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Editing and Property

Instituto Politcnico de Leiria


www.ipleiria.pt
Editorial Board
Paulo Almeida | Joo Paulo Jorge | Joo Costa | Francisco Dias
School of Tourism and Maritime Technology
Graphic Design and Layout
Joo Costa
Photography
Turismo do Oeste
ISBN
978-989-97395-4-3
All rights reserved - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
November 2013

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Francisco Dias
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Anabela Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Ctia Siopa
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Joo Costa
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Joo Paulo C. S. Jorge
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Joo Vasconcelos
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Nuno Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Simo Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Sofia Eurico
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Veronica Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

SCIENTIFIC BOARD

Agustn Santana Talavera


La Laguna University, Tenerife, Spain

Caroline Tie
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Alan Clarke
University of Pannonia, Hungary

Che-Jen Su
Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan

Alexander Bandurin
Moscow Institute for the Industry of Tourism, Russian Federation

ChinEe Ong
Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China

Alexandre Panosso Netto


University of So Paulo, Brazil

Chris de Freitas
University of Auckland, New Zealand

Alexis Papathanassis
Bremerhaven University, Germany

Chris Stone
Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

Alfonso Vargas Snchez


University of Huelva, Spain

Christine PagnonMaudet
University of Perpignan, France

Alzbeta Kilov
University of Business in Prague, Czech Republic

Cludia Almeida
University of Algarve, Portugal

Amlia Branco
ISEG, Portugal

Claudio Vignali
Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

Ana Lusa Pires


Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Conceio Gomes
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Anna Trono
University of Salento, Italy

Csilla Szalk
College of Commerce, Catering & Tourism, Hungary

Anabela Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Daniel Scott
University of Waterloo, Canada

Andreas Kagermeier
University of Trier, Germany

Daniela Coelho
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Andreas Matzarakis
University of Freiburg, Germany

Daniela Matusikov
University of Presov, Slovakia

Andrew J. Frew
Queen Margaret University, United Kingdom

David Santomil
University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

ngela Pereira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Dimitrios Buhalis
Bournemouth University, United Kingdom

Aurlia Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Dogan Gursoy
Washington State University, USA

Bas Amelung
Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Douglas Michele Turco


Drexel University, USA

Carlos Cardoso Ferreira


University of Lisbon, Portugal

Eduardo Sarmento
Lusophone University, Portugal

SCIENTIFIC BOARD
Elisa Backer
University of Ballarat, Australia

Joo Costa
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Elisete Kreutz
University Univates, Brazil

Joo Paulo Jorge


Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Fernanda Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Joo Vasconcelos
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Fernando Moreira
ESHTE, Portugal

John Fotis
Bournemouth University, United Kingdom

Fiorella Dallara
University of Bologna, Italy

Jorge Ferraz
ESHTE, Portugal

Francisco Dias
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Jos Rio Fernandes


University of Porto, Portugal

Gediminas Lankauskas
University of Regina, Canada

Jos Sancho Silva


ESHTE, Portugal

Graham Busby
University of Plymouth, United Kingdom

Jlia Fonseca
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Gudrun Helgadottir
Hlar University College, Island

Jlio Coelho
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Gui Lohmann
Griffith University, Australia

Kathleen Adams
Loyola University of Chicago, USA

Gyan Nyaupane
Arizona State University, USA

Kelly Bricker
International Ecotourism Society, USA

Ige Pirnar
Yasar University, Turkey

Kostas Zafiropoulos
University of Macedonia, Greece

Ins Braso
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Laurentina Vareiro
IPCA, Portugal

Isabel Marques
Lusophone University, Portugal

Lina Pilelien
Vytautas Magnus University, Luthuania

Ivo Dias
Lusiade University, Portugal

Lorena Rodrguez Campo


University of Vigo, Spain

James Leigh
University of Nicosia, Cyprus

Lus Carvalhinho
I.P. Santarm, Portugal

Jarkko Saarinen
University of Oulu, Finland

Lus Lima Santos


Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Joanna Kosmaczewska
University School of Physical Education in Poznan, Poland

Manuel Salgado
I.P. Guarda, Portugal

SCIENTIFIC BOARD
Maria Jos Andrade
University of Corua, Spain

Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Mrio Asceno
HAAGAHELIA University, Finland

Paulo Loureno
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Mrio Carvalho
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Pedro Gonalves
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Martin Lohmann
Luneburg University, Germany

Peter Cuka
Silesian University in Opava, Czech Republic

Masooma Al-Balushi
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman

Petia Petrova
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Michael Hall
University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Philippe Bachimon
University of Avignon, France

Miguel Moital
Bournemouth University, UK

Pieter Piket
Breda University, Netherlands

Nikolashin Vladimir
Moscow State Institute of Tourism Industry, Russia

Raquel Huete
Universidad de Alicante, Spain

Noel B. Salazar
University of Leuven, Belgium

Regina Schlter
CIET, Argentina

Nolle O' Connor


Limerick Institute of Technology, Ireland

Richard Butler
Strathclyde Business School, United Kingdom

Nomi Marujo
University of vora, Portugal

Roberto Gamboa
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Norma Ferreira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Roman Egger
Salzburg University, Austria

Nuno Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Rong Huang
University of Plymouth, United Kingdom

Orhan Uludag
Girne American University, T.R.N. Cyprus

Rubn Camilo Lois Gonzlez


University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Osama Al Fawair
Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

Samuel Elkington
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Pablo Rodrguez Gonzlez


CSIC, Spain

Srgio Arajo
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Paula Cabral
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Srgio Lopes
IPCA, Portugal

Paula Cardona
University of Porto, Portugal

Simo Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

Paula Cardoso
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portuga

Sofia Eurico
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portuga

SCIENTIFIC BOARD
Sofia Reino
Queen Margaret University, United Kingdom
Stanislav Ivanov
International University College, Bulgary
Stephan Wirtz
Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Sung Hee Park
Michigan State University, USA
Toms Lpez Guzmn
University of Cordoba, Spain
Ubaldino Couto
Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
Valdemar Martins
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Vernica Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
Violeta Tosic
The College of Tourism, Serbia
Virgilio Gonzalez
University of Granada, Spain
Vtor Ambrsio
ESHTE, Portugal
Wolfgang Georg Arlt
West Coast University, Germany
Xos Santos Solla
University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Zlia Breda
University of Aveiro, Portugal
Ziad Alrawadieh
Jordan University, Jordan

WELCOME LETTER
Dear Colleagues,
On behalf of the Direction of the School of Tourism and Maritime Technology, it is my
great pleasure to welcome you to Peniche and to the ITC International Tourism
Congress 2013, organized by The Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, in collaboration with
the Sultan Qaboos University, from Oman.
The main theme of the congress is The Image and Sustainability of Tourist
Destination and we are proud to present a programme with a distinguished faculty
of the leaders in this field: Taleb Rifai, Secretary-General of the World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO); Greg Richards, Tilburg University, Netherlands; Muzaffer
Uysal, Virginia Tech, USA; Kelly Bricker, University of Utah, USA; Tamara Ratz
Kodolnyi Jnos University of Applied Sciences, Hungary; Alexander Bandurin,
Moscow Institute for the Industry of Tourism, Russia; Masooma Al-Balushi, Sultan
Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman; Amina Abdullah Al Balushi, Director of
Statistic and Geographical Information Department, Ministry of Tourism, Sultanate of
Oman.
These keynote speakers will share with us the knowledge, the wherewithal and the
experience to help us pave our way into the future.
Therefore, the Meeting offers a worldwide forum for attendees from academia,
industry, government, and other organizations to actively exchange, share, and
challenge state-of-the-art research and case studies on travel and tourism.
I invite you to join us in making this event a memorable one.
I look forward to seeing you in Peniche.
Yours sincerely,
Teresa Mouga
Director of School of Tourism and Maritime Technology

WELCOME LETTER
Dear colleagues, On behalf of the Tourism Research Group (GITUR) we would like to
welcome all the participants to the VI International Tourism Congress ITC 2013,
held at the School of Tourism and Maritime Technology / Polytechnic Institute of
Leiria (Portugal). One of the main goals of our research group is to promote and
stimulate the discussion and the exchange of perspectives on the several fields
related to tourism, which can be recognized by the scientific community as prime
value work, thereby contributing to the consolidation of tourism as science.It is with
an enormous satisfaction that we witness in 2013 the positive evolution of the
International Tourism Congress. The number and origin of this year participants, and
most importantly, the quality of the selected papers are the main testimony that ITC
2013 plays an important role in the field of tourism in the international academy.
So, on behalf of the GITUR we sincerly hope that your participation in this
international event will be very useful and a significant moment for your professional
life.
Welcome to Peniche!
Joo Vasconcelos
Head of the Tourism Research Group (GITUR)

TABLE OF CONTENTS ILLUSTRATOR

TABLE OF CONTENTS



TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................................................. 14
KEYNOTE SPEAKER ................................................................................................................................................ 22
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE ....................................................................................................................................... 3
SCIENTIFIC BOARD ................................................................................................................................................... 4

ALEXANDER BANDURIN ............................................................................................................................................................................. 23


AMINA ABDULLAH AL BALUSHI ................................................................................................................................................................. 23
FRANCISCO DIAS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 24
GREG RICHARDS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 24
KELLY BRICKER .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
MASOOMA AL-BALUSHI ............................................................................................................................................................................. 25
MUZAFFER UYSAL ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
TAMARA RATZ ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

PARALLEL SESSIONS - ABSTRACTS ..................................................................................................................... 27


AN EVALUATION OF PRIORITIES FOR BEACH TOURISM: CASE STUDIES FROM ALENTEJO LITORAL,
PORTUGAL .............................................................................................................................................................. 28
ADRIANO W OLF | JOO PAULO JORGE

REFLECTING ON STUDENT AND INDUSTRY EXPECTATIONS IN THE TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY:
A SOUTH AFRICAN CASE STUDY .......................................................................................................................... 29
ALBERT STRYDOM

REVERSE FLOWS AS THE SOURCES FOR PRODUCT/SERVICE INNOVATION DO COMPANIES FROM


TOURISM INDUSTRY DIFFER? ............................................................................................................................... 30
ALENA K LAPALOV

PROPOSAL OF A VECTORIAL COMPOSITE INDEX FOR BENCHMARKING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF EVENTS 31


ALEXANDRE G UEDES DA SILVA | M ANUELA SARMENTO

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOURISM ENTERTAINMENT COMPONENT IN THE IMAGE OF A TOURIST


DESTINATION CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 32
ANA PATRCIA M ARQUES | PAULO ALMEIDA

VOLUNTARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: THE CASE OF THE PORTUGUESE
HOTELS .................................................................................................................................................................... 33
ANA SOFIA VIANA

THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE FOR THE WINE TOURIST VISITING
PORTUGUESE WINE REGIONS .............................................................................................................................. 34
ANA TERESA N UNES | M ARIA ANTNIA R ODRIGUES

TOURISTIC ITINERARIES: CONTRIBUTIONS TO BUILD INNOVATIVE TOURISM OFFERS AND TO CREATE


SUSTAINABLE DESTINATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 35
ANDR M ONTEIRO | LUS FERREIRA | LDIA AGUIAR

MANAGING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AS A TOURISM RESOURCE: FROM THE RECOGNITION OF


EXCEPTIONAL AGRO-PASTORAL LANDSCAPES TO A SUSTAINABLE INTEGRATION IN TOURISM PRODUCTS.
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 36
ANDREIA PEREIRA | ANTNIO DE SOUSA PEDROSA

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE IDENTITY ASSUMPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE JEWISH HERITAGE: THE CASE OF
BELMONTE .............................................................................................................................................................. 37
ANTNIO SRGIO ARAJO DE ALMEIDA | ANA PAULA SOUSINHA M ALHEIROS

THE EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS:


A RESEARCH ON SENIOR TOURISTS .................................................................................................................... 38
BILGE AVU GIL K SE

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS PERCEPTIONS OF MOUNTAIN DESTINATIONS ....... 39


C ARLA SILVA | ELISABETH K ASTENHOLZ | JOS LUS ABRANTES

MARKET ORIENTATION IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT SCALE TAILORED TO


THE HOTEL INDUSTRY ........................................................................................................................................... 40
C ARLOS ALBERTO FERNANDES SAMPAIO | R ICARDO JOS G OUVEIA R ODRIGUES | JOS M ANUEL H ERNNDEZ M OGOLLN

TOURISM INDUSTRY IMPACT WITH WEB 3.0 BASED MARKETING STRATEGIES ADOPTION........................... 41
C AROLINA N ARCISO | FILIPE M OTA PINTO | PAULO ALMEIDA

KEY ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE DESTINATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ........................................................... 42


C ATARINA ANTNIA M ARTINS | C ARLOS M ANUEL M ARTINS DA C OSTA | O SVALDO R OCHA PACHECO

RECONVERSION OF THE HERITAGE AND PEOPLE OF COASTAL ZONES .......................................................... 43

C TIA FILIPA C ERQUEIRA R EBELO | M RIO JOO PAULO DE JESUS C ARVALHO | INS PAULO C ORDEIRO BRASO | G ILBERTO C ORALEJO M OITEIRO
G RAA M ARIA G OMES EZEQUIEL | C ARLOS PEDRO FERREIRA ALVES

SPECIALIZATION AND IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE IN VISITORS TO A NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, THE


CANADIAN FOSSIL DISCOVERY CENTRE, MORDEN, MANITOBA, CANADA....................................................... 44
C HRISTOPHER M ALCOLM | D OUG R AMSEY

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES AND THE DECISION
MAKING IN PORTUGUESE HOTELS ....................................................................................................................... 45
C ONCEIO G OMES | N UNO ARROTEIA | LUS LIMA SANTOS

TOURIST COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS: THE CASE OF NEW TOURISM REGIONS OF PORTUGAL ................ 46
C RISTINA ESTEVO | SARA N UNES | JOO FERREIRA

ONLINE TOURISM PROJECT BASED ON WEB MARKETING TECHNOLOGIES ................................................... 47


C RISTINA G OMES | FILIPE M OTA PINTO | VITOR H UGO FERREIRA

THE IMAGE OF TOURIST DESTINATION LISBON: PERSPECTIVE OF TOURIST VISITING THE HERITAGE ........ 48
D ANIELA G OMES | PAULO ALMEIDA

VISION 2020 FOR NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR TOURISM: UNCOMMON POTENTIAL OR UNABATED
OPTIMISM? .............................................................................................................................................................. 49
D ARRELL C. K ENNEDY | R ATANA C HUENPAGDEE

SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES: GLOBALIZATION WITHIN THE MICE INDUSTRY............................................... 50


D AVID M. PEARLMAN

THE FOREIGN IMAGE OF GALICIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION IN ATLANTIC EUROPE.................................. 51


D AVID SANTOMIL M OSQUERA

THE TRANSFORMATION OF A TOURIST SPACE: PUERTO VALLARTA'S MALECON ......................................... 52


D ERREK EBERTS | R ODRIGO ESPINOZA SANCHEZ

ETHNIC FOOD AS COMMUNITY PRIDE TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ..................................... 53


D EWI EKA M URNIATI

PROMOTING PUBLIC TRANSPORT USE IN TOURISM .......................................................................................... 54


D IEM-TRINH LE-K LHN | M ICHAEL H ALL | R EGINE G ERIKE

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT EVENT" BIDOS CHRISTMAS VILLAGE "IN OCCUPATION AND
CONSUMPTION IN BIDOS" .................................................................................................................................. 55
D INA ALVES | PAULO ALMEIDA

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY OF THE KEYSTONE CENTRE, BRANDON,
MANITOBA, CANADA .............................................................................................................................................. 56
D OUG R AMSEY | D ERREK EBERTS

THE IMPACT OF TOURISM IN THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING OF TOURISTS ................................... 57
EDUARDO M ORAES SARMENTO | SARA FERREIRA S C OUTO

USING AWARENESS AS A COMPETITION ELEMENT IN TOURISM DESTINATIONS: ESREFOGLU MOSQUE ... 58


ERKAN AKGZ

THE ROLE OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF MAZOVIA REGION IN POLAND
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 59
EWA FERENS

THE APPLE AND CIDER TOURIST ROUTE IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF ASTURIAS, SPAIN ................................... 60
FERNANDO G OULART R OCHA | ANTONI F. TULLLA

RELIGIOUS TOURISM MARKETING: USING A TOURISM OFFER IN DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGY ............ 61
FILIPE M OTA PINTO | TELMA FREIRE

TERRITORY MARKETING STRATEGY: A LOW BUDGET WEB MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SO TOME E
PRINCIPE ................................................................................................................................................................. 62
FILIPE M OTA PINTO | ANA R UTE PEREIRA

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY .................. 63
FRANCISCO TEIXEIRA PINTO D IAS | H UMBERTO M ANUEL C OSTA FERREIRA

THE NATIONAL OBSERVATORY OF TOURISM RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AS A TOOL FOR EXCELLENCE IN


PORTUGUESE TOURISM RECREATION ................................................................................................................ 64
FRANCISCO TEIXEIRA PINTO D IAS | PAULA ALEXANDRA G OMES DE AGUIAR C ARDOSO | FERNANDA M ARIA FERNANDES O LIVEIRA

IS THE MOST PORTUGUESE CARNIVAL A GOOD BET? ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CARNIVAL
OF TORRES VEDRAS 2013 ..................................................................................................................................... 65
FRANCISCO TEIXEIRA PINTO D IAS | D ULCINEIA BASLIO R AMOS | R UI ALBERTO DE FEITAS M ARTINS

ALUMNI NETWORK: A STRATEGY TO HELP TO DEVELOP LOCAL TOURISM .................................................... 66


FRANCISCO FERRAZ | G RAA SECO | ISABEL BEATO | C LIA R AFAEL | M ICHAEL SCHN | ISABEL BARRETO FERNANDES

THE BRAND AS A TRADEMARK AND AS A CORPORATE AND BUSINESS STRATEGY IN THE TOURISM
SECTOR ................................................................................................................................................................... 67
FRANCISCO JAVIER ARAGN C NOVAS | VILMA N EZ

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN THE OMANI TOURISM SECTOR ............................................................................ 68


G ALAL M. H. AFIFI

THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF TRAILS IN THE IZTACCHUATL-POPOCATPETL NATIONAL PARK ................. 69


G ANDHI G ONZLEZ G UERRERO | M ARA EUGENIA VALDEZ PREZ | R AFAEL M ORALES IBARRA | M ARA DE JESS O SORNO C ORONA

THE PLACE OF TOURISM IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SOCIAL SCIENCE COURSE BOOKS .............................. 70
AHIN O RU | G EN O SMAN LHAN

OUTDOOR RECREATION PROMOTION BY TAKING OUTDOOR TRAINER IN THE PUBLIC PLACES.................. 71


G IEDRE G UDAITYTE | IRENA VALANTINE

SPORT EVENTS AND DESTINATION IMAGE: RUNNING UNDER THE MIDNIGHT SUN IN NORTHERN NORWAY
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 72
G IOVANNA BERTELLA

INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY IN HOTEL ENTERPRISES: CONCEPT HOTELS .................................................. 73


G ORKEM ERSOY

FOOD TOURISM IN THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF THE OESTE REGION PORTUGAL.............................. 74


G RAA EZEQUIEL | ANABELA ALMEIDA | C TIA FERREIRA | PAULA C ABRAL | SIMO O LIVEIRA

STRATEGIC FLEXIBILITY IN SERVICE SECTOR TECHNOLOGY (PRODUCT) BASED


INTEGRATION DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI STAKEHOLDER STAR MODEL........................................................... 75
GVR SASTRY

SEGMENTING WINE FESTIVAL ATTENDEES BY LEVEL OF WINE KNOWLEDGE TO ENHANCE FUTURE


DESTINATION MARKETING STRATEGIES .............................................................................................................. 76
H ARSHA E. C HACKO | D AVID PEARLMAN

DESTINATION RE-POSITIONING: A CASE STUDY OF KOLI, FINLAND ................................................................. 77


H ESAM PAKBEEN

GEOGRAPHY TEACHER CANDIDATES PERCEPTIONS OF GEOTOURISM ......................................................... 78


H ILMI D EMIRKAYA | M USTAFA SADI

DO CHANGE EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OUTCOME? MODERATING ROLE OF MANAGERS


DECISIVENESS AND EMPLOYEES CO-ORDINATION ............................................................................................ 79
H OMA C HOUBTARASH ABARDEH

MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL HEALTH TOURISM .......................................... 80


