the second.

Fig. 4
On the Fig. 5, we can see characteristic of the three Butterworth filters. Marked red is
Butterworth filter of the order N0=4, with bordering wavelength 0=25m, used once (there).
Marked blue, is a same filter used twice (there-back). We can see, that the wavelength of
the Butterworth filter (there) does not correspond with definition stated above, but
frequency characteristics, for the bordering length, are equal to the value 2/2. The values 0.5
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is attain for =0*3^(1/2N0)=21.8m. Only then, the same filter, used (there-back), the
bordering wavelength are true to the definition. Marked green, is a spare Butterworth filter
used only (there), which should substitude blue filter (there-back). Its order, and
bordering wavelength, where determined, by the condition in such order, so its amplitude
frequency characteristics, intersects the bordering wavelength 0=25m, on the level 0.5 and
has on the same point, common tangent. These condition exactly corresponds with the order
of the filter N = 4/3N0 = 5.33 and bordering length of the wave is =0*3^(1/2N)=27.7m. In
practice, we can, for Butterworth filter apply, in the track domain, only all-number order, filtre
N=5.

Fig. 5
At the bottom part, of the Fig. 5, are derivations of the frequency characteristics, which fulfill
the conditions, for the common tangent for filter (there-back), and for spare filter used only
there. Detection of the equivalent Butterworth filter, (as it is applied in the software
KRAB), to the filter (there) has a practical significance.
Question:
Inertial measuring coach, using for on-line filtration, of the gauge signal, to find long-wave
part, Butterworth filter, of the order N= 4, with bordering wavelength =25m. Which filter
should be used in the software KRAB to achieve the similar results?
Solution:
Because we are looking for on-line results, we known it is a Butterworth filter, used only
(there). Bordering length, of the wave, corresponds with the value, of the frequency
characteristics 2/2. It is a red filter, from the Fig. 5. It should be substituted by a different
Butterworth filter, accessible by the software KRAB in the system (there-back). It is an
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inversion of the example above. First, we must specify the order of the spare filter. It must be
smaller, because, it will be used (there-back). The order increases 4/3* (it is) Nn = 3/4*N =
3/4*4=3. The bordering length of the wave, is calculated by the algorithm, n=/3^(1/2N n) =
25/3^(1/6) =20.8m.
2.3.2

The separation of the long-wave and short-wave part of the signal

With the help of filtration, we could separate the given signal, into low-pass filtration (the
example of these filters is in the Fig. 3), which gives us so-called long- wave component. By
subtracting the original signal, and its long wave part, we will get the short-wave component.
Same effect is achieved, when using filter, with the high-pass filter, providing, that both filters
are complimentary.
H low pass filter ( j ) = 1 H high pass filter ( j )

(4)

It means for Gauge:


Ga full

= Ga dyn

+ Ga quass

(5)

All low-pass and high-pass filters to be used in practice are not complementary. For example,
low- and high-pass Butterworth filters in track domain (there) are not complementary.
Long-wave component, of the signal, is also called quasistatic component, short-wave
component dynamic, in accordance with the arousing effect of the components, which they
have on the forces, between the wheels and the rails.
2.4
2.4.1

Measuring of the alignment and top


Absolute and relative measuring according to the wave contents

In the previous chapter, we mentioned that real, continuous signal, could be projected as a
sum of the sinusoid curves. Example of the sum of the sinusoids, Fig. 6.

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Fig. 6
On the top graph are four sinus curves, with wave length, amplitude and phase shift over axis
x according to the following table:

Colour
Blue
Green
Red
Violet

Wave length [m] Amplitude [mm]


64
1
16
1
8
1
2
0.3

Phase shift [m]