H OSSEIN BODAGHI K HAJEH N OUBAR | N EGIN H EIDARZADEH |SAMAN BORHANI ASL

THE DETERMINING CHARACTERISTICS FOR INTEGRATION OF SURF PRODUCT IN THE DESTINATION


SUPPLY: THE CASE OF PENICHE .......................................................................................................................... 81
H UMBERTO PERDIGO | JOO PAULO JORGE

REWARDING AND REWARD MANAGEMENT IN HOTELS: A RESEARCH ON THE FIVE STAR HOTELS IN
ISTANBUL ................................................................................................................................................................ 82
I L U STA | D ERMAN K KALTAN

JOB BURNOUT IN TOURISM SECTOR (GUIDE PROFESSION) ............................................................................. 83


IVETA G RUODYTE | R IMNATAS M IKALAUSKAS

THE PERCEPTION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC ABROAD AND NEW DESTINATION COMMUNICATION
STRATEGY ............................................................................................................................................................... 84
JANA VALENTOVA

THE MODEL OF THE SUFFICIENCY ECONOMY PHILOSOPHY APPLICATION FOR RESTAURANT BUSINESSES
IN THE UPPER NORTH OF THAILAND.................................................................................................................... 85
JENNITA LAEGREID | BUNG-ON C HARTRUNGRUANG

THE ROLE OF HOST COUNTRY IMAGE AND MEGA-EVENT`S EXPERIENCE FOR REVISIT INTENTION: THE
CASE OF POLAND ................................................................................................................................................... 86
JOANNA K OSMACZEWSKA | R ADOSAW C ZARNECKI

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING IN A HOTEL CHAIN................................................... 87


JOO C OSTA | M ARIA JOO G OMES

VALUING WILDLIFE VIEWING EXPERIENCES ........................................................................................................ 88


JOHN H OLLAND

THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SUBCULTURES EVENTS AND THE RELATION WITH LOCAL TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF STEEL WARRIORS REBELLION BARROSELAS METALFEST IN NORTHERN
PORTUGAL .............................................................................................................................................................. 89
JORGE C UNHA C OELHO | FERNANDO M IGUEL DA SILVA LOURENO BRZIO

EVENTS TOURISM: ANALYSIS AND STATE OF ART ............................................................................................. 90


JOS ANTONIO FOLGADO | JOS M ANUEL H ERNNDEZ M OGOLLN | PAULO ALEXANDRE O LIVEIRA D UARTE

INFLUENCE OF INTERNET AS INFORMATION SOURCE VS TRADITIONAL MEDIA ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF


THE CITY BRANDING .............................................................................................................................................. 91
JOS ANTONIO FOLGADO FERNNDEZ | PAULO ALEXANDRE O LIVEIRA D UARTE | JOS M ANUEL H ERNNDEZ M OGOLLN

THE ROLE OF COMMENTS FROM USERS IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN THE PURCHASE OF HOTELS: AN
EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE SPANISH MARKET................................................................................................... 92
JOS M ANUEL H ERNNDEZ-M OGOLLN | ANGEL H ERRERO-C RESPO | H CTOR SAN M ARTN-G UTIRREZ

MEDITERRANEAN DESTINATIONS AND CONTEMPORARY URBAN ATTRIBUTES: THE CASE OF THE


METROPOLITAN AREA COSTA DEL SOL ............................................................................................................... 93
JOS M ARA R OMERO M ARTNEZ | YOLANDA R OMERO PADILLA | ENRIQUE N AVARRO JURADO

A MARKET SEGMENTATION ANALYSIS OF CRUISE PASSENGERS VISITING THE PORTS OF MONTEVIDEO


AND PUNTA DEL ESTE (URUGUAY) ....................................................................................................................... 94
JUAN G ABRIEL BRIDA

ECONOMIC GAINS OVER TRADITIONAL VALUES: TOURISM IMPACT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF HOST
COMMUNITY ........................................................................................................................................................... 95
K HALIZUL K HALID

A DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF MARINE EDUTOURISM INDUSTRIAL ZONE TO IMPROVE THE COMMUNITY


ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AT KEPULAUAN (ISLANDS) SERIBU, DKI JAKARTA, INDONESIA ............................... 96
K HRISNAMURTI K HRISNAMURTI

PROMOTING EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DESTINATION IMAGE THROUGH TWITTER .......................................... 97


K OSTAS ZAFIROPOULOS | K ONSTANTINOS ANTONIADIS | VASILIKI VRANA

ELABORATION OF LITHUANIAN TOURIST SATISFACTION INDEX MODEL ......................................................... 98


LINA PILELIEN | VIKTORIJA G RIGALINAIT

HIKING TRAILS EVALUATION IN THE NATURAL PARK OF SERRAS DE AIRE AND CANDEEIROS ..................... 99
LUS ALBERTO D IAS C ARVALHINHO | PAULO FILIPE R OSA

THE INFLUENCE SCUBA DIVING ON TOURISM DESTINATION MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE
COZUMEL ISLAND, MEXICO................................................................................................................................. 100
LUS C NDIDO SOARES M OTA | XOS SANTOS SOLLA

THE MARKETING AND THE COMMUNICATIONS IN HOSPITALITY: CASE STUDY OF FAMILY HOTEL AND
GROUP HOTEL ...................................................................................................................................................... 101
PAULO ALMEIDA | LUS PEREIRA

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF VALLEY ALVA: ALVALAND............................................................... 102


M ANUEL ANTNIO BRITES SALGADO

MILITARY HERITAGE AS A TOURISM PRODUCT IN LATVIA ............................................................................... 103


M ARA ZELTINA | ILZE G ROSPINA

THE TOURIST GUIDE AND THE IMAGE OF TOURISM DESTINATION ................................................................ 104
M ARIA ABRIL I SELLARS

CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HOTEL FIRMS ....................................................................................... 105


M ARIA DE LURDES SANTANA C ALISTO

MYTHS BEHIND THE IMAGE OF THE HOLIDAY DESTINATIONS ........................................................................ 106


M ARA DEL C ARMEN AZPELICUETA | JOSEP R AMON C ARDONA | ANTONI SERRA C ANTALLOPS

GENERAL COMPONENTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF RESIDENTS' ATTITUDES: THE CASE OF IBIZA ............... 107
M ARA DEL C ARMEN AZPELICUETA | JOSEP R AMON C ARDONA | ANTONI SERRA C ANTALLOPS

MYTHICAL REFERENCES IN THE TOURIST IMAGE: THE CASE OF IBIZA ........................................................ 108
M ARA DEL C ARMEN AZPELICUETA | JOSEP R AMON C ARDONA | ANTONI SERRA C ANTALLOPS

CRM: ANALYSIS AND REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION FOR THE HOTEL SECTOR .............................................. 109
M ARA DEL C ARMEN AZPELICUETA | AUGUSTO D AZ-O RDOEZ G ONZLEZ | JOSEP R AMON C ARDONA | ANTONI SERRA C ANTALLOPS

MARKETING: MORE THAN A CONCEPT FOR THE BALEARIC ISLANDS ............................................................ 110
M ARA DEL C ARMEN AZPELICUETA | JOSEP R AMON C ARDONA | ANTONI SERRA C ANTALLOPS

FROM MINHO TO ALGARVE: PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH A NETWORK OF LITERARY TOURISM FOR COASTAL
ZONE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 111
M ARIA M OTA ALMEIDA

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND IMAGE: AN ESSAY ABOUT THE IMPACTS OF MASCULINITY AND
INDIVIDUALISM ON THE INTERPRETATION OF TOURIST DESTINATIONS SUSTAINABILITY.......................... 112
ANDERSON G OMES DE SOUZA | SALOMO ALENCAR DE FARIAS | M ARISA P. DE BRITO

THE INFLUENCE OF BRAND SOCIAL IMAGE ON-LINE POSITIONING: A STUDY OF EMPLOYEE


COMMUNICATION IN THE BALEARIC PREMIUM HOTELS ................................................................................. 113
M IGUEL TRIAS VILAR | M ARIA ANTONIA G ARCIA SASTRE | M ARGALIDA ALEMANY H ORMAECHE

EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE STRATEGIC DECISIONS ON SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN


SMALL HOTELS ..................................................................................................................................................... 114
M URILO DE ALENCAR SOUZA O LIVEIRA | ADRIANA M ARQUES R OSSETTO

INTEGRATED MODEL OF SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS FOR SMALL ACCOMMODATIONS


(MISCMH) IN BRAZIL ............................................................................................................................................. 115
M URILO DE ALENCAR SOUZA O LIVEIRA | ADRIANA M ARQUES R OSSETTO

MODERN POSSIBILITIES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN NATURE


PROTECTED AREAS WITH THE EXAMPLE OF LAKE BAIKAL REGION ............................................................... 116
ANASTASIIA M YADZELETS | N ATALIA LUZHKOVA

HERITAGE HIT SERIES AND THE TOURIST REINTERPRETATION OF BRITISH STATELY HOMES .................. 117
N ORMA FERREIRA | VALDEMAR M ARTINS

THE 'DIGITAL' FUTURE OF OPERATION AND AGENCY OF TOURISM ............................................................... 118


N UNO ALEXANDRE ABRANJA

STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF TOURISTS IN RELATION TO THE ATTRACTIVENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS


OF THE ELECTRONIC AND PRINTED CHANNELS IN THE PROMOTION OF TOURIST DESTINATIONS ........... 119
N UNO FERNANDES | JLIA FONSECA

SURF TOURISM: A CRITICAL INVESTIGATION INTO SURFING SUBCULTURE AND LIFESTYLE ..................... 120
PATRCIA R EIS | JOO PAULO JORGE | ANA SOFIA VIANA

SUSTAINABILITY OF CULTURAL TOURISM: THE SILLE SAMPLE ...................................................................... 121


O ZLEM TEKIN | ABDURRAHMAN D INC

RAISING AWARENESS ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE FORMATION OF THE DESTINATION IMAGE ................ 122
PAULA R AMA DA SILVA

EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM RESEARCH: A PROPOSAL TO BRING BACK THE CREATIVE


PROCESS AND CONCERNS WITH NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT BACK INTO THE AREA OF TOURISM
RESEARCH ............................................................................................................................................................ 123
PAULO LOURENO | JLIO C OELHO

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST ........................................ 124


PAULO N ICHOLAS M ESQUITA LOBO

THE CLUSTER APPROACH FOR DESTINATION COMPETITIVENESS: EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVENESS OF


ANTALYA TOURISM CLUSTER ............................................................................................................................. 125
N EDIM YZBASIOGLU | VOLKAN O TAMIS | PELIN ARSEZEN O TAMIS | PNAR ELIK | ECE O MURIS | ALI ALTINER

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND RECREATION ON BALTIC SEA COASTS: NEW DIRECTIONS AND
PERSPECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................... 126
POLINA LEMENKOVA

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL HOTEL


CHAINS IN THE COAST OF SERGIPE AND IN THE NORTHERN COAST OF BAHIA, BRAZIL ............................ 127
Q UEILA PAHIM DA SILVA | LETCIA BARROS DE M ORAES LIMA

EDUCATION FOR A REMODEL ACTION: AN OFFER OF THE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM


DEGREE ................................................................................................................................................................. 128
Q UEILA PAHIM DA SILVA | LETCIA BARROS DE M ORAES LIMA

REVERSE LOGISTICS AS SUSTAINABLE TOOL IN TOURISM INDUSTRY: SCOPE AND MOTIVATION ............ 129
R ADOSLAV KAPA

INCREASING WINTER TOURISM IN PORTUGAL ................................................................................................. 130


R AUL R ESSANO G ARCIA

DARK TOURISM AS AN ALTERNATIVE FORM OF TOURISM EVALUATION ....................................................... 131


R EGINA N AVICKIENE

NATURE SPORTS: UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORT, TOURISM, LEISURE AND
NATURE ................................................................................................................................................................. 132
R ICARDO JOS ESPRITO SANTO DE M ELO | R UI ADELINO M ACHADO G OMES

DEVELOPING NATURAL ASSETS MONETARY DEPRECIATION MEASUREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY


SUSTAINABLE TOURISM BALANCE SHEET ........................................................................................................ 133
R OSMINI ISMAIL

STUDY OF PUSH AND PULL FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THE CHOICE OF A CITY DESTINATION: SENIOR
SEGMENT .............................................................................................................................................................. 134
R UI ALBERTO DE FREITAS M ARTINS | ALEJANDRO DEL M ORAL

FINANCE, TOURISM AND SUSTAINABILITY ........................................................................................................ 135


SALBER N OURANI

THE CONTRIBUTION OF CEMETERIAL TOURISM FOR BRAND VALUE OF THE LISBON CITY WITH THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF TOPICS FOR NEW TOURIST ROUTES............................................................................ 136
SARA N UNES | JLIA FRAGOSO DA FONSECA

THERMAL RESORTS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN USERS PROFILE BETWEEN PORTUGAL AND
GERMANY .............................................................................................................................................................. 137
SARA R AQUEL G OMES N ARCISO | PAULO N UNO M AIA DE SOUSA N OSSA

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF TOURISM INDUSTRY ON CLIMATE CHANGE ............ 138
SELDA U CA ZER | BILGE AVU GIL K SE

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR MUNICIPALITIES:


BRAZILIAN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES..................................................................................................................... 139
SIMONE ALVES

BOUTIQUE HOTELS AND CITY BREAK DESTINATIONS: THE CASE OF LISBON ............................................. 140
SOFIA ALMEIDA | SRGIO M IGUEL PRATAS G UERREIRO

AN ETHIC CODE FOR EUROPEAN HOTELS: THE TWO SIDES OF THE COIN .................................................... 141
SOFIA TEIXEIRA EURICO | FERNANDA M ARIA FERNANDES O LIVEIRA | H ILDE H OEFNAGELS

EMPLOYABILITY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PERCEPTION OF TOURISM HIGHER EDUCATION


STUDENTS AND TOURISM GRADUATES............................................................................................................. 142
SOFIA TEIXEIRA EURICO | FERNANDA M ARIA FERNANDES O LIVEIRA

BRANDING OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS: IMAGES AS DETERMINANT TO CONSOLIDATE THE POSITIONING


OF LISBON ............................................................................................................................................................. 143
SUSANA PAULO | N UNO ALMEIDA

IMPORTANCE OF A MARKETING PLAN FOR A PRODUCT OR SERVICE OF INTEREST: HOTEL FIGUEIREDO'S


................................................................................................................................................................................ 144
SUSE SILVA | PAULO ALMEIDA

THE IMPORTANCE OF HOTELS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEME PARKS .................................................... 145


ASSESSING THE FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS - THE CASE OF THE TOURISM
DEPARTMENT STUDENTS - COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES - SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY 146
TAMER M OHAMED ATEF | M ASOOMA AL-BALUSHI

DESTINATION BRAND AWARENESS OF REGION CENTER OF PORTUGAL: TOURISTS AND TOURISM


PROFESSIONALS PERSPECTIVES ...................................................................................................................... 147
TERESA ARAGONEZ | M ANUEL G OUVEIA | IRINA SAUR-AMARAL

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOURIST PROFILE IN PROMOTING A TOURIST DESTINATION: THE CASE OF
CARAMULO ........................................................................................................................................................... 148
TERESA M ARIA R ODRIGUES FECHA | PAULO JORGE SANTOS ALMEIDA

THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM AS A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE NATURAL PARKS OF


PRAINHA AND GRUMARI RIO DE JANEIRO BRAZIL ...................................................................................... 149
THIAGO FERREIRA PINHEIRO D IAS PEREIRA

TOURIST CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTION IN LEISURE MARKETING,


INVOLVEMENT AND IMAGE OF THE TOURISM DESTINATIONS ON TOURIST PURCHASE DECISION: A
RESEARCH AGENDA ............................................................................................................................................. 150
VASCO R IBEIRO SANTOS

GEO-TOURISM AND INTERPRETATION IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN ........................................................... 151


YA'QOOB SALIM AL BUSAIDI

ARE THE CONSOLIDATED TOURIST DESTINATIONS AND CREATIVE CAPITAL NODES CONNECTED TO
GLOBAL CITIES? ................................................................................................................................................... 152
YOLANDA R OMERO PADILLA | ENRIQUE N AVARRO JURADOG ONZALO C. M ALVREZ

CURRICULUM FOR THE EDUCATIONAL PROFILE TOURISM TECHNICIAN AND THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC
POLICY ON THE ENROLMENT OF PUPILS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROFILE TOURISM TECHNICIAN IN
SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ................................................................................. 153
ZORAN K NEZEVIC | R EFIK SECIBOVIC | M ARIJANA SECIBOVIC

KEYNOTE SPEAKER

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ALEXANDER BANDURIN
Moscow Institute For The Industry Of Tourism, Russia

Alex (Alexander) Bandurin, formerly vice-rector of the Institute of Open Business Education (InOBE), is pro-rector
of scientific work in the Moscow State Institute of Tourism Industry. His PhD degree is in economics, from the
Russian Academy of Commerce, with focus on corporate governance. Dr. Bandurin has over 15 years of
executive, managerial, and academic experience within multiple industries in Russia. He has authored and
published over 50 books, monographs, theses, and papers in the areas of corporate management, human talent
management, investment and other areas of human resources allocation within small, medium, and large
enterprises in Russia and former Soviet republics.

AMINA ABDULLAH AL BALUSHI


Director Of Statistic And Geographical Information Department
Ministry Of Tourism, Sultanate Of Oman

In charge of the task team responsible for restructuring troubled tourism projects. In Charge of the team
responsible for preparing the regional work shop of tourism statistics. Participated in the Tourism Manpower and
training Needs Analysis and Human Resources Development Action Plan (2010-2020) Study. Participated and
Follow up a socio Economic impact studies for Al Jabal Al Akhdare, Bandar Al Khyran, and Wadi Darbat. Board
member in Oman Tourism college. Consultant committee member for tourism section in The Sultan Qaboos
University. Team member for preparing TOR of Oman Tourism National strategy. In charge of preparing the
ministry of Tourism annual report for 2012.

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FRANCISCO DIAS
School of Tourism and Maritime Technology

Francisco Dias held a PhD degree in Tourism Sciences from the University of Perpignan (France). Before, he held
a master degree in Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, at Moscow State University Lomonossov
(Russia), and another master degree in Social Psychology, at University of Porto (Portugal). He is associate
professor and coordinator of the degree of Tourism Recreation in the School of Tourism and Maritime Technology
(ESTM) at the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL). Over the past three years, he was the diretor of GITUR Research Group Unit of the IPL. He is editor-in-chief of the European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and
Recreation (www.ejthr.com) and member of the editorial boards of Current Issues of Tourism Research, COGITUR
- Journal of Tourism Studies, Journal of Tourism and Services, and Brandtrends. He is also the founder and board
member of the ONAT - National Observatory of Tourism Recreation (www.onat.ipleiria.pt) and founding member
of the International Association of Branding (Observatrio de Marcas). Nevertheless, he still manages time to be
the director of the International Tourism Film Festival ART&TUR, which he founded in 2008, in Barcelos (North of
Portugal). His empirical research is mainly focused on psychological and sociological aspects of tourism:
imaginary, social representations, destination branding, tourist motivation and consumer behavior.

GREG RICHARDS
Tilburg University, Netherlands

Greg Richards is Professor of Leisure Studies at the University of Tilburg and Professor of Events at NHTV Breda
University of Applied Sciences in The Netherlands. He has worked on projects for numerous national
governments, national tourism organizations and municipalities, and he has extensive experience in tourism
research and education.He held a European Union Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Interarts
Foundation in Barcelona, and he has directed a number of projects for the European Commission on topics
including cultural tourism, crafts tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism education and labour mobility in the
tourism industry. He has also worked extensively on the analysis and development of cultural and creative tourism
in cities such as Barcelona, London, Edinburgh , Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Amman (Jordan) and Macau (China). His
major publications include Cultural Tourism in Europe (1996); Cultural Attractions and European Tourism (2001);
Tourism and Gastronomy (2002); The Global Nomad: Backpacker Travel in Theory and Practice (2004); Cultural
Tourism - Global and Local Perspectives (2007) Tourism, Creativity and Development (2007), Eventful Cities:
Cultural Management and Urban Regeneration (2010) and Cultural Tourism Research Methods (2010). He was a
member of the Palmer/Rae team evaluating the impact of the European Cities of Culture (ECOC) for the European
Commission, a contributor to the European Travel Commission study of City Tourism and Culture and an adviser
on the development of national cultural tourism policy in Austria. He has worked with Bob Palmer on a three new
editions of the European Cultural Capital Report (2008, 2009 and 2011). He is currently conducting research on
the 2012 ECOCs in Guimaraes (Portugal) and Maribor (Slovenia) and is advising Malta (2018) on cultural
programming and evaluation and Eindhoven (Candidate City 2018) on their bid.