9
0
-2
0.5

Tab. 1
In the middle graph is a sum of all four sinusoids, which are classified, as an entry signal y (x)
from equation (1). In the bottom graph, is signal y (x), transferred into linear dynamic domain,
function (Y j2/) from equation (2). Here the function has only four non-zero values, giving
amplitudes of each individual sinus curves depending on the wavelength as in the Tab.1. From
this example we can see the advantage, of using Fourier transformation: blue signal y (x)
could represent shape of the forming curve of alignment of the real rail. On the section of
40m, when sampling every 0.25m, we would need 160 real numbers. By using Fourier
transformation, we would need only 9 numbers (Tab.1.)
In the chapter 2.1, we discussed the difference, in measuring of the value COT (Construction
order of the track, gauge and cant) and GOT (Geometry order of the track alignment and
top). Values of COT are direct measuring on the rail, and have a full wave spectrum. They
contain waves, of all length, from the longest, (hundreds of meters) to the shortest, (1m). Its
measuring is absolute by which we mean, that for its identification, on the given location of
the rail, we need only distance measurement, and only at that location. Formed waves of the
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GOT, have also full wave spectrum, but for the measuring by the same method, we would
need to know also the exact position of the ground, which is not possible and therefore we
measure only the smoothness of the curves. If we measure the smoothness on the chord, we
need to known the location of the forming curve, not only at the place of the measuring, but
also behind and ahead. This is a reason why we call this type of measuring relative. The chord
measuring, have limited wave spectrum. The final signal does not contain long waves. Natural
endeavour is to increase the wave band towards the long waves. For tracks, where train speed
is up to 160km/h, the expected wave band is <25m, on track over 160km/h at least <50m.
2.4.2

Direct measuring of the so-called true geometry

By true geometry, we understand horizontal (alignment) and vertical (top) shape of the
forming curve. As we explained in the chapter 2.4.1 even, that these curves have full wave
spectrum, they are very difficult to measure. In practice, however, the true geometry is
measured in limited wave bands. Most common direct measuring method is inertial,
implemented by fast moving recording cars. The measurement is done by indirect method on
the chord, and then is recalculated to true geometry.
When using the inertial measuring, we measure ordinates from forming curves, against the
centre line. The centre line is in the middle of the curvature, which inertial system seeking, in
accordance to the principals of the inertial measuring. Essentially, we measure the movement
on the curve in the space coursed by acceleration. After double integration of acceleration,
created deflection, after the filtration describes, and projects, the centre line of the forming
wave. Double integration however, has very similar problems as de-convolution, described in
the chapter 2.2.1. The problem is, that it could not be very accurate over long waves. That is a
reason, why measuring is done in the limited wave band, implementing other technical tricks.
The advantage of the inertial measuring is that it gives as picture of the (real) true geometry.
In our example, the forming curves, without the long waves.
Example:

Fig. 7
On the Fig. 7 is comparison of the entry signal y (x) (blue) with the same signal, which have
long wave part (green) removed. In this case, the sinus curvature of the 64m-wave length is
not included. The blue signal could be taken for forming curve, green for measuring signal by
the inertial system, which measuring in the band of 1<<25m.

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2.4.3

Indirect measuring of the so-called true geometry

This measuring method is used by the track geometry measuring trolley KRAB and by the
small track recording car MMD . It measures versine, of the forming curvature on the
chord. After, by the fast de-convolution, calculates the true geometry in the limited wave
band. The procedure is illustrated in the following example:
On the track, on which one rail has horizontal shape of the curvature y (x) (Fig. 7 blue line),
track recording trolley KRAB is moved and measure versine on the asymmetric chord
1.15/1.35m. Measuring of the versine z (x) is simulated by the equation (1). In the upper part
of the Fig. 8 is y (x) blue and z (x) green.
Now, we can apply on the versine z (x) de-convolution with the transfer function curvature
y(x). In the bottom part of the Fig. 8 is an original signal y (x) in blue and re-calculated green.
The small difference is because of the imperfection of the chord to measure very long waves.

Fig. 8
Now, we will solve the same example, but we will use chord 4/6m, which is on the Fig. 1

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Fig. 9.
In the upper part of the Fig. 9 is again forming curve (blue) and re-calculated versine (green),
this time on the chord 4/6m. In the bottom part, is in blue forming curve, and in green an
attempt to re-construct the curvature, from the versine. It is visible, that the re-construction is
not containing wavelength 2m. Information of this wavelength is lost, due to the blind
window of the chord, as described in the chapter 2.2.1.