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KELLY BRICKER
University of Utah, USA

Kelly Bricker is an Associate Professor at the University of Utah in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and
Tourism. She also works as a Senior Research Scientist - Recreation with HDR|DTA part-time. She completed her
Ph.D. research with the Pennsylvania State University, where she specialized in sustainable tourism and natural
resource management. She has special research and teaching interest in ecotourism, sense of place, natural
resource management, and the environmental and social impacts of tourism. Kelly has conducted research on
heritage tourism, social impacts of tourism, and natural resource-related tourism environments. She has
presented papers on issues in ecotourism, sense of place, natural resource management, and incentive travel
programs. She has published articles on sense of place, ecotourism certification and policy, and health and
sustainable tourism relative to communities. With her husband Nathan, she developed an ecotourism operation
called Rivers Fiji. She serves as the Chair of The International Ecotourism Society and the Global Sustainable
Tourism Council.

MASOOMA AL-BALUSHI
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman

Ph.D. Tourism & Hospitality Management, School of Management, University of Wales. Head of Tourism
Department, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. National Tourism
Human Resources Development Specialist (National Consultant) for the project of Manpower and Training Needs
Analysis of the Tourism Industry in Oman. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in partnership with Ministry of
Tourism of Oman. Member of Tourism & Property Investment, Oman Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ruwi,
Sultanate of Oman. Member of Advisory Committee of International Travel and Tourism Exhibition, OITE, Ruwi,
Sultanate of Oman. Chairman of Tourism Department Board, SQU. Member of The College of Arts executive
committee, SQU. Member of The College Continues Improvement Committee, SQU.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

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MUZAFFER UYSAL
Virginia Tech, USA

Muzaffer (Muzzo) Uysal is a professor of tourism in the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). He has extensive experience in the travel and
tourism field, authoring or co-authoring a significant number of articles in tourism, hospitality, and recreation
journals, proceedings, book chapters, and four monographs, and four books related to tourism research methods,
tourist service satisfaction, tourism and quality-of-life, and consumer psychology in tourism and hospitality
settings. He also has conducted workshops and seminars on similar topics and field research in several countries.
He is a member of International Academy for the Study of Tourism, the Academy of Leisure Sciences, and serves
as co-editor of Tourism Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Journal. In addition, he sits on the editorial boards of several
journals, including Journal of Travel Research, and Annals of Tourism Research as resource editor. He also
received a number of awards for Research, Excellence in International Education, and Teaching Excellence. His
current research interests center on tourism demand/supply interaction, tourism development and QOL research
in tourism.

TAMARA RATZ
Kodolnyi Jnos University of Applied Sciences, Hungary

Tamara Rtz (PhD) is Director of Centre for Business Studies and Head of Tourism Department at the Kodolnyi
Jnos University of Applied Sciences in Hungary, and Visiting Professor at Karaganda University of Economic
Sciences in Kazakhstan. She gained her PhD degree in Management Studies with a specialisation in Tourism from
the Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration, Hungary. In addition to being Visiting
Lecturer at HAMK University of Applied Sciences in Finland between 1995 and 2011, she has taught various
tourism-related courses in Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, the Ukraine, Romania and Turkey. In 2010,
she received the national "Tourism Professor of the Year" award in Hungary. She is the author or co-author of
more than 150 publications on tourism, including a number of books on the impacts of tourism, attraction and
visitor management, and health tourism and quality of life. She is actively involved in consultancy in tourism
education and destination development, both in Hungary and abroad. Her current research interests include
cultural and heritage tourism development and management, creativity and innovation in niche tourism
development, and the role of tourism as a catalyst in European integration.

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PARALLEL SESSIONS - ABSTRACTS

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AN EVALUATION OF PRIORITIES FOR BEACH TOURISM:


CASE STUDIES FROM ALENTEJO LITORAL, PORTUGAL
Adriano Wolf
Joo Paulo Jorge
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
jpjorge@ipleiria.pt
In recent times has been emphasized, in the tourism industry field, the importance of
sustainable coastal management. Perceptions of landscape/beaches not only vary
among social groups and cultures, but also with time while, landscapes themselves
can be fashionable, as seen with eco-tourism. Although development often reduces
beach scenic value and results in reduced amenity, it is necessary to provide
infrastructure in support of the industry. The tourismenvironment interrelations are
extremely important and it has been broadly recognized that sustainable tourism is
essential for both the tourism industry and natural environment. Therefore,
development should be focused to tourism markets while protecting beach
landscapes. As part of this philosophy, it is important to understand what different
user groups prefer when visiting a beach, so that priorities can be established. Using
five case study beaches located in Alentejo Litoral region, this paper evaluates beach
tourism priorities. These beaches with environmental designations were assessed,
using an established beach rating checklist comprising 50 physical, biological and
human use factors. Analysis identified motivating factors behind the decision to visit
and highlighted resource protection aspects for specific user group needs. This
supports the development of beach management strategies based on local
characteristics and different tourism markets.
Keywords: Beach tourism, priorities evaluation, beach management strategies

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28

REFLECTING ON STUDENT AND INDUSTRY EXPECTATIONS IN THE


TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A SOUTH AFRICAN CASE
STUDY
Albert Strydom
Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa
astrydom@cut.ac.za
The tourism and hospitality industry faces major challenges, especially related to
recruiting and retaining staff. As the industry is intensely service-oriented, it is critical
to employ staff with the appropriate attitudes and qualifications and therefore vital for
students who study or intend to study Tourism and/or Hospitality Management to be
adequately informed about the industrys expectations and challenges, as well as the
demanding work environment they can expect once they are employed in the
industry. The aim of this paper is twofold: to reflect on what students expect from the
industry, on the one hand, and what the industry expects from graduates, on the
other. The study was conducted in the Bloemfontein area of South Africa and
respondents included the Tourism Management and Hospitality Management
students of the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT), as well as
selected industry stakeholders. The findings underline the importance of cultivating
the soft skills of graduates, with an emphasis on leadership and management skills.
The findings further show that cultural awareness is the most important skill required
by industry and that entrepreneurship training should be an integral part of Tourism
Management and Hospitality Management curriculums, especially in the South
African context.
Keywords: student expectations, industry expectations, tourism and hospitality
industry, Bloemfontein area, Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT)

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REVERSE FLOWS AS THE SOURCES FOR PRODUCT/SERVICE


INNOVATION DO COMPANIES FROM TOURISM INDUSTRY DIFFER?
Alena Klapalov
Masaryk University, Czech Republic
klapalov@econ.muni.cz
In the case of product innovations companies use various sources of inventions and
ideas. Probably every company deals more or less with some reverse flows
managed by the activities of reverse logistics. Reverse flows either tangible or
intangible in the form of information - can be both an interesting as well as important
source of ideas for innovation of product. Despite this belief there is not much
knowledge about the utilization of this potentiality in practice and the theme is
neglected also in theory. In services and especially in tourism the knowledge gap is
even bigger. This paper examines various questions of the utilization of existing
reverse flows as the sources for product/service innovation in the context of
companies innovative behaviour and reverse logistics management. Based on the
empirical survey of 244 companies we have identified some major differences
between two groups of companies (manufacturing and services in one group and
tourism services in another one) related to the various sources for product (service)
innovation which encompass reverse flows, as well. Frequency analysis, crosstabs,
, and t-tests were applied to get answers to the basic research question if there are
any differences between these two groups of companies when dealing with various
types of reverse flows in their innovation behaviour.
Keywords: reverse flows, reverse logistics, sources for innovation, products,
services

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PROPOSAL OF A VECTORIAL COMPOSITE INDEX FOR


BENCHMARKING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF EVENTS
Alexandre Guedes da Silva
Manuela Sarmento
Universidade Lusada, Portugal
alixpt@gmail.com
The sustainability of events is an area of growing international interest mostly driven
by the pressure of the public opinion regarding the public expenditure in MegaEvents. This fact, is indeed the motivation behind the newly enforced regulations by
the British Standards (BS 8901:2007), the Canadian Standards (CSA Z2010) and,
even more important, by the International Standards Organization (ISO 20121:2012,
Event sustainability management systems - Requirements with guidance for use).
However to fully comply with these norms a comprehensive tool for monitor and
evaluate the sustainability of the events and their evolution over time is needed. This
is the aim of the proposed model, it uses a simple methodology based in a flexible
set of event indicators and a vectorial approach to their aggregation. The final index
is presented by two components, one algebraic and another angular, which allows a
clear perception of the actual sustainability of the event and its trajectory to a
specified set of benchmark values.
An examination of the sustainability of several events presented in the literature
demonstrates the flexibility and robustness of the index and its usability for a large
range of events.
Keywords: event sustainability, composite index, benchmarking

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THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOURISM ENTERTAINMENT COMPONENT


IN THE IMAGE OF A TOURIST DESTINATION CONSTRUCTION
Ana Patrcia Marques
Paulo Almeida
ISCE - Higher Institute of Educational Sciences, Portugal
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
anaprmarques@gmail.com / palmeida@ipleiria.pt
According to Baloglu and McCleary (1999), the research that has been conducted in
the past years has shown that the image is a very valuable concept to realize the
selection of a destination by tourists. The fact that destinations compete with each
other through their image is essential to be perceived in the best way, since the
tourists before visiting the destination already have a certain image about it and that
is a decision factor in their choice. To Alves and Ferreira (2009), tourism
entertainment is regarded as a key element in tourism demand, attracting new flows
to regions/destinations and so we considered relevant in the present investigation
study the importance of tourism activities in the image of a tourist destination
construction. The applied methodology will be the model of Bign et al (2005) that
collects information to understand the relation between the destination image, the
post-purchase evaluation and the returning intention. We will include in this model
the tourism entertainment variable so we can understand the importance in the image
of a tourist destination construction and if it is a motivation in the destination choice.
The analysis assumes a theoretical framework consisting of a conceptualization,
development and characterization of the study object and a second part consisting
of the mentioned model adaptation and the application of a survey to a sample of
domestic and foreign tourists, in different regions of Portugal and according to
different types of tourism, so we can assess whether the perceived image before the
trip is justified by the trip itself and if the tourist activities are included in the
motivations for the choice of destination.
Keywords: Tourist
motivations.

destinations,

image

construction,

tourism

entertainment,

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VOLUNTARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM:


THE CASE OF THE PORTUGUESE HOTELS
Ana Sofia Viana
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
sviana@ipleiria.pt
In recent decades there has been a growing concern about the negative impacts of
tourism. These impacts can be observed in many different fields (economic, social,
cultural and environmental) due to the complexity of tourism activity. Following this
concern arises and develops the concept of sustainable tourism, present in the
various agencies involved in this problem, since to WTO, the United Nations or
European Union. An essential tool for dealing with sustainable tourism and its
application in business are indicators of sustainable tourism prepared by the WTO
because it can measure and compare the impacts of tourism in different regions or
countries. In this paper we will focus on voluntary policy instruments for sustainable
tourism. The aim of this paper is to provide an approach to the concepts and tools
more relevant in terms of sustainable tourism to power after carrying out an
application from them to the specific case of the Portuguese tourist
accommodations, and more specifically to hotels in order to measure and compare
the degree of implementation of the various instruments in the same sustainable
management and identify costs and benefits of its implementation.
Keywords: voluntary initiative, sustainable tourism, hotel companies

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THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE FOR


THE WINE TOURIST VISITING PORTUGUESE WINE REGIONS
Ana Teresa Nunes
Maria Antnia Rodrigues
ISCAP Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
ancnunes@gmail.com / mar@iscap.ipp.pt
The Internet has introduced significant changes in consumer behavior, particularly in
the information search. In the Tourism sector, information has an important role
and Internet has revolutionized the way we get touristic information. This study aims
to understand the Internet's importance as an information source for wine tourists
visiting Portuguese wine regions. The first part presents a literature review
mentioning the main determinants in the internet's use as an information source and
the main information media used by wine tourists when they decide to make a visit.
The second part presents an empirical study carried out in different Portuguese wine
regions. The data were collected from a sample of 100 wine tourists by face-to-face
and online questionnaire. In general the study results show that wine tourists visiting
Portuguese regions consider the Internet an important, useful and time-saving
information source when compared with other information sources. These wine
tourists are aged between 25 and 44 years old and do it especially in the company of
family and friends. This study aims to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of the
internet importance as an information source for wine tourists and also to provide to
the Portuguese companies operating mainly in the Portuguese market practical
knowledge on the use of the internet as an information source for wine tourism. This
study enables companies to understand the profile of wine tourists visiting
Portuguese regions and to select the means and media for effective dissemination of
information to wine tourists.
Keywords: wine tourism, Portugal, internet, information

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

34

TOURISTIC ITINERARIES: CONTRIBUTIONS TO BUILD INNOVATIVE


TOURISM OFFERS AND TO CREATE SUSTAINABLE DESTINATIONS
Andr Monteiro
Lus Ferreira
Ldia Aguiar
ISCET, Portugal
andregomes_m@hotmail.com / lferreira@iscet.pt / lidia-aguiar@hotmail.com
The image of the destinations depends directly of what is offered there. The rising
necessity of being attractive and competitive brings the continuous challenge to build
an innovative offer that can answer to the visitants and tourists motivations.
Therefore, the destinations management organizations face the constant
responsibility of create new and innovative tourism products. In result of some
researches, authors believed that itineraries can be one of the possible answers,
according to the proved capacity in attracting visitants, the contribution to increase
the visibility of material and immaterial heritage and to increase the destiny image.
The itineraries appear as a structured answer of offer, where experiencing a wide set
of resources. It is possible to expand, incorporating new assets and attractions,
providing the possibility to integrate new experiences. Other benefits presented,
report the fact that itineraries can encourage the economic and cultural development,
as well as improve the destinies educational and civic conditions. It is in this way of
thinking that the investigation project Routes of Wolfram in Europe Memory of Men
and Industrial Heritage is being build, an European itinerary that is supported by
IEIC, national and international public and private organizations where the main goal
is, ahead of the creation of a route and its European recognition, contribute to create
new touristic development centers, supported by an innovative and creative offer,
capable to sustain a distinctive image of places.
Keywords: Itineraries, tourist motivations; destinations, new offer, routes of wolfram
in Europe

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

35

MANAGING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AS A TOURISM RESOURCE:


FROM THE RECOGNITION OF EXCEPTIONAL AGRO-PASTORAL
LANDSCAPES TO A SUSTAINABLE INTEGRATION IN TOURISM
PRODUCTS.
Andreia Pereira
Antnio de Sousa Pedrosa
University of Coimbra, Portugal
andreiaflup@gmail.com / ricardoalves@ig.ufu.br
This is the time to face the challenge of persecuting the principles and goals for
cultural landscape preservation established in the international forums. In the case of
traditional rural landscapes, this need is widely recognized given the increased risk of
loss of environmental and cultural heritage. Regional and sectorial planning, as well
as land management instruments as shown to not be able to cope with the socioeconomic changes that are leading to the disruption of the dynamic balance of
landscape systems. There is also a window of opportunity that must be explored: the
conjunction of the global recognition of the importance of landscape quality, with the
focus on multifunctionality, and the promising growth prospects of nature tourism
and cultural and landscape touring. The definition of areas of high landscape value at
a regional scale, electing the watershed as an integrative framework, is an extremely
useful tool for the management of the landscape mosaic, as well as for its
sustainable use as a core tourism resource. This operational concept promotes the
recognition of the uniqueness and representativeness of the selected areas and the
assessment of the risk of loss induced by the landscape degradation. The ultimate
purpose is the adoption of programs of active management of the selected areas,
considering its various dimensions, functions and services. This methodology is
essayed in the watershed of river Lima (north-western Portugal): a predominantly
rural territory, marked by an ancient and intense human occupation, where the
prevalence of farming and cattle raising techniques throughout centuries played a
key-role in landscape shaping.
Keywords: Cultural
management.

landscape;

tourism

products,

land

planning,

territory

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

36

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE IDENTITY ASSUMPTION OF THE


PORTUGUESE JEWISH HERITAGE: THE CASE OF BELMONTE
Antnio Srgio Arajo de Almeida
Ana Paula Sousinha Malheiros
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
antonio.s.almeida@ipleiria.pt / apsmalheiros@gmail.com
Taking as reference the strong Jewish presence in Belmonte, Portugal, it was
intended to assess how this local community assumes and identifies herself with
Jewish tourism, diagnosing local contributions and local constraints to the
development of an integrated tourism services offer based on identity assumption.
Through information provided by a questionnaire, we analyzed and evaluated the
Belmonte residents perceptions of, on the one hand, facing tourism in general and on
the other hand observing Jewish tourism in particular. A special attention was given
to the main guide lines to be observed in future in order to structure contributions of
youth to get a local identity assumption.
Keywords: Belmonte heritage, Jewish presence, identity assumption, integrated
tourism, youth.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

37

THE EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING ON CUSTOMER


SATISFACTION AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS: A RESEARCH ON
SENIOR TOURISTS
Bilge avugil Kse
Trakya University, Turkey
bilgecavusgil@trakya.edu.tr
Together with the progression of economic offering, the process from products to
services and from services to experiences has aroused the term experiential
marketing. Experiential marketing which aims to make products and services unique
for a consumer is an important tool in gaining of customer satisfaction and loyalty via
creating the customer experience. For creating a holistic experience, experiential
marketing, provide customers not only use the product or services, but also help
them for their development of cognitive status and acquiring unforgettable memories.
The tourism product starts the race in experience economy one step ahead in terms
of being private and having the nature of offering experience. This will provide an
important step in creating customer loyalty if it is managed and directed properly by
tourism businesses. Primarily inspired from Bernd H. Schmitts experiential marketing
model, this study is focused on the relationship between experiential marketing,
customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Also, there is a lack of research on
experiential marketing and senior tourism, and this research is directed to fill in the
gap. Research aims to analyze the effect of experiential marketing on customer
satisfaction, the effect of experiential marketing on behavioral intention, and the
effect of customer satisfaction on behavioural intention in the context of senior
tourists.
Keywords: Experiential Marketing, Experience Economy, Behavioral Intentions,
Customer Satisfaction, Senior Tourists

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

38

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS


PERCEPTIONS OF MOUNTAIN DESTINATIONS
Carla Silva
Elisabeth Kastenholz
Jos Lus Abrantes
Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Portugal
csilva@estv.ipv.pt / elisabethk@ua.pt / jlabrantes@dgest.estv.ipv.pt
Mountain regions have become one of the most attractive tourism destination areas
as demonstrated by the fact that mountain tourism constitutes at least 20% of global
tourism, with mountain destinations being second in global popularity and the choice
of 500 million tourists annually. Since destination image is the most important factor
in destination attractiveness, the aim is to develop the MDI Scale - Mountain
Destination Image Scale in order to assess a wide set of tourism mountain
destination image parameters. Within the MDI scale, images are related to cognitive
and affective factors. The study aimed at understanding particularly the differences
between local residents and tourists in respect to this mountain image. Insights from
an empirical study of 315 tourists and 315 residents in European Mountains
Destinations the Serra da Estrela (Portugal), the Alps (France, Austria and
Switzerland) and the Peaks of Europe (Spain) - indicate that this multi- dimension
scale incorporates five mountain image dimensions held by tourists: (1) historiccultural, (2) natural/ecological, (3) social and prestige, (4) sport and leisure, and (5)
affective; and three images dimensions held by residents: 1) mystique/sacred, (2)
historic-cultural and (3) affective. Discussion is focused on theoretical and practical
implications of these findings for tourism destination planning, marketing and
management. Study limitations and directions for future research are also presented.
Keywords: Tourism, Mountains, Destination Image.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

39

MARKET ORIENTATION IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY:


DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT SCALE TAILORED TO THE HOTEL
INDUSTRY
Carlos Alberto Fernandes Sampaio
Ricardo Jos Gouveia Rodrigues
Jos Manuel Hernndez Mogolln
University of Extremadura, Spain
cfsampaio@gmail.com
Despite the scientific community consensus about the positive relation between
market orientation and business performance, several studies carried out some
contradictory results and the range of market orientation measurement scales
indicate some lack of consensus about the existent scales characteristics. In
addition, most of these scales have validity and reliability problems that could be
related to the social, cultural and business context. This study seeks to develop a
market orientation measuring scale suitable to measure market orientation in the
hotel industry, capable to break the existent scales measurement shortcomings and
able to portrait the services sector characteristics, in detail the hotel industry sector,
in different business contexts.
We began by studying the underlying market orientation literature. We developed the
scale items and we sent them, by email, to an expert panel from six countries of the
European Union, in order to test the proposal scale content validity. The final
proposal scale has 21 items and 3 dimensions: intelligence generation, intelligence
dissemination and coordinated response, each one of these dimensions with 7 items.
The items of each one of the scale dimensions aims to measure three domains
attributes: client, competition and market structure.
Keywords: Market Orientation, Hotel Industry, Measurement Scale