2.4.4

Indirect measuring on the chord geometry

By indirect geometry measuring on the chord, we understand direct measuring of the


alignment and of top, on the chord of the certain length (usually shorter), and re-calculation of
these signals on the versine, of the chord of the different length. In practice, this method is
used for example by the track geometry measuring trolley KRAB (chord 1.15/1.35m) and
representation of the final versine for instance as for DB (German Rail requirements), where
the length of chord must be 2.6/6m for top and 4/6m for alignment.
In principle, however, the calculations is done by the same method as in the example of
calculation of the true geometry, only the core, of de-convolution contain part of the transfer
functions on presented chord, and part of the measuring chord.
2.4.5

Removal of the design value from the alignment

The versines of the alignment have thanks to existence of the curves, typical shape of the
trapezoid. Transitional curves, corresponds to the leading edge of the trapezoid, tangents to
the zero values, and pure curves to the constant values. Because by the imperfections when
constructing the railway track, the basic shape contains unevenness, which is superimpose on
the trapezoid. The reason for geometry measuring is to define this unevenness. It is important,
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to separate the trapezoid part, from the signal of the versine. If we use the filters described in
the chapter 2.3.1, in the short-wave component we always find parts of the basic trapezoid,
particularly apex of the trapezoid. This phenomenon is unwanted, because it creates apparent
unevenness. It is significant in the curves with radius R<150m, switch points etc.

Fig. 10
In the software KRAB, is for separation of the trapezoidal components, included special filter
Linear approximation. Its separates the signal of the versine, by the break points in the
locations of anticipated peaks of the trapezoid. Signal, between the two adjacent break points
inserts equalizing line, by the method of the smallest quadrants. Ordinates of the ending points
of the lines, from the two adjacent locations, are averaged with the weight given by the length
of each individual area. By this method, we can achieve continuity of the linear incline line
between the break points. In the case, that some of the incline line sloping horizontally
(tolerance of the deflection from horizontal can by adjusted), it is again equalised by the
method of the smallest quadrants, to the horizontal, and its ending points becomes initial point
of the adjacent inclined equalising line. Finally, the linear incline line, is filtered, by simple
moving average
On the Fig. 10, we could see green signal of the versine of the alignment, measured on the
chord 0.9/1.0m travelling between the two switch points. Locations of the vertical violet lines,
indicating the break points. The dark line is a linear approximation. From this example, we
can deduct, that placement of the break points, which are placed by the operator, and its
results, are affected by human factor. In general, the anticipated shape of the trapezoidal
component is achieved, by the minimal amount of the break points.

2.5

Effect of the axle load on the geometric variables

When defining the geometric values, we are assuming that the Rail track is unweighted. The
wheels of the rail vehicles, however, by its weight and dynamics, deforming the track. These
deformations, under certain circumstances, are affecting the geometry values. Chapter 2.5
investigates the conditions, formation, and size of this accompanying unevenness
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Fig. 11 Equipment for continual measuring of the Track stiffness, Rail Station Luice
17/05/2001
Change of alignment and gauge of the rail, under weight is significant only in the case of
flexible fastenings, with soft plates, under the heel of the rail of the track. In other cases, the
measuring of these differences is not measurable by conventional measuring equipment, and
its significance is very small.
In railway fraternity, however, is widely assumed, that the differences of geometric values are
considerable, between weighed and unweighed tracks on the vertical versine (top, cant and
Twist), when measured under the weighed and unweighed tracks. Until 1999, the experiments
where not conducted, which would prove the magnitude and significance of these differences
one way or another. Thanks to the grant agency of the Czech Republic in the year 2000, the
research started, to ascertain the effect of weight on the vertical track geometry. The
experimental equipment is on the Fig. 11. It consists of modified tamping machine, type
400.1; where, instead of the tamping heads, is a pushing mechanism, which can induce a force
of 80kN on each of the rail. In addition, there is a system of two side beams, which allow
measuring of the versine of top on both rails, on the long chord 20.8m.

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Fig. 12
On the Fig. 12 is shown result, of 100m section measuring left rail in Czech Republic. Two
signals, with thin lines showing versine of the top, under the weight of Q=80kN. Similar
measurements where done in the other localities in Czech Republic. 1. Luice (New track), 2.
Merovice-Nemcice (Main line track), 3. Kojetin-Tovaov (Regional track).
Analysis of these three track measurements confirms, that the Standard deviations of the
versine of the top are almost same when measuring unweighed, or weighed track. See the
following table:

Location

SDO versine of the top SDO versine of the top SDO of vertical
unloaded track [mm] loaded track [mm]
sagging [mm]