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

40

TOURISM INDUSTRY IMPACT WITH WEB 3.0 BASED MARKETING


STRATEGIES ADOPTION
Carolina Narciso
Filipe Mota Pinto
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt /scarolina.narciso@gmail.com / filipe.pinto@ipleiria.pt
Current web based societys behavior has being one important factor for tourism
globalization. Indeed web technologies have become indispensable for assertive
marketing strategies and business objectives. Web technologies have evolved from
largely static pages almost administrated by experts with html text and gif buttons
(known as web 1.0) to a user centered dynamics (the ability to create web pages
such as blogs, sites or discussion forums were transferred to mass) focused on ready
to use contents publishing methods (recognized as web 2.0). This web based
paradigm has introduced and explored the cross interest of rich interest applications
(wkis, communication tools), social networking sites (social communities and
folksonomies) and collaborative work (file sharing systems and web scattered
applications). Recently industry and web players have been announcing the new 3.0
web paradigm dawn. The web 3.0 is assumed as next web shift, based on rich
internet applications and social media, bringing them to whatsoever mobile devices,
netbooks and digital signage. At this new emerging archetype the information is
moving from pulling to pushing paradigm the information is searched for filtered,
personalized and delivered to end users based on explicit or implicit preferences,
biofeedback and location. The main objective of this paper is to study whether the
use of Web 3.0 it would be an efficient and useful method for the implementation of
tourism marketing and to evaluate direct impacts that Web 3.0 would have on
costumers decisions. Therefore we also present a study for the impact of Web 3.0
tools, both from the tourism supply and demand point of view.
Keywords: Web 3.0, Tourism, Marketing, Consumer`s

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

41

KEY ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE DESTINATION MANAGEMENT


SYSTEMS
Catarina Antnia Martins
Carlos Manuel Martins da Costa
Osvaldo Rocha Pacheco
Polytechnic Institute of Bragana, Portugal
catarina@ipb.pt / ccosta@ua.pt / orp@ua.pt
Tourism is the economic activity where ebusiness is most used not only in what
concerns collecting information but also in what concerns trading services.
Destination Management Systems have been referred in last decades as the ICT
infrastructure of a Destination Management Organization. It is not yet clear in
literature how these systems can be implemented in a sustainable way. The main
purpose of this study is to present a conceptual framework where destination
management systems sustainability fit in three spheres of action: the dynamics of the
system implementation within a destination management organization, the very
specific features of those destination management systems and the organizational
environment in the destination.
Keywords: Destination management organizations,
management systems; touristic destination.

e-business,

destination

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

42

RECONVERSION OF THE HERITAGE AND PEOPLE OF COASTAL


ZONES
Ctia Filipa Cerqueira Rebelo
Mrio Joo Paulo de Jesus Carvalho
Ins Paulo Cordeiro Braso
Gilberto Coralejo Moiteiro
Graa Maria Gomes Ezequiel
Carlos Pedro Ferreira Alves
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
cerqueira.rebelo@gmail.com / mario.carvalho@ipleiria.pt / ines.brasao@ipleiria.pt
In this presentation, we intend to present our research considerations about bidos
Lagoon Heritage. The main goal of this Research Project is to improve the potential
of bidos Lagoon in the different fields such as economics, social and environment,
always in the sustainable perspective. To accomplish this aim we divided the project
into two phases, the first one, at this moment in progression, named diagnosis
consists in the territory and patrimonial exploration, questionnaires to the local
population and to the tourists and interviews with the stakeholders. The second one,
involves the development of an interpretative plan, as a base of sustainable activities
developed in the local territory. With the questionnaires we intended to know the
level of involvement between the locals and the Lagoon, as well as, the tourists
experience in the Lagoon. All the collected data was statistically treated with the
statistical program SPSS, other methods were applied as documental analysis in the
open questions. Besides the questionnaires we interviewed the local stakeholders,
such as associations speakers and other people with different kinds of knowledge
about the lagoon.
Keywords: bidos Lagoon, sustainability, locals and stakeholders, environment.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

43

SPECIALIZATION AND IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE IN VISITORS


TO A NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, THE CANADIAN FOSSIL
DISCOVERY CENTRE, MORDEN, MANITOBA, CANADA
Christopher Malcolm
Doug Ramsey
Brandon University, Canada
malcolmc@brandonu.ca / ramsey@brandonu.ca
The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre (CFDC) in Morden, Manitoba, Canada, is
home to the largest collection of marine reptile fossils in North America. The CFDC
houses thousands of local finds from active dig sites across the Manitoba
Escarpment. The Museum has experienced average annual increases in visitation
since 1994, is noted as a Manitoba Star attraction, and was rated in the top 5 travel
destinations in Manitoba in Macleans. Due to the limited space of the Museum, the
staff and volunteers display 21 exhibits to its visitors, with hopes of expansion to a
larger facility. This study reports on a survey of visitors to the CFDC in the summer of
2012 (n=137). The purpose of the study is to gauge visitor expectations, satisfaction
and specialization (past experiences and exposure to paleontology and ancient
marine reptiles) as a tool for future expansion planning. This is the first application of
the specialization approach to museum visitors. Generally, participants reported high
levels of satisfaction with respect to important reported expectations. However,
visitors were characterized by a low degree of specialization in the subject area,
indicating a basic education program is required. Open-ended comments indicated
that some participants did not fully understand the material presented in CDFC
interpretive displays and corroborate the specialization finding. The results illustrate a
successful application of the specialization approach to museum tourists, which may
help to improve interpretive message design.
Keywords: Importance-satisfaction, specialization, Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

44

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING


TECHNIQUES AND THE DECISION MAKING IN PORTUGUESE HOTELS
Conceio Gomes
Nuno Arroteia
Lus Lima Santos
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
conceicao.gomes@ipleiria.pt / nuno.arroteia@ipleiria.pt / llsantos@ipleiria.pt
This study examines the hospitality decision makers use of management accounting.
The making decisions process involves several of steps. It is need accurate
information for the hotel managers make a good decision. Management accounting
(MA) can provide this kind of information. A lot of MA techniques are concerned with
the preparation of specialized information. We have studied the MA techniques that
are currently being used by different types of Portuguese hotels, and we relate that
use with the importance that is given to decision making by hotel managers. The
sample includes 61 hotels, which were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. We verified
that the hotel managers have different behaviors regarding the use of MA techniques,
which depends of their opinion about the utility of management accounting.
Keywords: Management accounting, decision making, lodging industry, portuguese
hotels.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

45

TOURIST COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS: THE CASE OF NEW


TOURISM REGIONS OF PORTUGAL
Cristina Estevo
Sara Nunes
Joo Ferreira
Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal
cristina.estevao@ipcb.pt / sara@ipcb.pt / jjmf@ubi.pt
Tourism is a sector that has been renowned for its great potential in the world,
occupying an extremely relevant role to the competitiveness of any region. However,
despite the existence of varied research on this topic are still scarce the studies
focused on the empirical validation of models of tourism competitiveness. Given the
recent Law n. 33/2013 of 16 May, establishing the new legal system of regional
tourism areas of Portugal mainland it is pertinent to study the competitiveness of
each region. Thus, this research aims to contribute to filling this gap by identifying
and evaluating the factors of competitiveness of tourism in Portugal. The
methodology used in the study required the use of primary data, where was used a
questionnaire as a research tool applied to companies with activities characteristic of
the satellite account of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). Through the use of
structural equation models, we find that there are several significant relationships
between resources (natural and inherited), offer (entertainment, backing, and support
services) and management of destination (entrepreneurial orientation, hospitality and
marketing promotional) as key factors for the competitiveness of tourism regions
targeted by our study.
Keywords: Tourism, Competitiveness, Regional Areas, Portugal Mainland.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

46

ONLINE TOURISM PROJECT BASED ON WEB MARKETING


TECHNOLOGIES
Cristina Gomes
Filipe Mota Pinto
Vitor Hugo Ferreira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
cristina.angomes@gmail.com / filipe.pinto@ipleiria.pt / vitor.ferreira@ipleiria.pt
Tourism industry has grown substantially among European countries during the last
few years. On such advance impressive on-line resources and applications have
become popular among tourism players. Such dynamics have contributed for web
and multi-plataform developments costumer (user) awareness. Regarding that
activity, insomuch adopted and accepted theres a particular downstream need for
marketing technologies in order to support their business strategies and objectives.
This paper exposes a web marketing strategy for an on-line tourism project reflected
on specific activities and expected results.
Keywords: Web marketing, digital media, tourism, online tourism, user, georeference

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

47

THE IMAGE OF TOURIST DESTINATION LISBON: PERSPECTIVE OF


TOURIST VISITING THE HERITAGE
Daniela Gomes
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
regina_daniela_portugal@hotmail.com / palmeida@ipleiria.pt
The image of a destination is an increasingly important topic for research on tourism,
since it has a very important role in market segmentation and the subsequent
satisfaction of tourists. A destination should have in account the needs of present
tourists and its development depends largely on the capacity they have to create
differentiated products in order to become competitive and encourage tourists to
visit him. The methodology adopted by us, was based in one questionnaire to
tourists who were in Lisbon, in order to understand the image that tourists who visit
the city's heritage have. We found that the image of Lisbon to visit their patrimony is
still positive, it should be worked in order to improving some aspects that still
continue to mark the negative image of the city's heritage. Through this research
work we can see that the image of a destination is a major factor, as it generates
motivation of tourists and it is by experience and is lived at the destination that
tourists will keep or not the original image.
Keywords: Tourist Destinations, Destination Image, Tourist Patrimony

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

48

VISION 2020 FOR NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR TOURISM:


UNCOMMON POTENTIAL OR UNABATED OPTIMISM?
Darrell C. Kennedy
Ratana Chuenpagdee
University of Newfoundland, Canada
darrellcalvin@gmail.com
Tourism has been recognized as a significant contributor to the economic
development of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, since the 1800s. Yet, after
decades of effort and investment, the industry has continued to face several
challenges, including long travel time and high cost, a short peak season, and the
amount and quality of tourism infrastructure in the province. In 2006, a group of
public and private tourism stakeholders began developing a strategy for the
provinces tourism industry to provide a vision and quantify the financial resources
needed to meet existing needs and facilitate future growth. Released in 2009,
Uncommon Potential: A Vision for Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism (Vision 2020)
outlines seven strategic directions to help the province become one of the worlds
leading tourism destinations and sets doubling annual tourism revenues by 2020 as
its main target. Through a step-zero analysis, this paper takes a critical look at this
initiative from its inspiration to its adaptation and examines its strengths and
weaknesses. Drawing from 18 key informant interviews and a review of secondary
sources, we learn that the processes involved in creating Uncommon Potential may
have helped to improve trust and communication amongst the provinces tourism
stakeholders. However, the findings also suggest that certain decisions, particularly
those made at the beginning of its development stage, may need to be reconsidered
in order to increase the likelihood of fulfilling the documents overarching plan and
ambitious goals.
Keywords: Step-zero analysis; tourism development strategy; Vision 2020;
Newfoundland and Labrador.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

49

SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES: GLOBALIZATION WITHIN THE MICE


INDUSTRY
David M. Pearlman
University of New Orleans, USA
dpearlma@uno.edu
Lately, many companies have found their domestic markets saturated and believe
the only way to maintain growth is in international markets. Many organizations
believe that going global is a sustainable development strategy, while others believe
that conducting business internationally is as much a defensive strategy as it is an
offensive one; where if your company is not pursuing these markets your competitors
will. To meet increased demand many businesses are attempting to expand their
geographic footprint. Emerging markets in 1999 represented 20% of global GDP
growing to 50% by 2010, with growth rates 5% ahead of developed ones, while
developed markets are shrinking (Davidson, 2009). Globalization has been written
about and discussed extensively, yet, the literature regarding this concept within the
travel and tourism industry is scant. Globalization has occurred within the MICE
industry, yet little empirical data exists. This study explored globalization practices
within the MICE industry. Specific, research objectives involved 1) the development
of international sales offices among select U.S. CVB's, 2) the global expansion MICE
service providers, and 3) the growth of the Meeting Planners International and other
industry associations. Findings indicate that this globalization among the MICE
industry vary in scope and years of duration. This research contributes to the body of
literature by documenting several examples of globalization, which may assist
organizations implementing such expansion strategies. This research documents the
successful application of globalization as a sustainable development strategy.
Keywords: MICE Industry, globalization, CVBs, sustainable strategies

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

50

THE FOREIGN IMAGE OF GALICIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION IN


ATLANTIC EUROPE
David Santomil Mosquera
University of Santiago de Compostela
davidsantomil@yahoo.es
Which is the overview foreigners have about Galicia? Which territorial elements are
identified by visitors who have come to our country? What is the foreign image of
Galicia? This dissertation is focused on the foreign image of Galicia as a tourist
destination. The research hypothesis is developed from the following questions,
concluding that the brand identity Galicia spreads abroad is not in accordance with
its brand image in other countries. In other words, this means things "we do" as a
tourist destination is not in correspondence with "what we get. First of all, there is
not a consensus between the different public administrations involved in the
promotion of the brand identity of Galicia. Secondly, it is not in accordance as this
brand is not compatible with the image of Spain as a tourist destination. Finally,
because Galicia is in process of transformation which includes social and territorial
aspects changes its identity and its brand image making it difficult for both aspects
to coincide. With the goal of identifying the visions or impression foreigners have and
have had about Galicia, as well as the key elements and attributes associated with its
image abroad, we have used a qualitative analysis method based on direct
observation and perception through previous research and analysis, the bibliography
and qualitative assessment of Galicia as a tourist destination within and outside their
territorial jurisdiction, through the actions developed by public and private actors
involved in the foreign promotion of our country.
Keywords: Galicia, Europe, tourism, image.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

51

THE TRANSFORMATION OF A TOURIST SPACE:


PUERTO VALLARTA'S MALECON
Derrek Eberts
Rodrigo Espinoza Sanchez
Brandon University, Brandon, MB, Canada
Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
derrek.eberts@gmail.com
In 2011, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico undertook a major renovation of its principal
oceanfront public space - the Malecon. Not only was it renovated, but its layout and
relationship to the adjacent tourist oriented commercial strip were altered. Among
other things, the street that formerly divided the Malecon from the commercial strip
was filled in and made to be a continuous part of the Malecon, open to pedestrians
only. This project was planned and executed with virtually no consultation with the
affected business owners and the taxi drivers who worked the street. The positive
and negative impacts of the changes are uncertain. This paper reports on an initial
survey of a variety of groups to ascertain their perceptions of the changes to this
public tourist space.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

52

ETHNIC FOOD AS COMMUNITY PRIDE TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE


DEVELOPMENT
Dewi Eka Murniati
Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
dewiekamurniati@yahoo.com
Ethnic food brings the identity of local culture. It represents a unique characteristic
and authenticity, which leads to community pride. The study aims to investigate
Indonesia ethnic food potential as an ethnicity portray. A survey of 400 foreign
tourists was taken place in ethnic restaurants in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Ethnic food
attributes included the examination on traditional features of the place origin.
Descriptive statistics associated with means was developed to analyse the data. The
results illustrate that the ethnic food bears culture distinctiveness. Moreover,
traditional characteristic as an ethnic food attributes in the questionnaire achieved
the highest respond. Yogyakarta, as one of thousand tribes in Indonesia, owns a
strong culture that reflects on its ethnic food. In turn, the ethnic foods role in
supporting the sustainable development and the destination competitiveness should
be taken into account. More detailed findings and recommendations for further
research are also discussed.
Keywords: Ethnic food, sustainable development, destination competitiveness,
Yogyakarta Indonesia

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

53

PROMOTING PUBLIC TRANSPORT USE IN TOURISM


Diem-Trinh Le-Klhn
Michael Hall
Regine Gerike
Technische Universitt Mnchen, Germany
University of Canterbury, New Zealand
BOKU University, Austria
diemtrinh.le@tum.de
Transport infrastructure plays a major role in determining the attractiveness of a
destination. For a destination to achieve sustainability, the use of alternative transport
modes for travelling such as public transport is critical. This paper discusses the
importance of public transport in sustainable tourism development at an urban
destination. Using a case study of visitor use of public transport in Munich, it explains
how visitors use public transport in the city. The most important attributes of public
transport services for visitors were identified, namely service quality, ease of use,
price, and information. The paper also presents the relevant marketing strategies to
promote the use of public transport by visitors at an urban destination.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

54

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT EVENT" BIDOS CHRISTMAS


VILLAGE "IN OCCUPATION AND CONSUMPTION IN BIDOS"
Dina Alves
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt / dina.alves.777@gmail.com
Since tourism is one of the main activities in the global economy, Portugal should
stand out as a destination of excellence and remarkable experiences. In order to
understand the main concepts of Tourism, Hospitality, Events and Economic
Impacts, was made an extensive review of articles and monographs, essential for
carrying out this research work. bidos, since a few years ago, has to stand out for
its tourism, but mainly through the events that promotes, with which they attract
thousands of visitors and have a great impact in the press. This empirical research
aimed to analyze and understand the evaluation and economic impact that the event
bidos Vila Natal has in the economic activities of the village. The methodology
was based on surveys in two research phases. In the first phase, it was applied a
survey to visitors during the event, making it possible to obtain information regarding
the profile of the respondents, the expenses incurred, the opinion concerning the
characteristics of the destination and the event. In the second research phase it
applied a survey to entrepreneurs and traders in the village, after the event, which
made it possible to obtain information regarding the profile of the respondents, the
expenses incurred and opinion concerning impacts. After collecting the needed
information, it was treated and analyzed in order to get results to meet the objectives
of the investigation. It was possible to understand that the economic impacts
generated go beyond the time when the event takes place, which is considered low
season, it also enables the arrival of tourists and visitors at other times of year, when
there arent events taking place.
Keywords: Tourism, hospitality, events, economic impacts

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

55

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND INNOVATION:


A CASE STUDY OF THE KEYSTONE CENTRE, BRANDON, MANITOBA,
CANADA
Doug Ramsey
Derrek Eberts
Brandon University, Canada
ramsey@brandonu.ca / derrek.eberts@gmail.com
The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the image, sustainability, and
impact of the Keystone Centre in Brandon, Manitoba, Canada. The Keystone Centre
is the largest recreational facility in Manitoba with approximately five hectares of
buildings on a 36 hectare site. The first phase opened in 1972 with a number of
additions taking place in subsequent years, the last being 2004. The facility includes
three hockey rinks, an eight-pad curling rink, indoor and outdoor riding arenas for
horse and livestock events, and nine meeting rooms. The property also houses
heritage agricultural buildings, a campground, and the site of the annual folk music
festival. There is also parking for 4,000 vehicles. The paper evaluates the mission
statement and strategic objectives of the Keystone Centre, and in particular those
objectives that relate specifically to market development and green initiatives. This
evaluation is followed by an economic impact analysis of events within the Keystone
Centre and of the Keystone Centre itself to the City of Brandon. In recent years, the
Keystone Centre has expanded its brand and marketing to expand into concerts and
horse events. In 2012, the Keystone boasted approximately 1,500 event days per
year. These event days include community functions (e.g. hockey, figure skating,
indoor soccer), conventions, and events (e.g. sport, entertainment, agricultural,
cultural, trade shows). The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the
branding matches the market directions and that any developments meet the
Keystone Centres often competing goals of community function, sustainable facility,
and economic driver.
Keywords: economic impact; sustainability; community development

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

56

THE IMPACT OF TOURISM IN THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELLBEING OF TOURISTS


Eduardo Moraes Sarmento
Sara Ferreira S Couto
Universidade Lusfona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal
emoraessarmento@gmail.com / saracouto@sapo.pt
Although tourism currently constitutes one of the fastest growing economic activities
worldwide, its benefits should not be reduced to economic. In particular it should
deepen the relationship between tourism, quality of life and well being of those
involved in the tourist experience. This study aims to assess the impact of tourism on
quality of life and well being of tourists in Portugal. To perform this analysis we used
a questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF and EBP, which was online for a year
to anyone who would respond voluntarily. 1059 responses were obtained. The results
showed that tourism can positively affect the quality of life and well-being, and this
significant relationship with regard to some dimensions of quality of life and wellbeing. This study demonstrates that the managers should promote services that
enhance personal experiences satisfactory, that generate positive affect and that
these effects are lasting, since it can generate loyalty with destiny, desire to spend
more and recommend when it returns to house.
Keywords: tourism, quality of life, well-being.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

57

USING AWARENESS AS A COMPETITION ELEMENT IN TOURISM


DESTINATIONS: ESREFOGLU MOSQUE
Erkan Akgz
Seluk University, Konya, Turkey
eakgoz@selcuk.edu.tr
Every region has its own characteristics and assets since tourism is heterogeneously
structured. Using these assets effectively and taking competition advantage by them
is only possible when all the shareholders are aware of them. Because awareness
provides revealing skills and strength, continuous development, smart preferences
and persistent demands. And this awareness is formed by repetitions ending a
successful result. Built in 1296-1299, Erefolu Mosque is in UNESCO World
Heritage Tentative List and the biggest and original example of wooden mosques in
Anatolia. The mosque which has 42 wooden columns is situated in Beysehir county
in Konya province and 715 years old. The mosque survived up to today without any
damage in its wooden parts because it has got a huge snow pit in the middle of it.
Not only the wooden columns but also tiles, monumental portal and Minber which is
next to mihrap are very important in terms of history of art. Because the minber was
made of wood without using any nails and glue since they were well-preserved by
the locals. Importance of touristic assets on tourism destinations is studied in this
paper. In addition, importance of using these assets not only by tourists but also the
locals and using them as a means of competition element is emphasized in the
paper.
Keywords: Awareness, Competition, Destination, Esrefoglu Mosque

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

58

THE ROLE OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT:


A CASE OF MAZOVIA REGION IN POLAND
Ewa Ferens
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
ewa_ferens@sggw.pl
Currently, local authorities play an important role in tourism development, as
government structures become more decentralized. Local government has significant
impact not only on the business environment but also on the natural and cultural
resources in the commune as well as they shoulder the responsibility for promoting
and supporting the local tourism product. However, although tourism falls within the
scope of competence of the commune, it is one of the many others competing socioeconomic priorities in local development. Due to insufficient amount of financial
means or lack of authorities involvement quite often tourism sector is underestimated
or neglected by local government to the advantage of other directions of local
development. The aim of this article is to explore the engagement of local authorities
in tourism development in Mazovia region in Poland. The paper presents the
theoretical background as well as the findings of the empirical research, which was
conducted among local authorities of 51 communes of Mazovia region. Data was
gathered and analysed using a survey questionnaires in the first quarter of 2013.
Keywords: tourism development, local authorities

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

59

THE APPLE AND CIDER TOURIST ROUTE IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF


ASTURIAS, SPAIN
Fernando Goulart Rocha
Antoni F. Tullla
Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain
fernandogoulart92@gmail.com / antoni.tulla@uab.cat
The Principality of Asturias is the biggest apple- and cider-producing region in Spain,
and represents nearly 80% of the countrys cider production. Thus we cannot talk
about tourism in Asturias without mentioning cider, the llagares (pressing barns
where cider is produced) and sidreras (cider houses or taverns where it is sold and
consumed). Further, we should not discuss Asturian cider without highlighting the
local apple varieties, which earned the beverage the certification of Denominacin de
Origen Protegida (D.O.P a government-conferred quality benchmark) in 2003.
Objective: to analyse the operation and dissemination of the apple and cider tourist
route in Asturias, Spain. Methodology: We visited llagares, sidreras and farms in July
2013. We also reviewed relevant bibliographies. Results: The apple and cider tourist
route is promoted jointly by the Regulatory Council of the D.O.P Asturian Cider and
the Principalitys Agricultural Ministry. The objective of the route is to expand the
certified beverages market and to make it stand out as a regional tourist product.
The operation of the route has been implemented through actions taken by municipal
tourist offices working together with local tour guides. In the cider farms and llagares
which host visitors, it is the producers themselves who receive groups of tourists.
Conclusion: The apple and cider route in Asturias is a successful example of
articulation between fruit-producers and cider-makers to promote tourism. Route
guides and marketing campaigns for the route is likewise well planned and carried
out.
Keywords: Cider, Apple, Route, Principality of Asturias, Spain.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

60

RELIGIOUS TOURISM MARKETING:


USING A TOURISM OFFER IN DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGY
Filipe Mota Pinto
Telma Freire
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
filipe.pinto@ipleiria.pt /almatfff@gmail.com
Religion is one of the most private and controversial themes for any person. Religious
activities are normally public and developed aiming the overall population for any
kind of enrolment or participation. Normally, on charity actions, religious
organizations and their actors have been adopting direct channels more extensively
in order to communicate to those whom are intended to participate and collaborate.
However, recent changes on economic environment and disruptive circumstances
have forced religious to adopt new strategies in order to motivate and involve those
benefactors for certain participation or contribution. Along this work it is presented a
novel digital marketing strategy for a charity campaign develop by a religious
television channel.
Keywords: Digital marketing, religious marketing, benefactors

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

61

TERRITORY MARKETING STRATEGY:


A LOW BUDGET WEB MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SO TOME E
PRINCIPE
Filipe Mota Pinto
Ana Rute Pereira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
filipe.pinto@ipleiria.pt/ anarspereira@outlook.com
Aiming to achieve an international recognition as a touristic destination, the small
equatorial African country Sao Tome e Principe national travel and tourism authorities
are focusing their strategies based on digital media for global communication results.
Notwithstanding their reduced budget and resources Sao Tome e Principe authorities
have at their disposal a set of methods and instruments that will allow grasp such
objectives. Along this work it is presented a possible web marketing strategy for Sao
Tom e Principe, encompassing all activities and their dynamics. The results of this
paper assist in clarifying the conceptual issues provided in the literature related to
technologies or web applications comprised, also linking them to theoretical
marketing knowledge foundations.
Keywords: Web marketing, Digital media, Tourism, So Tom e Principe,
Communication

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

62

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY


IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
Francisco Teixeira Pinto Dias
Humberto Manuel Costa Ferreira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
francisco.dias@ipleiria.pt / humbertm1975@gmail.com
Taking into account the growing phenomenon of the competitive hotel industry, the
quality of care and service is one of the most important items for success in the
hospitality industry. The main goal of this study is to provide a better understanding
of the relationship between satisfaction, loyalty and informal recommendation as a
success factor in the hospitality business. In the tourism and hospitality industry, the
well-known positive correlation between consumer satisfaction and loyalty is not as
obvious as it has been demonstrated in many other industries. An empirical research
by questionnaire using an intentional sample of 150 teachers was conducted, in
order to shed some light on the referred aspects of the loyalty process. After
submitting the respondents answers to cluster analysis, two segments of tourists
were defined: tourists with a heroic imaginary (or allocentrism, according to Plogs
model) and tourists with a cyclic imaginary (or psychocentrism). The study
corroborated our hypothesis, according to which only in the case of cyclic tourists
there is a strong significant correlation between satisfaction and repeated
consumption (loyalty). The high satisfaction doesnt induce repeated consumption
when the general motivation of the tourist is mainly focused on discovering new
places and never returning to already known places (heroic tourists). Furthermore,
this study also demonstrated that all tourists, without exception, recommend the
hotels where they got satisfaction to their friends and relatives.
Keywords: hotel industry, service quality, satisfaction, loyalty, recommendation,
tourist imaginary.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

63

THE NATIONAL OBSERVATORY OF TOURISM RECREATIONAL


ACTIVITIES AS A TOOL FOR EXCELLENCE IN PORTUGUESE TOURISM
RECREATION
Francisco Teixeira Pinto Dias
Paula Alexandra Gomes de Aguiar Cardoso
Fernanda Maria Fernandes Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
francisco.dias@ipleiria.pt / paula.cardoso@ipleiria.pt / foliveira@ipleiria.pt
The tourism observatories are being proposed as a coordinated approach to
gathering and storing information and as a means of guaranteeing greater
synergies between different levels of tourism policy making. In Portugal, there is not a
systematic monitoring system for the tourism industry. The National Observatory of
Tourism Recreational Activities (ONAT) that is being developed by GITUR (Tourism
Research Group of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria) aims to: (1) connect the tourism
policy makers, stakeholders and researchers in a general forum to discuss the
common problems in the field of tourism recreation; (2) identify trends and
developments in the field of tourism recreation; (3) support evidence-based policy
making in the tourism recreational area; (4) provide reliable, comparable and up-todate information for tourism policy makers, stakeholders and researchers. This paper
presents the structure of the Observatory and the results of an exploratory study that
depicts the main concerns identified by the panel members of the Observatory
(entrepreneurs and representatives of municipalities).
Keywords: Tourism observatory, monitoring system, tourism recreation, ONAT.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

64

IS THE MOST PORTUGUESE CARNIVAL A GOOD BET?


ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CARNIVAL OF TORRES
VEDRAS 2013
Francisco Teixeira Pinto Dias
Dulcineia Baslio Ramos
Rui Alberto de Feitas Martins
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
francisco.dias@ipleiria.pt / dulcineia.ramos@ipleiria.pt / rui.martins@ipleiria.pt
Nowadays, mainly in the countries suffering of chronic state budget deficit, the
financing of cultural events is becoming a polemic issue. The municipalities that give
financial support to annual events in the fields of culture or sport need to
demonstrate that such subventions produce direct and indirect economic positive
impacts for the community, attracting more visitors and increasing the consumption
of products purchased in the local commerce. In this study, we present the
methodology and the results of a study of the economic impact of the Carnival of
Torres Vedras 2013, known in the country as the most Portuguese carnival among all
Portuguese carnivals. The surveys were made: a street survey was addressed to the
public of the event (with a sample of 1865 valid questionnaires); a specific survey
addressed to the actors participating in the organized parade of Carnival (n = 484)
and another specific survey to owners and administrators of shops and other
commercial enterprises (n = 168). The data of these three surveys was interpreted on
the basis of three different forecasting models, adopting for each one a set of basic
assumptions. Interpreting the results according to these models, the global
economic impact of the Carnival of Torres Vedras 2013 was in the interval ranging
from 8 millions to 9.5 millions euros, which corresponds to a financial impact 2.5
times higher than was supposed by the Municipality.
Keywords: economic impact, Carnival, Torres Vedras, forecasting models.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

65

ALUMNI NETWORK: A STRATEGY TO HELP TO DEVELOP LOCAL


TOURISM
Francisco Ferraz
Graa Seco
Isabel Beato
Clia Rafael
Michael Schn
Isabel Barreto Fernandes
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
francisco.ferraz@ipleiria.pt / graca.seco@ipleiria.pt / isabelbeato@ipleiria.pt
Organizations including higher education institutions need to enhance the
relationships with their stakeholders, especially with their alumni, in order to promote
a set of long term mutual competitive advantages. In this way, organizational
sustainability is gaining new ground and plays a fundamental role as a way of
attaining a broad goal in terms of sustainable development. Higher education
institutions should develop relationship and transparency strategies of corporate
actions in order to create trust and also to leverage synergies by using alumni
networks. This can be achieved through Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT), especially the web, and the most recent and globalized platforms
like Facebook and Linkedin as privileged channels for communicating with alumni. In
addition, the development of actions that try to promote an approach and the
engagement of alumni among different initiatives not only inside the institution, but
also in terms of local and/or regional context, could create added value and
contribute to local tourism development. The present study aims to analyze the
development of the network of a higher education institution, namely, the
IPLeiri@lumni Network, assessing the platform design, the measures taken by the
institution to renew the relationship with their alumni, and the resulting advantages
from the paths taken by some alumni as a way of identifying the potential added
value for the development of local tourism of the region.
Keywords: Alumni Relationship,
Websites, Collaborative Design.

Corporate

Social

Responsibility,

Corporate

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

66

THE BRAND AS A TRADEMARK AND AS A CORPORATE AND


BUSINESS STRATEGY IN THE TOURISM SECTOR
Francisco Javier Aragn Cnovas
Vilma Nez
Universidad Camilo Jose Cela, Madrid, Spain
fjaragon@ucjc.edu
The present study deals with the analysis of the contribution of the "Brand" as a
trademark from a legal perspective in symbiosis with the creation of businesses in
order to boost tourism activities, as well as from the business point of view as
institutional. The "Brand", just as any other visible marks, is intended to distinguish
between different products or services by making them more competitive in the
market. The rules for its exclusive use will provide that difference in the field of
tourism and that is a fundamental opportunity. The tourism consumer can see an
important added value that will make him lean towards those options that will make
these tourism products more attractive. The legal rights to the trademark of a brand
should involve a guarantee to face some difficult challenges in the face of
competition, avoiding arbitrariness and securing strategic positions in the market,
such as the case of the tourism sector, which is linked to this type of trademarks in
order to obtain the desired success and stimulate new markets.
Keywords: brand, tourism, trademark, industrial property rights, promotion.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

67

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN THE OMANI TOURISM SECTOR


Galal M. H. Afifi
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
galal_afifi@yahoo.com
Investigating issues on women empowerment and employment are relatively well
established in research. However, few works have been conducted in regard with
tourism and even less in the Arabic area. Although women are still not well
represented on the higher managerial levels, womens contributions to the tourism
profession have evidentially increased in the recent years. Accordingly, this research
aims to examine the extent to which gender segregates men and women both
horizontally, in terms of types of work, and vertically, in terms of managerial levels in
the Omani tourism sector. A combination of semi-structures interviews and unified
survey was utilized in this research, which helped identifying both qualitative and
quantitative feedbacks. Results show that despite women are equally considered in
the Omani different legislations, on the ground of reality, more efforts need to be
conducted. The research highlights several cases where women acquire superior
governmental tourism positions, while evidences of less equality exist in the private
tourism sector. The research concludes numerous recommendations for filling in the
current gap between women and men positions in the Omani tourism sector.
Keywords: Oman, women employment, women empowerment, tourism, gender.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

68

THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF TRAILS IN THE IZTACCHUATLPOPOCATPETL NATIONAL PARK


Gandhi Gonzlez Guerrero
Mara Eugenia Valdez Prez
Rafael Morales Ibarra
Mara de Jess Osorno Corona
Universidad Autnoma del Estado de Mxico, Mxico
gandhoo@hotmail.com
As conservation sites, Protected Natural Areas (ANPs) arguably have a greater need
for the estimation of their carrying capacity than other destinations. The Iztacchualtl Popocatpetl National Park in Mexico has seven trails which are offered as
attractions. These paths have different purposes, emphasizing different aspects
within the Park. Some of the paths are also used as educational tool within the
subject of conservation. This document focuses on two of such trails and uses the
methodology of carrying capacity to estimate the ideal number of visitors to each
trail. The document concludes arguing the advantages and disadvantages of trails in
National Parks. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the
methodology of carrying capacity as a tool for the management of visitor flow.
Keywords: carrying capacity, trails, National Parks

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

69

THE PLACE OF TOURISM IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SOCIAL


SCIENCE COURSE BOOKS
ahin Oru
Gen Osman lhan
Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
sahinoruc44@hotmail.com / gosmanilhan@gmail.com
One of the contemporary important rapidly growing employment fields is tourism
sector. This sector constitutes an important source of information and revenue for a
lot of countries. Both developing and developed countries try to become tourist
attractions by implementing advertisement campaigns and investing in tourism to
attract more and more foreign tourists into their countries. Nevertheless, investments
in tourism sector cannot be limited to only foreign tourists. Domestic tourists should
also be given importance while investing on tourism. One of the effective ways of a
countrys raising its citizens tourism awareness is education. In this sense, tourism
topics in social science education course books are important. In this study, the
concepts of tourism in social sciences coursebooks of Turkeys public schools have
been investigated. As research method, document analysis method has been utilized.
Analyzed documents include teachers books, students course books and students
study books.
Keywords: Tourism, Education

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

70

OUTDOOR RECREATION PROMOTION BY TAKING OUTDOOR


TRAINER IN THE PUBLIC PLACES
Giedre Gudaityte
Irena Valantine
Lithuania Sport University, Lithuania
Outdoor recreation are widely recognised as important elements in peoples lives,
and are receiving increasing attention. However, physical activity in leisure time is
insufficient. Many scientists are studying this problem in all over the world, but
research in Lithuania has just started to analyze outdoor trainer influence for physical
activity in Leisure time.In order to to identify if outdoor trainer is appropriate means
to promote an active leisure in public spaces and to decreasese physicaly pssive
people number in Lithuania, was done quantitative research in wich was surveyed
369 respondents (16-65 years old). The results of survey revealed that the most part
of citizens think that sport in a fresh air with outdoor trainers is the desirable form of
active leisure. In their opinion, this suggestion can encourage the people to care
about their health and appearance because there is the possibility to exercise in a
fresh air for free and without any skills all-year-round. The essential factors for
choosing sport in the site of outdoor trainers are: free service, peaceful environment,
the variety and favourable geographical situation of outdoor trainers, the better
quality of sleep, meeting new friends and forming of will and patience.
Keywords: outdoor recreation, outdoor trainer, Lithuania

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

71

SPORT EVENTS AND DESTINATION IMAGE:


RUNNING UNDER THE MIDNIGHT SUN IN NORTHERN NORWAY
Giovanna Bertella
The Arctic University of Norway, Troms, Norway
giovanna.bertella@uit.no
Several scholars have discussed the link between events and tourism. Ritchie and
Crouch (2003) indicate that events can contribute to the competitiveness and
sustainability of a tourism destination. Having these studies as a background, this
paper is focused on the case of sport events and their potential contributions in
terms of destination image. This research investigates the case of the Midnight-SunMarathon (MSM) in northern Norway. The case is investigated through the collection
of secondary and primary data. Secondary data include marketing material relative to
the local tourism offer and the specific event. Primary data are collected through
semi-structured interviews. The events organizers and the local destination
managers are interviewed. Additional primary data are collected by the researcher
talking with the MSM participants and their followers while volunteering at the
information-desk of the event. The findings show that the MSM event has
considerable potentials as a tourism experience for both the athletes and their
followers. Moreover, the findings suggest that the event is perceived as being strictly
linked to the uniqueness of the region. These considerations suggest that a branding
extension strategy based on the contributions of the MSM to the image of northern
Norway as a tourism destination could be feasible. The paper concludes reflecting on
the critical factors relative to the exploitation of the potentials of a sport event in
terms of destination competitiveness, and the challenges in terms of sustainability.
Keywords: events, tourism destination, branding

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

72

INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY IN HOTEL ENTERPRISES: CONCEPT


HOTELS
Gorkem Ersoy
Trakya University, Turkey
egorkemkayaalp@yahoo.com
Tourism sector is accepted as one of the most important industry in the world.
Because of this point of view hotel enterprises must develop and improve
themselves. There are innovation and creativity under the each change. While
creativity is related to generate process of new ideas, innovation is related to convert
these ideas into actual money. Creative hotels try to attract their consumers with their
architecture. When we take a look to worldwide we can see that many hotel
enterprises become an artwork with their architecturally. According to these
explanations this study aims to identify means of innovation and creativity especially
in creative hotel enterprises. In order to identify these concepts we handle concept
hotels in Turkey as an example.
Keywords: Innovation, creativity, concept hotels

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

73

FOOD TOURISM IN THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF THE OESTE


REGION PORTUGAL
Graa Ezequiel
Anabela Almeida
Ctia Ferreira
Paula Cabral
Simo Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
graca.ezequiel@ipleiria.pt / cmalheiros@ipleiria.pt
Food tourism as a growing market segment is a path to develop competitive tourist
destinations. As a broad area, and normally referred as gastronomy tourism, is often
described as travel to specific locations in order to gain a sense of place where the
quality of food-related experience is the most important. This paper results from a
research project in the Western Region of Portugal, which had the duration of one
year (May 2010 to May 2011) with a team of five investigators and two full-time
research fellows, in order to understand the role that food tourism plays for
destination differentiation, assess the local tourist agents perception, to profile the
food tourist that travels to the Western Touristic Pole, and identify their key practices.
In terms of methodology, the case study approach was used, with field work that
resulted in 863 questionnaire surveys on the demand side and 92 questionnaire
surveys on the supply side. The conclusions of the project revealed that food can
actually be an important factor as a primary attraction, as well as secondary; that
although the local agents are aware, the non-structure as a product, results in a
predominance of day visitors. This paper intends to explore the supply side
perception of food tourism and the customers profile, as well as the concern in
offering regional products and its involvement in strategic decisions related with food
tourism.
Keywords: Food Tourism, Gastronomy, Tourist Destination, Western Region, Supply
Perception.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