Railway station Luice

1.70

1.69

0.13

Mrovice-Nmice

5.95

6.10

0.80

Kojetn Tovaov

7.42

7.36

0.72

Another conclusion is, that the SDO of the vertical sagging is approximately 8-12% SDO of
the versine of the top measured on chord of 20.8m. We have also calculated correlation
between sagging, as a deformation component on the one end, and versine as a geometric
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value on the other. In both cases the results where zero. This experiment explains the
agreement of the SDO of the versine, with and without the weight, or why the SDO of
sagging, is not adding up with the SDO of the versine without the weight.
We arrived to the very important conclusion:
Section evaluation of the geometry of the track is not effected by the vehicle axle loading.
In other situations, as in the local defects (Fig. 12) is also important to take in count, that the
deformations of the rail in our 100m recording have amplitude only 1mm. In the case of
sudden deformation of the track (mud holes etc.), we measured much bigger maximum vertical
sagging about 4-5mm. This sort of differences are much more serious. However, spots as these
are usually well known to the repairers, and are visually obvious. From collected data is
noticeable, that weight has effect on top, alignment and twist, only on the tracks, that is in the
bad condition where diagnostics can be done by visual inspection. The track geometry
measuring trolley KRAB is designed for hand diagnoses of the track, and is fully equipped to
collect the information from visual inspection. That way, we retain the loss of track geometry
information, in locations with serious defects of ballast beds, or rail fastening system.

2.6

Sign convention of geometry variables

KRAB using a sign convention


of the geometric variables, which are
independent of the direction of travel
and location of the trolley and using the
real kilometre locations. By using these
conventions we are eliminating a
confusion between the marking on the
graph of the geometric values and
direction of travel to the individual rail.
Plus (+) value of the alignment is
a deviation to the left, if you stand in the
direction of the rising kilometre. It
means, quasi static part of the alignment
(curvature or flip over value of the
radius) is plus value for a right hand Fig. 13 Positive values of the track geometry parameters.
corner.
Plus (+) value for the gauge is wide gauge.
Plus (+) value for cant occurs if the left hand rail is higher than the right hand rail. That
means in the right hand curve the theoretic value of the cant is plus.
Plus (+) value of the top is an upward direction. Downward direction is a minus.
The twist is a calculation of the cant (chapter 2.1).
The following relationships are true between values of the GOT (Geometry order of the track
alignment and top) on the left and right rail:
1) For true geometry (the wavebands and type of filters must be same):
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Al dyn L =

Al dyn R + Ga dyn

(6)

Tp dyn L = Tp dyn R + Ct dyn


where Al, Tp is an alignment and top of the rail,
index dyn means dynamic shortwave part and L,R left and raight rail.

2) For versine geometry, (the wavebands, type of filters and length of chords must be same):
Al _ L =

Al _ R + vsGa

(7)

Tp _ L = Tp _ R + vsCt

where vsGa, resp. vsCt is so-called versine of the gauge resp. cant. These formal
values arise when equation (1) is applied on gauge resp. cant:

vsGa( x)

= Ga( x) [ a b+b Ga( x a) + a a+b Ga( x + b)]

(8)

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3.

EVALUATION OF THE GEOMETRIC VALUES

When you finish measuring the rail track the next task is to evaluate the measuring
results if it corresponds with the quality you want. The evaluating software of the measuring
trolley KRAB which has basically two modules: Section evaluation and evaluation of the
local irregularities. Both modules have been made to European railways requirements (eg.
CSN 73 63 60), however they could easily be changed to any requirements you may need.

3.1

Section evaluation

Section evaluation is an overall evaluation of certain sections of the railway track


(typically 200m to 1km). There are several methods of the section evaluation. These common
ground is a standard deviation (STD) of the individual geometric variables. Under older
methodology the number of quality (NQ) is determined from standard deviation according to
equation:

NQ =

where Al GCt Tp w -

2
2
2
2
wAl. Al + wG . G + wCt. Ct + wTp. Tp

(9)

Alignment of the Rail


Gauge
Cant
Top of the Rail (Level)
weight of the geometric variables
Standard deviation of the individual geometry variables

This method is called evaluation by Number of quality NQ. The advantage of evaluation by
Numbers of Quality is that it can be used to evaluate any kind of railway track. It is up to the
user to determine values of the individual Standard Deviations for each geometric variable
and numbers of quality, which is appropriate for the given track limits.
You can see the example of the STD limits comprising of the certain Quality index (see
Chap. 3.1.1) in the following tables:

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STD Limit for QI = 4.0


STD[mm] Align. Gauge
SZ1
3.0
2.5
SZ2
2.5
2.2
SZ3
1.8
1.8
SZ4
1.1
0.9
STD Limit for QI = 3.3
STD[mm] Align. Gauge
SZ1
2.3
1.9
SZ2
1.9
1.8
SZ3
1.5
1.4
SZ4
0.8
0.7