74

STRATEGIC FLEXIBILITY IN SERVICE SECTOR TECHNOLOGY


(PRODUCT) BASED INTEGRATION DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI
STAKEHOLDER STAR MODEL
GVR Sastry
Department of Management Studies, IIT-Delhi, India
shastrig@gmail.com
Recognizing the fact that Tourism, Banking & Insurance Sectors has great
employment generating potential hence, vital for the economic growth, integration
would emphasize on the need for comprehensive technologies and the systematic
processes of integrating Banking, Tourism & Insurance sectors (including Hospitality,
Travel & Aviation).
Keywords: Next Generation, Tourism, Banking, Insurance, Technology, Integration,
Service Sectors.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

75

SEGMENTING WINE FESTIVAL ATTENDEES BY LEVEL OF WINE


KNOWLEDGE TO ENHANCE FUTURE DESTINATION MARKETING
STRATEGIES
Harsha E. Chacko
David Pearlman
University of New Orleans, USA
hchacko@uno.edu
Special event tourism has become an increasingly important sector of the world wide
tourism industry and this research examines how attendees at a wine festival in New
Orleans, USA can be segmented so that more effective marketing strategies can be
developed. Data were collected by intercept surveys during the New Orleans Wine
and Food Experience (NOWFE), an annual wine and food festival, resulting in 487
usable responses. Respondents were segmented into three groups based on their
level of wine knowledge and data analysis showed that there were significant
differences between the groups in terms of demographics (gender, income,
residency); trip characteristics (primary purpose of visit, length of stay); and spending
behavior. The paper discusses how these differences in the segments can be used to
create better market positioning of the festival and to develop more effective
marketing communications. In addition, data were collected from a smaller
subsample using a wine involvement scale which was factor analyzed resulting in two
factors labeled expertise and enjoyment. Further analysis showed strong significant
correlations between high levels of wine knowledge and the expertise factor.
Keywords: Special event tourism; wine festivals; destination marketing

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

76

DESTINATION RE-POSITIONING: A CASE STUDY OF KOLI, FINLAND


Hesam Pakbeen
Aalto University, Finland
hesam.pakbeen@aalto.fi
Branding is increasingly considered to be a vital factor in the sustainable
development of different industries including tourism. Recently, destination branding
is increasingly receiving much attention (Morgan et al., 2012) and tourism
destinations are competing to attract more visitors by promising unique experiences.
Consequently, one of the major concerns of tourism destinations consists of setting a
strong brand position, which includes a unique, credible, sustainable and valued
perception of the place (Davis, 2002). Koli in eastern Finland is a tourism destination,
which benefits from strong cultural and natural values. While it has been the most
visited tourism destination in early 20th century, its position has been declined over
the past two decades. This paper is a preliminary attempt to develop Koli brand
through design-led service approach. The service process consists of three parts.
Firstly, we propose a concept for the perception of accessibility to Koli. Next concept
includes the improvement of social communication that results in changing the
perception of Koli by motivating non-visitors to experience the place. Finally, by
emphasizing the learning potentials of Koli, we suggest a model to extend the
educational network in Koli, which in turn leads to increasing the number of visitors.
Keywords: Destination branding, re-positioning, non-visitors perception, service
design process
Abstract References:
Davis, M., 2009. The fundamentals of branding. Lausanne: AVA Publishing SA.
Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., ed., 2012. Destination Branding. Oxford:
Taylor and Francis.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

77

GEOGRAPHY TEACHER CANDIDATES PERCEPTIONS OF


GEOTOURISM
Hilmi Demirkaya
Mustafa Sadi
Akdeniz University, Turkey
hdemirkaya@akdeniz.edu.tr / msagdic@yildiz.edu.tr
This study examines geography teacher candidates perceptions of geotourism.
Qualitative phenomenological method of study was used to understand the
geography teacher candidates perceptions of geotourism. Semi-structured
interviews were used to report the perceptions of participants about geotourism.
Interviews, were carried out with 140 volunteer geography teacher candidates at the
Marmara University Faculty of Education Department of Geography in stanbul in
2013-2014 academic year. At the evaluation stage, an inductive content analysis was
carried out. To analyze the data, techer candidates definitions are categorized and
the frequency of each category is determined.
Keywords: Geotourism, geography, teacher cadidates perceptions, qualitative
reearch, content analysis.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

78

DO CHANGE EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OUTCOME?


MODERATING ROLE OF MANAGERS DECISIVENESS AND
EMPLOYEES CO-ORDINATION
Homa Choubtarash Abardeh
Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey
h.choobtarash@gmail.com
This study tries to examine the employees behavioral reactions toward change and
subsequently its effects on turnover intention as a result of managers decisiveness
and employees co-ordination. This study will also undermine employees satisfaction
and performance in this process. This research will undertake five-star hotels in
turkey serves as a study setting. Data would be collected from 380 hotels frontline
employees. We proposed that change resulted in both positive and negative
performance outcome based on moderating role of managers decisiveness and coordination among hotels employees. Managers decisiveness and employees coordination can conclude in sustainability of hotel profitably and performance.
Keywords: Change, managers decisiveness, co-ordination, sustainability

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

79

MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL


HEALTH TOURISM
Hossein Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar
Negin Heidarzadeh
Saman Borhani Asl
Islamic Azad University,Iran
Islamic Azad University, Iran
University of Applied Science, Tabriz, Iran
h_budaghi@yahoo.com
The present study undertakes to evaluate marketing strategies influencing health
tourism in Iran. Globalization of health care issues necessitates precise management
in order to satisfy requirements of health tourism. Health tourism consists of
individuals or groups that travel for therapeutic purposes or climatic changes. It is a
type of tourism conducted in more than 24 hours and less than a year to maintain or
improve physical or mental health of an individual. Considering widespread and
increasing popularity of tourism industry, and Irans great potential for medical
treatments, new specialized medical health centers have been developed in the
recent years to promote national capacity to receive travelers from Azerbaijan, Iraq
and other countries. Profitability and revenues obtained by this industry makes
research a priority in this field. Population of the study includes Iraqi tourists that
enter the country form borders of West Azerbaijan Province to have medical
treatment in Iran. 280 samples were randomly selected and interviewed. An interview
of 10 open questions was designed for obtaining their reasons for travelling to Iran
and weaknesses and strengths of Irans medical services. Also, their suggestions for
improving these services were elicited. Results indicate that majority of them they
travel to Iran for low prices of treatments and have relative satisfaction of services.
However, they dont like restaurants since Iranian foods dont agree with their tastes.
They also stated no dissatisfaction about being delayed in the borders, and
complained about receiving no advertisement for treatment from Iranian counterpart.
Finally, the following suggestions are presented for developing marketing strategies
in this regard: changing social attitudes towards Iraq, which is in Irans neighborhood
and is close to its culture and traditions; establishing advertising infrastructure in
Iraqs cities to encourage people to pursue medical treatments in Iran; conducting
studies on food passions of people from Iraq and building restaurant with special
staff that are familiar with their culture and traditions; facilitating easy entry and exit
procedures in the customs.
Keywords: medical treatment, tourism, strategy, marketing

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

80

THE DETERMINING CHARACTERISTICS FOR INTEGRATION OF SURF


PRODUCT IN THE DESTINATION SUPPLY: THE CASE OF PENICHE
Humberto Perdigo
Joo Paulo Jorge
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
hmperdigao@gmail.com / jpjorge@ipleiria.pt
For some reason certain coastal regions call a greater number of visitors/surfers, than
others. There is local knowledge on several continents in which tourism rests
fundamentally on the sports/surf as product (California-USA, Bells Beach-Australia,
Hossegor-France). There are conditions or characteristics justifying the reason for
displacement, and that, it will be referred later on this document. In order to answer
these questions, it is assumed the aim of identifying the determinant aspects and
characteristics, whose contribution can mean the integration of the product in the
tourist offer on a surf destination like Peniche. Since we characterize the natural and
constructed features, surfing as a product and the demographics, more easily it can
be to accelerate the destination construction processes. The knowledge will suit
better infrastructure and complementary activities, correct asymmetries, improve
management performance and territorial cohesion. It could improve internal and
external communication, strengthen the global image of the destination and, optimise
the technical and human resources required with a view to a balanced socioeconomic development. The next step will lead to the empirical research and
therefore the questionnaires and interviews were prepared and distributed customspecifically to local surfers, companies/organizations and other resident entities. The
choice of interviewees had as main criteria, on the one hand, suitable and
experienced surfers, on the other, operators. With their opinions was possible to
characterize the features and surfing as an integral part of the tourist offer of the
emerging destination, Peniche.
Keywords: Surf, Resources, Integration, Sale, Destination Peniche.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

81

REWARDING AND REWARD MANAGEMENT IN HOTELS:


A RESEARCH ON THE FIVE STAR HOTELS IN ISTANBUL
Il Usta
Derman Kkaltan
Trakya University, Turkey
isilusta@gmail.com
Human Resources are important component of organizations. In a global world
where competition is being increase, effective and profitable employees provide to
achieve the goals of organizations. Therefore employees want to supply with needs
and expectations. Rewards provide them. Rewarding is one of the important means
which is used to provide the abilities of employees for organizations objectives.
Employees are considered as the main objectives of the reward systems to attract
the right people right on time, to retain them and to motivate. Role of the reward
management in organizations motivate employess and increase their dependence to
hold them for organizations. In this study, first of all the notions of hotel, rewarding
and reward management are presented. Then, in order to measure the effect of
rewarding on employees who work in the five star hotels of Istanbul, the findings
obtained by a questionnaire are displayed.
Keyword: Hotels, reward, rewarding, reward management

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

82

JOB BURNOUT IN TOURISM SECTOR (GUIDE PROFESSION)


Iveta Gruodyte
Rimnatas Mikalauskas,
Lithuanian Sport University, Lithuania
iveta.gruodyte@yahoo.com
Nowadays, the problem of professional burnout becomes more relevant because of
the faster lifestyle, poor working conditions or employers irresponsibility. Burnout is
defined as a symptom of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced
personal accomplishment at work due to work activity (Maslach, 1982). There are
many research related to professional burnout in different work areas, especially
those where there is a high communication between people. In tourism sector are no
research of professional burnout but it is relevant problem also because, for example
guides, have communicate a lot, from time to time they have to go abroad and leave
their family. In their job is different kind of tourism group, some individuals have a big
experience, they are visited a lot of countries and can reply to guide. Also, guides
have to know a lot about a history, art, architecture, geography. It were a qualitative
analysis, there were questioned three guides with at least 25 years of experience.
The questionnaire was adapted by Maslach and six more criterions were made.
Interview helped to find out if all criterions of professional burnout made by Maslach
are right and is it enough.
Keywords: job burnout, tourism, Lithuania

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

83

THE PERCEPTION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC ABROAD AND NEW


DESTINATION COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
Jana Valentova
University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic
jana.valentova@vse.cz
After the year 2000, the Czech institutions started to perform several researches of
perception of the Czech Republic abroad in the context with the Czech Republic
entering the EU. The results show that perception of the Czech Republic abroad has
not changed for the last 12 years. The respondents have associated the Czech
Republic with the following attributes: Prague, old monuments, old places, beer,
glass, Becher liqueur, communism, or political events such as: Prague Spring 1968,
the Velvet Revolution in 1989, splitting of the former Czechoslovakia in 1993. Owing
to the results mentioned above the NTO CzechTourism arrived at a decission to
make a rebranding of the destination brand Czech Republic and change a destination
communication strategy. The aim of the paper is to analyse the results mentioned
above and compare them with the results of authors own research made as a part of
her PhD theses and to propose the new communication strategy of the destination.
Keywords: perception, destination, Czech Republic, CzechTourism, communication

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

84

THE MODEL OF THE SUFFICIENCY ECONOMY PHILOSOPHY


APPLICATION FOR RESTAURANT BUSINESSES IN THE UPPER
NORTH OF THAILAND
Jennita Laegreid
Bung-on Chartrungruang
Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Thailand
jenny.laegreid@gmail.com / bung_onc@yahoo.com
This paper has presented the model of the sufficiency economy philosophy
application for restaurant businesses in the upper north of Thailand. The sample
involved in this study included 528 restaurant businesses, the sampling was quota
sampling and the random sampling method was used to collect the data. The
research instrument was the questionnaire for interview. Through the factor analysis
by using principal components extraction with Varimax rotation, 174 variables were
reduced into 35 variables with the high reliability coefficient value (0.99). The percent
of Varimax is 60.29% and the KMO is 0.92 with highest significance level (0.000). The
reliability coefficient values of each five Sufficiency Economy business processes
were 0.93 for Moderation Factor, 0.94 for Reasonableness Factor, 0.95 for SelfImmunity Factor, 0.94 for Knowledge Factor and 0.95 for Morality Factor. For the 35variable model of each key restaurant business factor, the factor loadings were high
in each factor (0.62 to 0.83). The findings will be of value to restaurant business
entrepreneurs in that they are able to apply or integrate the Sufficiency Economy
Philosophy into their business operations. Many recommendations are made to guide
current and prospective restaurant business entrepreneurs and researchers.
Keywords: sufficiency economy philosophy application, restaurant business

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

85

THE ROLE OF HOST COUNTRY IMAGE AND MEGA-EVENT`S


EXPERIENCE FOR REVISIT INTENTION: THE CASE OF POLAND
Joanna Kosmaczewska
Radosaw Czarnecki
University School of Physical Education in Poznan, Poland
University of Economy in Bydgoszcz, Poland
kosmaczewska@tir.awf.poznan.pl
Base on the survey date for EURO 2012 visitors in Poland (N=103), the following
hyphotheses are given: (H1): Host country image will positively influence the EURO
2012 visitors` revisit intention, (H2): Mega-event experience will positively influence
the EURO 2012 visitors` revisit intention to the host country, (H3): Host country
image has more positive impact on the EURO 2012 visitors` revisit intention than
mega-event experience. The results show that there is a significant and positive
relationship between host country image and EURO 2012 visitors` revisit intention
and there is not significant relationship between mega-event experience and EURO
2012 visitors` revisit intention. The results lead to conclusions that for traveling
mega-events fans, the attributes of association, which is organized the mega-event
may be more important than event`s experience and the host destination.
Keywords: revisit intention, mega-event, country image, EURO 2012

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

86

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING IN A HOTEL


CHAIN
Joo Costa
Maria Joo Gomes
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
miajogomes@gmail.com / joao.costa@ipleiria.pt
Nowadays, the constant emergence of new hotels and the growing competitiveness
in this area demonstrate increasingly, that the training of employees as the way
ahead for the success in this sector. This training is mainly provided as external
training, existing gaps and even a discrepancy in the training offer. In this sense, the
implementation of an internal training system, taking advantage of existing resources
in the organization, their potential and their knowledge on the spot is a clever solution
to follow. This was the challenge that we have set for ourselves during the traineeship
in Real hotels, implement a model of internal training, using internal resources. Under
this assumption, we create the initial procedures to set the system of internal training
for this hotel group, as well as all the necessary documentation for their formality and
evidence showing its practicability.
Keywords: Management and Hospitality, Human Resources Management, Training,
Human Capital, and Competitiveness.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

87

VALUING WILDLIFE VIEWING EXPERIENCES


John Holland
Massey University, New Zealand
J.D.Holland@massey.ac.nz
Africas protected areas managers increasingly have to consider the tastes,
experiences and expectations of visitors and how these can be incorporated into
policies that contribute towards the sustainable development of national parks. In this
study, we measure the satisfaction visitors derive from their encounters with wildlife
in Kruger National Park, Africa. We employ of digital tracking technologies to
generate detailed and extremely accurate travel data to improve our understanding of
tourists spatio-temporal behaviour and wayfinding decision-making when they visit
national parks is useful to park managers. Results from our study of consumer
demand or utility for fauna and geo-physical features can contribute towards an
understanding of who the customer is, what they want and what they are prepared to
pay for it. To determine what consumers pay for their sightings we use the currency
of time rather than money. Demand curves for various wildlife species are derived.
Keywords: tourist satisfaction, satellite tracking, park management

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

88

THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SUBCULTURES EVENTS AND THE


RELATION WITH LOCAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF
STEEL WARRIORS REBELLION BARROSELAS METALFEST IN
NORTHERN PORTUGAL
Jorge Cunha Coelho
Fernando Miguel da Silva Loureno Brzio
Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Portugal
jorgecoelho.x@gmail.com
Events are an essential tool for the tourism process and their contribution is not
limited to the increase in the number of visitors, thus generating income and
business, they also enable a complete drive of the tourism production chain, beside
helping to minimize the effects of seasonality, since they stimulate the flow of people
in times of the year when the demand is usually lower. To the success of the events it
becomes essential to achieve the compromise between public and private sectors,
and cultural events have lately proved a very dynamic tourism product. Following
this, festivals are a model of cultural organization, also providing an approach to the
policy of local authorities or to strategic patronage options of companies, enhancing
opportunities to promote prestigious images of institutions, groups and
professionals, as well as the places that host them. There isnt a common or a unique
characteristic among festivals, as each of them has its own peculiarities. This study
focuses precisely on a festival organized in the North of Portugal by the Heavy Metal
subculture, a niche market, assessing its economic impacts and its relationship with
local tourism development.
Keywords: events, festivals, economic impacts, development, subcultures.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

89

EVENTS TOURISM: ANALYSIS AND STATE OF ART


Jos Antonio Folgado
Jos Manuel Hernndez Mogolln
Paulo Alexandre Oliveira Duarte
Universidad de Extremadura, Spain
jafolgado@unex.es / jmherdez@unex.es / pduarte@ubi.pt
In recent decades, the effect of globalization in the tourism sector has provoked an
increasing competitiveness between destinations, which struggle to achieve their
optimal positioning. The events have become an essential part of the development of
the destinations, in order to attract visitors, encourage investment, improve its image
and drive the economy of the area in general. This research aims to deepen into the
knowledge of this phenomenon analyzing theories and concepts related to this topic
and carrying out a literature review. The conclusions of this work can extend the base
of knowledge about events, its segmentation and the differences with permanent
attractions of a destination or the influence that events exert over its image, being
useful for both researchers and managers of destinations.
Keywords: Tourism, Events, Competitiveness, Tourism Marketing, Destination
Image.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

90

INFLUENCE OF INTERNET AS INFORMATION SOURCE VS


TRADITIONAL MEDIA ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY
BRANDING
Jos Antonio Folgado Fernndez
Paulo Alexandre Oliveira Duarte
Jos Manuel Hernndez Mogolln
University of Extremadura, Spain
jafolgado@unex.es / pduarte@ubi.pt / jmherdez@unex.es
The importance of the Internet information sources in the formation process of image
is increasingly recognized in the literature. Researches on the influence of this
medium on the image, compared to traditional sources (such as television,
newspapers, brochures and tourist fairs) are still scarce. The study is contextualized
in the Spanish city of Plasencia adopting structural equation (SEM) as
methodological analysis, based on personal structured surveys to 471 tourists.
Results show a very weak contribution of the two types of information sources in the
determination of the destination image, as they account for only the 4% of its
variance. Nevertheless the traditional media's ability to predict the destination image
is greater than that of non-traditional media. These results reinforce the view that
communication may be important but not crucial for determining the destination
image. These results encourage tourism managers to find new items and settings for
each resource in order to optimize its use, to build a strong brand image and to
support the promotion of the city, in a highly competitive environment between
destinations.
Keywords: Destination image, Internet, traditional sources, PLS

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

91

THE ROLE OF COMMENTS FROM USERS IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN


THE PURCHASE OF HOTELS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE
SPANISH MARKET
Jos Manuel Hernndez-Mogolln
Angel Herrero-Crespo
Hctor San Martn-Gutirrez
University of Cantabria, Spain
jmherdez@unex.es / herreroa@unican.es / smartinh@unican.es
At present the application of ICT to the marketing of tourism products has been a
major change in hotel marketing. In particular, the use of these tools by the users is
having a strong effect in decision-making about the choice of tourist destinations and
hotels. This research deepens our knowledge of the use of electronic media by
tourists as one of the most powerful tools today to influence consumer behaviour. A
sample of 648 Spanish tourists was surveyed in order to analyse questions about the
comments of the users of social networks, webs of comments, reservation centres
and hotels, and to discover its possible influence, value, or credibility.
Keywords: Social networks, Websites, hospitality, hotel marketing, viral marketing