STD Limit for QI = 3.0


Cant
2.3
2.1
1.8
0.9

Top
4.2
3.6
3.1
1.5

STD[mm]
SZ1
SZ2
SZ3
SZ4

Align. Gauge
2.0
1.7
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.3
0.8
0.6

Cant
1.6
1.5
1.2
0.6

Top
2.8
2.6
2.0
1.0

Cant
1.3
1.3
1.0
0.5

Top
2.2
2.1
1.5
0.7

STD Limit for QI = 2.4


Cant
1.8
1.7
1.4
0.7

Top
3.2
2.8
2.3
1.1

STD[mm]
SZ1
SZ2
SZ3
SZ4

Align. Gauge
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.6
0.5

A more modern way of evaluation is in the conversion of the Standard Deviation to so-called
Quality Index QI, with the same significance for:
- any speed zone of the track
- any geometric variables.

European Union using speed limits zones:


SZ1
SZ2
SZ3
SZ4

3.1.1

V 60 kph
60<V90 kph
90<V120 kph
120<V160 kph, V - track speed in [kph]

Definition of the Quality Index

The Quality Index is designed that it has in given speed zones Gaussian distribution
probability with the average 3 and standard deviation s80=1.188, which guarantees that 80%
of all values of any QI would be smaller than 4 (Fig. 14).

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Fig. 14 Probability density function of the STD and QI

Used indexes:
- Quality Index (QI) of individual geometric variables (namely QI of alignment,
gauge, cant and top).
- Overall quality index OQI is used for evaluation QI of the track as a whole and
summarises indexes of the four basic geometric variables.
- Tamping index TI is used to make a decision whether to apply a tamping machine
and differs from the OQI that dose not use a gauge, as a tamping machine can not tamp a
gauge.
Scale of indexes are similar to school marking (1 to 5). Where index 4 is rendered
unacceptable. From above characteristic probability of density of indexes is clear that 20% of
the track has indexes worse than 4.
Relationship between QI and standard deviation STD (for any geometric variable) is
realised by logarithmic transformation relation (Fig. 14):

Ln(
QI =

STD
)
b
m

(10)

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where constant number b and m are necessary to determine for each individual railway net
from the statistical values of STD files, appropriate geometric variables and appropriate speed
zones (this values are used in evaluation program.
Overall index of quality OQI and tamping index TI is calculated from the indexes
of the individual geometric variables based on the hybrid criteria equation:

OQI , TI = k max {( w Al ZK Al + wGa ZK Ga ), ( wCt ZK Ct + wTp ZK Tp )} + q

(11)

where weight w of individual geometric variables are in the Table 1. and they are different for
OQI and TI:

TAB.1

wAl

wGa

wCt

WTp

TI

0.97

0.0

0.42

0.618

OQI

0.485

0.485

0.412

0.618

Weights of the hybrid criteria

Weight coefficients where given on the assumption of the correlation analyses are valid for
almost any railway net. Multiplier factor k and cumulative constant q in equation (3) are given
on assumption of multidimensional statistical analyses on condition that OQI and TI must be
probable variables with same probability density as individual QI (Gaussian with average 3
and standard deviations s80=1.188, Fig. 14.)

TAB.2

SZ 1

1.35

-1.52

SZ 2

1.19

-0.95

SZ 3

1.28

-1.18

SZ 4

0.91

0.27

Coefficients k and q for the four speed zones

The example of the m and b' set of coefficients for speed zone SZ1 to SZ5 is shown in
the table below. SZ5 is recommended for tram track. User can use this values in evaluating
program.

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Example of the section evaluation below:

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3.1.2

Coefficient of logarithmic transformation relation

This chapter is important for the user, who wants to used section evaluation by QI for the
railway net other then Czech Railway (tram nets etc.)
The number coefficient b and m visible in logarithmic transformation relation (2) are given
from the statistical values (mean value p and standard deviation s), which are correct for file
STD given geometric variable and given speed zone with equation:
Ln((
m =

s 2
) + 1)
p

0.81 (

s80

b = p e-m(

s
)
p

(12)

s280 m + 3)
2

(13)

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

Even if equations (11) and (12) look


complicated they actually represent really smooth functions (Fig. 15 and Fig. 16).
In TAB.3 are given statistics measured by inertial measuring car of Czech Railways in
waveband 2-25m (measuring 1999).
TAB.3

Alignment

Gauge dyn.