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

92

MEDITERRANEAN DESTINATIONS AND CONTEMPORARY URBAN


ATTRIBUTES: THE CASE OF THE METROPOLITAN AREA COSTA DEL
SOL
Jos Mara Romero Martnez
Yolanda Romero Padilla
Enrique Navarro Jurado
University of Granada, Spain
jmr2@ugr.es / yrp@uma.es / enavarro@uma.es
The present economy produces new spaces and territories with urban attributes
which in turn produce in their people new ways of living. Costa del Sol is one of the
ideal urban territories produced by capitalism, and its dominant ideology
neoliberalism. Hence his great vitality, even in broad global crisis. In addition, Costa
del Sol is a paradigmatic example of how a tourist theme park is being transformed
along twenty years at least-, in an urban area with more diverse and complex uses
than the original mass tourism. We have called intentionally this territory ZoMeCS
(spanish acronym of metropolitan area Costa del Sol). ZoMeCS is a place that
creates specific lifestyles of its territory. Their territorial nature and their internal and
external links make it a very modern and open urban socioecosistema linking tourism
and its consequences with the current life, extended far beyond its physical
environment. We present a reflection on the new urban attributes of ZoMeCS and its
potential as a laboratory for experimentation and research on the environment and
the contemporary population, and especially in the European Mediterranean context.
Keywords: contemporary urban attributes, overdevelopment, grouth machine,
ZoMeCS, tourist destinations.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

93

A MARKET SEGMENTATION ANALYSIS OF CRUISE PASSENGERS


VISITING THE PORTS OF MONTEVIDEO AND PUNTA DEL ESTE
(URUGUAY)
Juan Gabriel Brida
Free University of Bolzano, Italy
JuanGabriel.Brida@unibz.it
The aim of this study is to examine cruise passengers behaviour. Unique groups of
visitors are identified, considering their characteristics, preferences and overall
experience in two ports of call. Based on more than 3000 survey data collected from
passengers in the ports of call of Montevideo and Punta del Este, during the third
quarter of 2011 and the fourth quarter of 2012, a three-step multivariate market
segment analysis is employed. First, a correspondence analysis is run to reveal the
underlying factors in the data; second, based on the correspondence analysis, a
hierarchical cluster investigation is performed to segment the sample into
homogeneous groups; third, a decision tree is computed to characterize each group.
The cluster analysis identifies distinct market segments differentiated by nationality,
satisfaction, safety perception and expenditure. The findings imply several policy
directions. In particular, Institutions should enhance security in the destinations to
guarantee in land repeated visits; an ad hoc marketing policy may encourage revisit
by young South Americans; managers should extend the ashore visiting time that is
likely to produce local multiplier effects.
Keywords: cruise; customer segmentation; hierarchical cluster; classification and
regression tree; policy implications.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

94

ECONOMIC GAINS OVER TRADITIONAL VALUES:


TOURISM IMPACT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF HOST COMMUNITY
Khalizul Khalid
Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
khalizul@fpe.upsi.edu.my
One of the attractive features of tourism is the economic benefits that come with it.
Many past literatures have documented how tourism significantly plays roles in
contributing nations economic growth and bettering host community financial
circumstances through job creations. Recent preposition put forward was in regard
to measuring tourism impact by taking the host community perception into
consideration. It is argued that if the host communitys overall life satisfaction
indicates positive views in regards to tourism activities, then tourism policies and
programs should be formulated to influence communitys positive perception in
regard to their wellbeing. For this, the study examines tourism impact from the
perspective of host community in regards to economic, environmental and social
aspects. Based on a sample of 285 respondents from host community at Perhentian
Island in Terengganu Malaysia, it was found that the locals positively perceived
tourism activities from all three aspects. However, from observations and interviews
with several prominent individuals in the community, it was found that the locals have
strayed from several aspects of traditional values as a result of tourism activities.
Therefore, the paper highlights on the results of host community perceptions towards
tourism impact and discussed the issues of threats to traditional values.
Keyword: Tourism impact, host community perception and traditional values.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

95

A DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF MARINE EDUTOURISM INDUSTRIAL


ZONE TO IMPROVE THE COMMUNITY ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AT
KEPULAUAN (ISLANDS) SERIBU, DKI JAKARTA, INDONESIA
Khrisnamurti Khrisnamurti
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
nino.khrisnamurti@gmail.com
The research aims to develop a model of Marine Edutourism Iindustrial Zone (Zona
Industri Wisata Bahari/ZIWEB) at Kepulauan Seribu (Seribu Islands) which is located
in the north shore of Indonesia capital city, Jakarta. These zones integrated in the
system of mutual networks (locally integrated, globally connected). The method used
in this study is mixed method. There will be two methods that will be used in the first
year of the reasearch : survey to build a database and research and development (R
& D) to produce a model of Marine Edutourism Industrial Zone. The result in the first
year is the identification of 10 potential islands into a tourist destination of marine
education tourism which are divided into three zones: (1) South Zone, consists of
Onrust Island, Untung Jawa Island, Lancang Island, Tidung Island and Pari Island. (2)
Central Zone consists of Pramuka Island, Panggang Island, Semak Daun Island
Keramba Apung (3) North Zone, consists of Kelapa Island and Harapan Island. With
the development of the three zones, it is expected to enhance the growth and
expand the tourism industry in this area.It is also expected to create a multiplier
effect and improve the community economic resilience. In the first year, the research
focused on the development of the southern zone as the location of Marine
Edutourism Industrial Zone which are Onrust Island as an archaeological park,
Untung Jawa Island and Lancang Island as a model of the involvement of local
government in tourism through entrepreneurship, Pari Island as the potential island
for marine tourism and Tidung island as the center Marine Edutourism for the
development of mangrove plantation and coral reef transplantation. The model is
validate by experts by conducting limted tryouts, thereforethe model could be used
in the following studies for the development of zone 2 and zone 3.
Keywords: Industrial zones, marine educational tours, community economic
resilience

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

96

PROMOTING EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DESTINATION IMAGE


THROUGH TWITTER
Kostas Zafiropoulos
Konstantinos Antoniadis
Vasiliki Vrana
University of Macedonia, Greece
kz@uom.edu.gr / kon.h.anton@gmail.com /vrana.vasiliki@gmail.com
Microblogs, blogs, online communities and media sharing sites have been widely
adopted by travelers to search, organize, share and annotate their travel stories and
experiences and by Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) to promote
countrys image. Twitter is the most popular microblogging site with more than
554,750,000 active registered users and one of the top 10 most visited websites on
the Internet. Building relationships, convenience of networking, and expanding online
branding opportunities have been recorded as the perceived benefits of using
Twitter. The paper records Twitter accounts of 27 European countries accounts. It
also records indexes of Twitter performance and influence such as the number of
followers of each account, and indexes of followers community involvement. An
overall performance index is constructed. European countries are then ranked
according to the partial and the overall performance of their relative Twitter accounts.
Further, three indexes regarding actual Tourism performance for each country, are
also recorded: International Tourist Arrivals 2011, International Tourism Receipts, and
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011. Correlation coefficients between
Twitter performance indexes and tourism indexes are calculated. The correlations are
high and statistically significant, especially those between twitter performance and
International Tourism Receipts. Correlations between Twitter performance and
Tourism indexes reveals that Twitter use is in accordance with countries tourism
performance and that Twitter, as a medium of eBusiness and eGovernment, does not
fail to provide information and to promote countries Destination Image.
Keywords: Twitter, Destination Image, Performance

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

97

ELABORATION OF LITHUANIAN TOURIST SATISFACTION INDEX


MODEL
Lina Pilelien
Viktorija Grigalinait
Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
l.pileliene@evf.vdu.lt / viktorija.grigaliunaite@fc.vdu.lt
Customer satisfaction research is one of the most popular scopes in marketing
research. Generally, customer satisfaction is being determined by calculating
Customer Satisfaction Index which is based on a specific model. In the world there is
a variety of national and international models of customer satisfaction indexes. After
calculating the index, a level of customer satisfaction with a product, organization, or
a sector is determined. While calculating countrys customer satisfaction index,
country-specific factors affecting its customer satisfaction have to be determined.
Whereas tourism can be named as one of the most emerging areas of service sector
in Lithuania, the research aims to develop Lithuanian Tourist Satisfaction Index. While
developing the index, core variables (components of the index) will be determined
and their impact on tourist satisfaction measured. Lithuanian Tourist Satisfaction
Index is elaborated by following stages: 1. Manifest and latent variables (causes and
consequences of tourist satisfaction) are determined based on the analysis of
previous scientific researches; theoretical model of Tourist Satisfaction Index is
elaborated; 2. Theoretical model of Tourism Satisfaction Index is being verified
providing a questionnaire research with Lithuanian tourists who had visited foreign
countries; 3. The impact of models variables on tourist satisfaction with a specific
country is determined; separate Lithuanian Tourist Satisfaction Index with every
particular country is calculated; 4. After generalizing Tourist Satisfaction Indexes with
different countries, main variables having impact on Lithuanian tourist satisfaction are
determined; general Lithuanian Tourist Satisfaction Index Model is composed.
Keywords: customer satisfaction, Lithuanian tourist, satisfaction index, tourist
satisfaction.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

98

HIKING TRAILS EVALUATION IN THE NATURAL PARK OF SERRAS DE


AIRE AND CANDEEIROS
Lus Alberto Dias Carvalhinho
Paulo Filipe Rosa
Polytechnic Institute of Santarm, Portugal
lcarvalhinho@esdrm.ipsantarem.pt
Introduction: The practice of hiking in Portugal and in the world is one of the outdoor
activities and sport tourism that mobilizes more participants and also have more
potential in terms of healthy lifestyles adoption and local sustainability. For this to
become a reality, it is necessary to meet a set of requirements, supported by criteria
of quality, accessibility and social responsibility (Torbidoni, 2010). Thus, this study
intends to make a technical evaluation on the hiking trails of the Natural Park of
Serras de Aires and Candeeiros (NPSAC), in order to contribute to the development
and sustainability of this region. Methods: The sample consists of the totality (n = 16)
of the hiking trails identified in the Nature-based Sports Map of NPSAC. The
instrument used for data collection was the "Hiking Trails Technical Evaluation
Sheet, adapted from Carvalhinho and Rosa (2012) and validated for this purpose.
Results: The results indicated the typology of the main problems in each trail,
considering the following dimensions: i) Track = 26%, ii) Marking and Signposting =
45%; iii) Environmental conservation = 18%; iv) Trail security = 11%. On the other
hand, it was also possible to assess the severity index of the problems identified,
ranging from 2% (serious problems) and 85% (problems with simple solutions).
Conclusions: The results showed the actual conditions of the NPSAC hiking trails,
providing relevant information to the quality and maintenance of the same, for the
management agency, for the stakeholders and general visitors.
Keywords: Hiking trails, technical evaluation, sustainability.
References:
Carvalhinho, L., & Rosa, P. (2012). Avaliao de Espaos de Prtica Desportiva:
Contributo para a Reviso da Carta de Desporto de Natureza do PNSAC. Paper
presented at the 2 Congresso da Sociedade Cientfica de Pedagogia do Desporto,
Vila Real, Portugal.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

99

THE INFLUENCE SCUBA DIVING ON TOURISM DESTINATION


MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE COZUMEL ISLAND, MEXICO
Lus Cndido Soares Mota
Xos Santos Solla
University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
lsoaresmota@gmail.com
The actual demand for water-related activities has taken coastal communities to
develop structures, and operations for supporting tourism development. Cozumel
Island receives approximately 2.8 million tourists every year, and during a period of
two months was stage for profiling visitors taking part in scuba diving activities. The
study distinguishes two subpopulations of divers, according to their certification level
and training programs on demand. The assessment of divers has produced relevant
data for tourism management, from which 47.51% were interested in participating in
diving activities. The island lives from tourism activity and services, being a popular
port of call for international cruise ships. Declared as one of the most popular diving
grounds on the Mexican Riviera, more than 23 diving spots can be identified, and
receive an average number of 818 divers and snorkelers per day. Scuba diving has
strong influences on economic growth of the island, developing the local society, and
therefore the National Park Cozumel Reef (PNAC) is monitoring for environmental
impacts, setting the rules for any activity within the boundaries of the park.
Keywords: Tourism destination, scuba diving, marine protected areas, visitors,
sustainable development

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100

THE MARKETING AND THE COMMUNICATIONS IN HOSPITALITY:


CASE STUDY OF FAMILY HOTEL AND GROUP HOTEL
Paulo Almeida
Lus Pereira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt / uizitopereira10@hotmail.com
The marketing is very important to every kind of tourist companies and its a tool to
support management and help defining strategies for their development, with the
main objective of enhancing financial results. So, the thought of marketing and
communication strategy designed and structured so lets put the company in a better
position to achieve market share that allows getting the product or service to
customers and the market. Marketing and communication should define a set of
actions of internal and external communication that can be put in place that allow
you to transmit messages in order to get to know the company, their products and
services in order to cause costumers desire acquisition. To understand how it
marketing and communication can play vital role in hotel units, tried to collect a range
of information on the topics of tourism, hospitality, hotel management, marketing and
communication, these issues we admit be crucial for our research work. To achieve
the goals, was fundamental research theme books, consultation of published articles,
reading theses already made on these issues, conducting interviews with the
direction of family management hotel unit to collect information about how is the
management hotel and a visit to the both types of hotel that were targeted by our
research. After the collection and processing of all information and content that
would meet the goals of our investigation, it was revealed that marketing and
communication is a vehicle of great importance to the management of the hotels.
Keywords: tourism, hospitality, hotel management, marketing, communication,
external communication.

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

101

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF VALLEY ALVA: ALVALAND


Manuel Antnio Brites Salgado
Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, Portugal
manuelsalgado@ipg.pt
The river Alva develops in the southwest slope of the Serra da Estrela Natural Park,
extends from the village of Sabugueiro in Seia county to the county of Penacova,
where flows into the river Mondego. It has a length of approximately 75 kilometers.
The entire length of the valley Alva has a natural beauty prized by visitors, starting in
the assessment of clear and fresh water of Alva, from fertile terraces that surround
the river, and projecting the view of those who see the skyline in admiration of the set
of mountains that flank this majestic valley. Is your enormous tourism potential that
leads us to equate the sustainability of this area of low density, which has its "heart"
in the region of Beira Serra. Thus, we recognize two tourism products enhancers
development strategies at regional level: nature tourism and cultural tourism. A
thorough inventory of local resources with a view to understanding the tourist
potential becomes an essential step towards the definition of tourism products,
which can determine the vocation and the tourist image of this region, which we
called as Alvaland. These anchor products can be a lever to tourist policies and
sectorial strategies, especially projecting this regional dynamic by the coordination of
the efforts of the several municipalities involved. Thus, the aim is also to reflect on the
relative merits of this project in the context of the Centre, in order to achieve the
desired joint, particularly with projects like the Schist Villages and Historical Villages
of Portugal.
Keywords: Sustainability, Tourism Products, Tourism Development, Tourism Village.

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102

MILITARY HERITAGE AS A TOURISM PRODUCT IN LATVIA


Mara Zeltina
Ilze Grospina
Liepaja University, Latvia
mara.zeltina@liepu.lv
Latvia has a rich military heritage from the two World Wars in the 20th century fortifications, defence batteries, fortresses, guard facilities, missile bases, airfields
etc. Furthermore, interesting testimonies from the Soviet occupation period can be
found. Liepaja, a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic sea, was the western
border of the former USSR. Here, even military buildings from the 19th century, when
Liepaja became a military port of the Russian Empire, are preserved. There are
several successful examples of realizing the potential of military tourism objects in
Latvia. The most prominent ones include Radio telescope at Irbene, Bunker in
Lgatne and the Karosta prison the only military prison hotel in Europe. However,
the opportunity to sustainably utilize the military heritage for creation of competitive
tourism products is often missed. In this study, the terms military heritage and
military tourism are examined. The results obtained within the scope of the Baltic
Green Belt project (EU Baltic Sea Region Transnational Cooperation Programme,
published by LCTA Lauku ceotjs, 2011) on the assessment of the Latvian military
heritage are analyzed. The evaluation criteria developed by the project (safety,
accessibility, uniqueness, historical value, landscape value, information availability
etc.) have been complemented with indicators of sustainable development and used
for a detailed assessment of 13 military objects in the target territory Liepaja. Based
on the obtained results, proposals for the accomplishment and sustainable
management of the Liepaja military heritage as an unitary tourism product have been
developed.
Keywords: Military heritage, sustainable management, military heritage tourism
product

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103

THE TOURIST GUIDE AND THE IMAGE OF TOURISM DESTINATION


Maria Abril i Sellars
University of Barcelona, Spain
maria.abril@uab.cat
The museum guide is a variant of the overall figure of tour guide. These last years,
the tourist guide has tried to become a specialist and interpreter of the Heritage, the
rules of the sector and the ways to conduct a visit have also changed. To improve
their profession it could be necessary to change the image people have about them.
We must know that one of the images of tourist destination is the figure of the tourist
guide and its approach to visitors. When in the museum world people discuss about
managers, usually a lot of them think of administration, curators, restorer, Exhibition
Commissioner But usually they forget or relegate to the museum background the
tourist guide, or more accurately, the museum guide. The museum guide tries to
bring the visitor the necessary tools and resources for the correct interpretation of the
Heritage, giving them more elements to discuss, understand and improve. But, how
has this profession changed over time? Are guides limited to being merely a guide or
have they changed their speech and deepened their interpretations?
Keywords: Guide. Interpretation. Image

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

104

CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HOTEL FIRMS


Maria de Lurdes Santana Calisto
Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril, Portugal
Lurdes.Calisto@eshte.pt
The entrepreneurial behavior of firms is usually studied in high-tech environments
because innovation is considered essential for high velocity environments. Research
in service industries, namely low-tech, is less common. In this study, we explore how
innovation is relevant for hotel firms, and describe the main differences between high
entrepreneurial and low entrepreneurial hotels. Results from a survey to 15 hotels
suggest the relevance of internal organizational conditions for the intrapreneurial
behavior of employees. In the case of hospitality hotel firms, extra-role intrapreneurial
behavior is a relevant source of innovation because of employee-client interactions.
Our study also suggests relevant future streams for empirical research concerning
corporate entrepreneurship in hotel firms.
Keywords: Corporate entrepreneurship, hotel intrapreneurial behavior

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

105

MYTHS BEHIND THE IMAGE OF THE HOLIDAY DESTINATIONS


Mara del Carmen Azpelicueta
Josep Ramon Cardona
Antoni Serra Cantallops
University of the Islands Balearic, Spain
m.azpelicueta@uib.eu
The tourist promotion of the top rated holiday destinations and its international image
elements show similarities: predominance of island destinations, warm or tropical
climates, hospital treatment, references to light or white colour. The similarities occur
even to destinations distant and different in its geography, society, culture and
climate. In this work arises if there exists some cultural element that evokes these
similarities. This element must have ancient and universal roots to allow similarities in
different destinations and with culturally diverse issuing markets. We propose the
"Lost Paradise" as a possible cultural element of evocation in the promotion of the
holiday destinations. The desire to return to a paradise from which we were expelled
in the beginnings of humanity is an element present in the mythologies of civilizations
from different continents. The common elements of this myth in different cultures
coincide with the common elements in the promotion of many holiday destinations:
isolated ground (often an island), spring-like climate (neither hot nor cold), land of
plenty (Paradise or garden primeval), the white color (clothing, houses, etc.), the
presence of the good savage (hospital residents), etc. Therefore, many vacation
destinations offer a 'Paradise Island inhabited by the Good savage" and sell the
temporary return to the Lost Paradise.
Keywords: Island, Lost Paradise, Myth, Good Savage, Return.

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106

GENERAL COMPONENTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF RESIDENTS'


ATTITUDES: THE CASE OF IBIZA
Mara del Carmen Azpelicueta
Josep Ramon Cardona
Antoni Serra Cantallops
University of the Islands Balearic, Spain
m.azpelicueta@uib.eu
In many studies on behavior of residents discussed the determinants of current
attitudes, dividing them into economic, social and environmental, although the
factors and the resulting behaviors vary from one case to another and these
differences not due only to raised causal model. It is of interest to situate the analysis
in a more general context to help you understand the results of traditional causal
studies. In this generic context, you can consider that the culture, society and
traditional economy determine attitudes and the tourist development in its inception,
affecting the future of the tourist destination. Subsequently, the interaction between
the development of tourism and residents overlaps with traditional society,
determining the tourist image, residents' attitudes, the supply and demand.
Therefore, we would have a global model where traditional society, the development
of tourism and residents' attitudes interact and evolve with time; and, that we must
distinguish between initial components such as tourism development, determined by
traditional society attitudes and characteristics of tourism in that moment, and,
consequential components, where attitudes depend on its historical evolution and
the tourist progress. The objective of this work is to apply this global vision to the
case of Ibiza, to exemplify their contributions to the analysis of tourist destinations.
Keywords: Traditional
Evolution, Ibiza.