Cant dyn. part

Top

SZ

S/p

s/p

s/p

s/p

SZ 1

0.495

2.266

0.420

1.884

0.382

1.737

0.425

3.110

SZ 2

0.424

1.909

0.313

1.724

0.342

1.641

0.370

2.746

SZ 3

0.430

1.422

0.392

1.365

0.411

1.339

0.471

2.239

SZ 4
0.519
0.836
0.609
0.696
0.499
0.705
0.609
1.104
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Example of statistics of the Czech STD files


3.2

Evaluating of the Local Defects

Evaluation of local defects are done by comparison of the geometric variables with
permitted limits of the track. For each individual speed zone are given two values of the
limits. For periodic control of the geometry, these limits are divided to Level 1 (maintenance
- M) and Level 2 (instantaneous maintenance - I). The abb. M and I can be seen during the
measuring on the screen of the measuring computer. Level 1 is smaller and therefore is used
as a stricter criterium (and is seen more often on the track, which is evaluated as a fault).
Level 2 is higher and has a smaller amount of the deficiencies). If the readings are over the
limit, the printout of the local defects would show the length in [m] by how much these limits
are over, with the slash (/) sign, pending if the values are over limits 1 or 2 (example 07/2).
The limits are given in the Table 4.
In the case of the Gauge the evaluation is individual for positive values (wide gauge)
and negative values (narrow gauge). In the printout of the local defects it shows in the Gauge
column as " + " and " - " instead of the slash sign (Fig. 17). Other variables are calculated
symmetrically to the zero line.
In this Table are the values of the permitted variables for the Europe Union ( CSN 736360):
TAB.4

Wide Gauge

Spur Tigth Gauge

Change of Gauge over 1m

Top of rail

Ga+ [mm]

Ga- [mm]

Ga/m [mm]

Tp [mm]

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

SZ1

26

35

-2

-3

-3

-4

-5

SZ2

18

30

-2

-3

-3

-4

-5

SZ3

10

20

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

SZ4

10

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

SZ5

10

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

4(5) 5(6)

15

20

4(5) 5(6)

10

15

10

( ) ....... Values in the bracket ( ) are valid only for the curves

TAB.4

Twist

Alignment

Cant

Cont.

Tw [1:n]

Al [mm]

Ct [mm]

1.8

6.0

12

d)

SZ1

250

320

320

SZ2

250

336

336

250 (1.8)

SZ3

250

640

640

SZ4

250

832

832

SZ5

999

999

999

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

15

20

15

20

167 (1.8)

10

15

10

15

250 (6.0)

250 (6.0)

10

10

333 (12)

333 (12)

where: SZ1SZ4 ... Values for speed zones SZ1 to SZ4


SZ1 V 60 km/h
SZ2 60 < V 90 km/h
SZ3 90 < V 120 km/h
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SZ4 120 < V 160 km/h


SZ5 160 < V 200 km/h, V - track speed [kph]
EU Recognizes five kind of limits of the sections defects for:
a) New Track acceptance with new material,
b) Track acceptance with old material,
c) Acceptance of other works.
d) Working conditions, limits for the maintenance,
e) Working conditions, limits for instantaneous maintenance (defects to be fixed
immediately),

Fig. 17 Limit values for Gauge in speed zones SZ1 and SZ2
Evaluating program and measuring program krab5.exe using values limits from the Table 4.
User can edit these values within evaluating program.

Example of the printout of local defects:

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4.
4.1

SPECIAL GEOMETRY VALUES


ORE-Twist

This is special value used in DB.


Input values

Parameter

Type of Filtration

Symbol

Unit

Cant

GH

[mm]

Quasistatic Cant

Triangular filter on base 40m length

GH_TP

[mm]

Curvature

Triangular filter on base 40m length

KRG_TP [1/m]

Algorithms
Computation of the individual twists for basis increasing in step 1.5m Vw-a (i)

a = 1,5 m ... 19,5 m, a = 1,5 m


Normalization:
Normalization according to SR 100:

Normalization according to maximum limits:

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Selection of maximum value


For each sample the maximum value has to be found:
VwORE - SR 100 (i) =
VwORE-Grenzw (1) =

Max [Vw-1,5 m--SR 100(i) ... Vw-19,5 m-SR100(i)]


Max [Vw-1,5 m Grenzw(i) ... Vw-19,5m-Grenzw(i)]

If maximum value is on base 1.5m the length of exceeding must be longer then 2m else next
base is taken into account.
Conclusion ORE-Twist
If the signal exceeds limit SR100:

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4.2

Overall signal of the local defects (GSE)

This is special value used in DB.

4.3

Evaluation of repeated joints-Cyclic Top

Some, mainly four-wheel, rail vehicles with leaf-springs are susceptible to a series of
consecutive failures in top. If sagging sleeper joints form a group with mutual distances of
approximately 10 to 30 meters, significant cumulative frequency swinging of the coach body
may occur, that the clearance in the axle guide stay of the wheel set line gets exhausted due to
the amplitude of the coach body, and a buoyancy of the wheels may occur, possibly resulting
in derailment. On a quantitative basis this process may be described by an algorithm which
serves as the basis for evaluation of what we refer to as cyclic top (abbreviation CT in the list
of local defects).
The algorithm calculates the cumulative quantity K (which simulates the amplitude of the
coach body and consists of the following steps:
1. Within the first step (see block 1 of Fig. 18) the signal of the top of the left and right rail is
transferred to only one signal in such a way that from each sample of both signals the
higher number is selected for the absolute value. By this action the effect of deviations of
the rail in cant is partially evaluated. The signal acquired in the previously described
fashion will be modified by the band filter (see block 2), which suppresses undulations
longer than 25 m and shorter than 3.5 m. The modified signal indicates an easily
distinguished local minimum. In practice in order to realize the aforementioned filter it is
sufficient to use a simple moving average of the length p = 5 m in the modification for a
low-frequency filter because the upper limit is ensured by the fact that this is the so-called
dynamic signal.

Fig. 18 Diagram of Cyclic Top


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2. Each sagging sleeper joint with a depth of vi causes a coach body amplitude of Vi. This
amplitude Vi is determined by the product of the depth of the sleeper joint vi and the
dynamic coefficient d(vi), which expresses amplification by the dynamic system of the
coach. The graph of the dependence of the dynamic coefficient on the depth of the sleeper
joint is in Block 4 of Fig. 18. With respect to nonlinear dynamic features of coaches, the
inconsistency in vi of the coefficient is not surprising.
3. Before the coach approaches the next failure, the amplitude is partially cushioned by the
friction dampers of the coach. This fact is described by the reduction of amplitude Vi
using the quotient qi. With respect to the aforementioned cushioning by friction dampers
the quotient qi is dependent on the extent of the amplitude Vi and therefore also on the
depth of sleeper joints vi as seen in Block 5 of Fig. 18. Moreover, the quotient is jumpdependent also on the distance between sleeper joints di. If the distance between sleeper
joints is greater than the value D (usually 20 meters) the quotient has a half value, and if
the distance is greater than 2D it has zero value, which means that within this distance, any
major amplitude is completely cushioned.
4. Another sleeper joint will contribute to the reduced extent of the previous amplitude Vi
with the new contribution Vi+1, which is again determined as the product of the depth of
the sleeper joint and the appropriate value of the dynamic coefficient. If the extent of
accumulated amplitude exceeds clearance in the axle guide stay clip (approximately 60
mm), local failure of the "repeated sleeper joint" quantity is indicated. The column with
this parameter is marked CS in the table of local failures.
Parameters for calculations are formed by the following quantities:
U, B permissible limit of value for the quantity K of the first or second level of importance
in the table of points of fracture of functions 0 < (vi) < 10 and 0 < q(vi) < 10,
D
p

distance limiting value, 10 < D < 52m


length of moving average, 1 < p < 10m,

Minimum levels and insensitivity of n in the algorithm of local minimum


The calculation of the quantity K illustrates an example of running through four top failures:

di
vi
[mm] [m]

(vi)

q(vi)

Vi= vi . i
[mm]

K i= K i-1 . qi-1 + Vi [mm],


for di D is K i = K i-1 . qi-1 /2 + Vi
for di 2D is K i = 0

0
1
2
3
4

0
16
22
19
20

0.0
1.5
1.9
1.7
1.75

0.0
0.4
0.6
0.48
0.54

0
24
42
32
35

0
0 0.0 + 24 = 24
24 0.4 + 42 = 52
52 0.6 + 32 = 63..... U exceeding U
63 0.48/2 + 35 = 50

4.4

0
0
20
20
40

Overall signal of the standard deviations (GSS)

This is special value used in DB.


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