Society,

Residents'

Attitudes,

Tourism

Development,

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107

MYTHICAL REFERENCES IN THE TOURIST IMAGE:


THE CASE OF IBIZA
Mara del Carmen Azpelicueta
Josep Ramon Cardona
Antoni Serra Cantallops
University of the Islands Balearic, Spain
m.azpelicueta@uib.eu
In the image of many holiday destinations appear elements evoking the mythology of
the Lost Paradise. The desire to return to the paradise from which we were
expelled in the beginnings of humanity is an element present in many mythologies
around the world. The main elements of this myth coincide with the promotional
elements of many holiday destinations (isolated region, good climate, land of plenty,
white color, the good savage, etc.) and many destinations sold the temporary return
to a Lost Paradise inhabited by the Noble Savage. Image and tourist promotion in
Ibiza shows a great similarity with this myth in many of its elements. The objective of
this paper is to show the elements of the image of Ibiza that refer to the myth and
how the island was adapted in some elements that did not fit with the myth, where
traditional society idealized so that it fit and use the myth as a promotional image.
Ibiza is a good example of how to market a tourist destination as "Lost Paradise" and
the more directly competing destinations, such as Mykonos, are characterized by a
similar degree of adjustment of its image to this myth.
Keywords: Ibiza, Lost Paradise, Myth, Image, Promotion

VI INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONGRESS - ITC13

108

CRM: ANALYSIS AND REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION FOR THE HOTEL


SECTOR
Mara del Carmen Azpelicueta
Augusto Daz-Ordoez Gonzlez
Josep Ramon Cardona
Antoni Serra Cantallops
University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
m.azpelicueta@uib.eu
The existence of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) capabilities in the hotel
industry has been traditionally viewed as a huge and expensive effort that only big
chain hotels are able to afford. On the other hand new technological advances are
allowing streamlining operations by supporting a New Software Delivery Model
(NSDM) in which the associated data are centrally hosted on the Cloud and
Outsourcing Services can be offered as an alternative to traditional On the Premises
hardware and software house-work and activities. But, before any data can be
delivered and implemented by the Application Service Provider (ASP) as Software as
a Service (SaaS) in the context of the small and medium hotel businesses industry, it
is necessary to design and establish a Technical Framework (TF) that will allow those
Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) to access their clients information in such a
fashion that will support the rest of their CRM strategy. In order to establish this
technical framework the following research paper analysis and collects the last
marketing trends, opinions of experts in companies and organizations of the tourism
and accommodation sector in Spain, and the last alternative technological advances
existing in the market and put them to work together to design a CRM tool that will
allow its practitioners to integrate all relevant and necessary knowledge from
customers and their behavior and to start delivering focused, collective and individual
value to them.
Keywords: CRM requirements and Technical Framework, Hotel Industry, SMEs,
Cloud Computing, SaaS, Outsourcing

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109

MARKETING: MORE THAN A CONCEPT FOR THE BALEARIC ISLANDS


Mara del Carmen Azpelicueta
Josep Ramon Cardona
Antoni Serra Cantallops
University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
m.azpelicueta@uib.eu
This work aims to offer a view on the existence of the meaning that certain terms and
concepts contribute to a territory, and, specifically we will focus on the level of the
cornerstone of the economy in the Balearic Islands, its tourism. Through this Prism,
one has resorted to studies, scientific journals and specific articles in the matter, as
well as other reference points, bearing in mind the abundant proliferation of material
existing on this subject-matter, even though it has been scarce, repetitive and very
compartmentalized, when we adhere to the case of the Balearic tourism sector.
Concluding, it is difficult to imagine the Balearic Islands without tourism, although the
most immediate perspective is that it stops being one of the tourist destinations
excellently, the time will give to us or will take the reason from us, but it is clear that
for a motive or another, the luck has always been on our side and we have always
gone out winning battles that we have freed, but a while ago for some little for
others unnoticed and that we are in a network, which gets tangled and drags, this
time, the episode is told by other words
Keywords: the Balearic Islands, future, image, marketing, tourism

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110

FROM MINHO TO ALGARVE: PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH A NETWORK


OF LITERARY TOURISM FOR COASTAL ZONE
Maria Mota Almeida
Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril, Portugal
mariamotal@gmail.com
This article proposes the creation of a network of literary tourism in the coastal zone.
This proposal is justified, on our point of view, by the existence of abundant literature
about the Portuguese coast. Furthermore, we believe that the collaborative /
participatory network enriches the possibility of sharing, allowing different
perspectives and approaches, by better understanding the community's local reality
as well as the ease to implement actions aimed to their viability. Now, if we are
working over a wider territory, we think that 'literary pilgrims', when walking along the
coast, will get a broader view of our country, extending their stay by helping to
reduce seasonality, contributing to the sustainability.
Keywords: Literary
sustainability.

tourism,

cultural

tourism,

cultural

identity,

networking,

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111

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND IMAGE: AN ESSAY ABOUT THE


IMPACTS OF MASCULINITY AND INDIVIDUALISM ON THE
INTERPRETATION OF TOURIST DESTINATIONS SUSTAINABILITY
Anderson Gomes de Souza
Salomo Alencar de Farias
Marisa P. de Brito
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
NHTV University of Applied Sciences
son_ander@hotmail.com / saf@ufpe.br / brito.m@nhtv.nl
The phenomenon of sustainability has been discussed systematically within academy
since the early 1970s. However, even though some debates have already expanded
significantly the approaching possibilities on the subject, there still seems to be a
lack of discussion on its relationship with the cultural characteristics of different
societies. Hence, the purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the fact that the
image of tourist destinations sustainability can vary across different group of nations
whose social values show opposite levels with regard to cultural aspects such as
masculinity and individualism proposed by Hofstede (1980). As suggested by the
literature, both image and sustainability constructs are directly associated with
cultural values (Milbrath, 1984; Mooij, 2010). In this sense, the time is ripe for indepth discussions regarding the possible relationships among those constructs.
Therefore, through a theoretical review approach this paper intends to build up
reliable basis for gathering new insights that lead future studies to investigate the
influences of some of the main cultural dimensions on the interpretation of tourist
destinations sustainability.
Keywords: Sustainability; Destination Image; National Culture; Dimensions.
References
Hofstede, G. (1980) Cultures consequences: international differences in work related
values. Bevery Hills: SAGE Publications.
Milbrath, L. (1984) A proposed value structure for a sustainable society. The
Environmentalist, 4, 113-124.
Mooij, M. (2010) Global marketing and advertising: understanding cultural paradoxes.
3.ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

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112

THE INFLUENCE OF BRAND SOCIAL IMAGE ON-LINE POSITIONING: A


STUDY OF EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATION IN THE BALEARIC
PREMIUM HOTELS
Miguel Trias Vilar
Maria Antonia Garcia Sastre
Margalida Alemany Hormaeche
Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
miguel.trias@uib.es / garcia.sastre@uib.es / marga.alemany@uib.es
Social corporate responsibility (CSR) is becoming an increasingly significant
component for many organizations in their strategic planning. Research has shown
that their customers tend to be attracted by socially responsible behaviour. However,
there has been little testing of the proposition in the hospitality industry. When other
important variables that influence brand loyalty are considered, will brand social
responsibility image (BSRI) play a significant role in the on-line communication
strategy? This study investigates contents of existing communication and analyses
how these companies communicate their social responsible positioning either
through their own website or intermediaries. The purpose of the paper it to explore
some working methods that managers in the hotel industry should employ when
driving a course of action to enable employees to live and perform coherently the
corporate and sustainable brand values through their working practices. It is also to
enable their efficient transmission to their customers and indirectly promote them to
society and the tourism destination specifically, both in Spain and abroad.
Keywords: Brand social image on-line positioning

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113

EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE STRATEGIC DECISIONS ON


SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN SMALL HOTELS
Murilo de Alencar Souza Oliveira
Adriana Marques Rossetto
Univali, Brazil
murilodealencar@bol.com.br / amarquesrossetto@gmail.com
This study deals with the strategic decision in sustainability of managers hoteliers
Brazilians. The objective was to identify the main external factors that influence the
decision to implement environmental practices and certification toward the
achievement of competitive advantages. The study was qualitative (exploratory
research and field), with the use of direct observation and semi-structured interviews
with managers of 15 small hotels with sustainable practices located on three tourist
destinations: Armao dos Bzios (in Rio de Janeiro), Chapada Diamantina (in Bahia)
and Regio das Hortnsias (in Rio Grande do Sul). The results indicate that the main
external forces that influenced the managers in decision making on sustainability
were: the programs and public policies; pressures for competitiveness; and
marketable differentiation. These forces helped in the definition of the strategic
actions of protection and boost the exploitation of environmental opportunities. The
managers had better conditions of choice of strategies for business continuity: obtain
sustainable competitive advantages, profitability and environmental improvements.
Keywords: Strategic decision in sustainability, sustainable practices, lodging,
competitive advantages

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114

INTEGRATED MODEL OF SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS


FOR SMALL ACCOMMODATIONS (MISCMH) IN BRAZIL
Murilo de Alencar Souza Oliveira
Adriana Marques Rossetto
Univali, Brazil
murilodealencar@bol.com.br / amarquesrossetto@gmail.com
This article proposed an Integrated Model of Sustainability and Competitiveness for
Small Accommodations (MISCMH), developed from the analysis of the strategic
decision in sustainability in search of competitive advantages. The study was
qualitative (exploratory research and field), with the use of direct observation and
semi-structured interviews with managers hoteliers Brazilians. The research identified
61 accommodation establishments who received some recognition in sustainability
(seal/certification), being 6 certified by the Brazilian Standard Recorded - NBR
15401:2006 (Lodging - System of Management of Sustainability), until
September/2012. The sample of research was established by 6 certificates and nine
others located on three tourist destinations: Armao dos Bzios/RJ, Chapada
Diamantina/BA and Regio das Hortnsias/RS. The results indicate that the main
external factors of adherence to sustainability: pressures for competitiveness in
tourist destinations and search for differentiation of the market. The managers have
identified the organizational resources that most favored the decision in
sustainability, through the resource-based view (RBV): location and building
structures (physical); awareness of the owners and employee involvement (human)
and construction of relationships and partnerships (organizational architecture).
Positive impacts were identified in economic, environmental and social performance
enterprises and under conditions of preservation and attractiveness of tourist
destinations. It is concluded that the strategic decision in sustainability represents
competitive advantage with respect to the economies of natural resources, the
dissemination of the mark and the professionalization of management. It is suggested
that greater incorporation of sustainability in the hospitality industry, in government
policies and programs for certification and labelling for the Brazilian tourism.
Keywords: Strategic Decision in sustainability, certification in sustainability, lodging,
General Model of Integrated Sustainability and Competitiveness for Accommodation
Establishments (MISCMH)

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115

MODERN POSSIBILITIES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM


DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN NATURE PROTECTED AREAS WITH THE
EXAMPLE OF LAKE BAIKAL REGION
Anastasiia Myadzelets
Natalia Luzhkova
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Russia
gbt.international@gmail.com
Recent changes of the state ecological, economical, and land policy have resulted in
a new vector for protected areas (further PA) development on federal, regional and
local levels. Under new conditions the emphasis is paid on tourism availability
affecting original conservation goals of total nature preservation. The strategic
recreational vision for federal PAs was worked out in the form of educational
ecological tourism. Eight federal PAs of Lake Baikal Region have been partly or
entirely included in governmental programs for tourism development as the Lake and
its watershed are a perspective national tourism destination. Baikalsky Nature
Reserve and "Zapovednoe Podlemorie (a new management unit for Zabaikalsky
National Park, Bargusinsky Nature Reserve) are the case study areas. Due to
absence of strategic vision and necessary infrastructure in each establishment the
research aim is the analysis of existing development issues resulting in solutions with
the use of foreign experience. Other serious challenges as visitation fees, lack of law
regulations, service renderings are been revised. For three years specialists from the
US Forest Service and the V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography have been invited for
experience exchanges and consultations as well as joint field research. One of
decision is hiking tourism development and corresponding infrastructure
constructions such as visit-centers, trails, equipped campsites, installation of
information and regulation signs. This approach both solves tasks of ecotourism
development in the PAs in accordance with the present-day legislation and economic
conditions of Russian national parks and nature reserves, and allows preserving
unique species, ecosystems, and landscapes.
Keywords: protected areas, national park, nature preserve, educational tourism

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116

HERITAGE HIT SERIES AND THE TOURIST REINTERPRETATION


OF BRITISH STATELY HOMES
Norma Ferreira
Valdemar Martins
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
norma.ferreira@ipleiria.pt / vmartins@ipleiria.pt
On October 12th 1981, Brideshead Revisited premiered on ITV channel, starting a
new trend in tourism. Based on Evelyn Waughs Brideshead Revisited, The Sacred &
Profane Memories of Captain Charles Ryder (1945), the serial used Castle Howard as
the setting for the plot. Given its huge success, Castle Howard became a tourist
attraction, namely for film location tourists. These tourists started visiting stately
homes in Britain and reinterpreting the past influenced by heritage films, creating
flows that only recently have started to be considered as significant for the tourism
industry. Many other heritage serials have been broadcast since then, being the
1990s a decade of great successful productions only matched by the recent and
popular Downton Abbey (2010- ) which has promoted heritage travel in England
thanks to the way it showcases the estates, gardens and history that inspired this
gorgeously shot British period drama. This paper will address the way in which
Castle Howard and Highclere Castle alter-egos of Brideshead and Downton,
respectively - became world famous thanks to their roles in the serials, considered by
us as characters, as well as by their magnificent architecture, since they are two of
the grandest private residences in Britain. Furthermore, we will underline the increase
of the number of visitors to these stately homes shortly after the series aired.
Keywords: Brideshead Revisited; Downton Abbey; heritage serials; film location
tourism.

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117

THE 'DIGITAL' FUTURE OF OPERATION AND AGENCY OF TOURISM


Nuno Alexandre Abranja
ISCE - Higher Institute of Educational Sciences, Portugal
nunoabranja@gmail.com
The future of traditional tourism intermediaries is based on a strong competition not
just for a survival matter but also leadership, dominated by virtual organizational
models with great resilience, of change and innovative interactive systems anchored
in the endogenous potential of the people, territories and in the entities claiming the
legitimate differences and attract visitors in a sustainable way. The huge amount of
information to be organized, managed, distributed and communicated and the great
influence that the internet has caused in terms of profound change in business
concepts, in organizational methods and especially in the management of travel
agencies and tour operators offer, implicates the study of the articulation between
these companies and the online way. This work aims to obtain and evaluate the
opinions of travel agencies directors on the level of IT use in business and their
concerns about the future of the sector. This paper is structured by a theoretical
frame composed of allusive approaches to the functioning of the traditional tourism
intermediaries (tour operators and travel agencies) and an empirical component
which describes the methodology that involved the application of an interview to a
seven tourism intermediation companies directors, analysis and interpretation of data
and our conclusions.
Keywords: Tourism, Travel Agencies, Tour Operator, Internet.

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118

STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF TOURISTS IN RELATION TO THE


ATTRACTIVENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ELECTRONIC AND
PRINTED CHANNELS IN THE PROMOTION OF TOURIST
DESTINATIONS
Nuno Fernandes
Jlia Fonseca
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
ngrfernandes@gmail.com / julia.fonseca@ipleiria.pt
The tourism promotion channels assume to be increasingly decisive in the choice of
tourist destinations. In this context, the Model of Attractiveness and Effectiveness of
the Promotion Channels (MAECAP) seek to identify benefits associated with the
promotion through the electronic channels (e.g., internet, social networks) as
opposed to promotion based on traditional printed channels (e.g., brochure or
promotional brochure). The main study hypotheses are confirmed, namely: the
attractiveness of the electronic channel appears to be positively associated with
perceived effectiveness of this channel; the attractiveness of the electronic channel
appears to be negatively associated with perceived effectiveness of the printed
channel and besides this, the attractiveness of the printed channel as a tourism
promotion channel tends to associate positively with the perceived effectiveness of
this channel.
Keywords: Tourism promotion, channel attractiveness, channel effectiveness.

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119

SURF TOURISM: A CRITICAL INVESTIGATION INTO SURFING


SUBCULTURE AND LIFESTYLE
Patrcia Reis
Joo Paulo Jorge
Ana Sofia Viana
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
patricia.reis@ipleiria.pt / jpjorge@ipleiria.pt / sviana@ipleiria.pt
The fascination with the surf exceeds the limit of its practitioners, also hitting a layer
of stakeholders who consume a variety of sport related products, especially clothing,
further increasing the potential market. I.e., surfing is not only a sport that involves
practitioners and enthusiasts, but also gives rise to a promising business. Also,
surfing is a sport steeped in spirituality and energy that seems to transcend mere
sport and for many a true philosophy of life. In addition to the obvious economic
boost that tourism can bring to a region, Surf tourism, because it is not a mass
tourism, also contributes to the preservation of the region's natural resources and for
the identity of their people because "the surf is a excellent way for visitors to contact
with local people and absorb their cultures" (Greg, 2008). From the considerations
above, it seems appropriate to accept the invitation of Pociello (1983) when he
suggests that sport, in case the surf is studied as an integral part of the practices that
constitute the lifestyles element systems. From that perspective, we find the central
idea of our search intent - to recognize surfing as a sport but also as a cultural
phenomenon widespread globally that brings a universe of meanings.
Keywords: surf tourism, surf lifestyle, subculture

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120

SUSTAINABILITY OF CULTURAL TOURISM: THE SILLE SAMPLE


Ozlem Tekin
Abdurrahman Dinc
Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey
ozlemtekn.10@hotmail.com / a.dinc@konya.edu.tr
In the last two decades sustainability has emerged as a force in the tourism industry,
offering new directions and values for public policy, and inducing the creation of the
concept of sustainable tourism. In order to determine the influence in the process of
creating the concept of sustainable culture tourism, the appearance, presence and
meaning of the concept were studied in the context. This form consists of four
sections which structure the information contained in the document in accordance
with the objective of the study: 1) Initiative, 2) Treatment of The Term Sustainable
Tourism, 3) The Term of Cultural Tourism, 4) Information about Sille, 5) Strategies for
Developing Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Sille. The Initiative section contains the
general features of the document. The other four sections are concerned with the
details of how the concept of sustainable cultural tourism is incorporated. The
section Treatment of the term sustainable tourism analyzes the importance of
sustainable tourism. The strategies for developing sustainable cultural tourism in
Sille section centers on how the document can be applied, affirming whether there
is strategic orientation and/or specific instruments or actions in this sense. The
concept of sustainable tourism development involves balanced economic, social and
cultural development without endangering the environment, which enables the
development of the same or higher level. There is little doubt that cultural tourism
has made a major contribution to the expansion of tourism demand and supply in
recent decades, and this contribution is likely to grow still further in future.
Keywords: Tourism, Sustainable Tourism, Culture Tourism, Sille, Konya

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121

RAISING AWARENESS ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE FORMATION OF


THE DESTINATION IMAGE
Paula Rama da Silva
Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril, Portugal
Paula.Silva@eshte.pt
In ancient times, travel was motivated by the desire for exploration, discovery, and
enrichment. If in the 21st century some of these stimuli are still real, the factors that
influence them have definitely changed and the way in which the destination image is
perceived is one of them. Modern societys ability to travel (alongside numerous
other factors) has made travel and tourism the number one industry of many
countries and one where the image of the destination is essential. Tourism is,
therefore, an industry in expansion both in Portugal and abroad and one where the
understanding of the process of image formation will help the public institutions to
decide on how to most adequately promote their destinations. This paper reflects on
the different factors that influence the formation of the destination image according
to a study by Baloglu, McLeary, Gartener, Young (1999) and how personal factors
and the media occupy a very relevant place in helping the choice of tourists. It will
also defend the case that the influence of the destination image occurs before and
after experiencing the destination (Chen and Tsai 2007) by showing the relevance of
personal factors such as word of mouth or final satisfaction as far as the choice of
destination is concerned.
Keywords: Destination image; promotion; information sources; personal factors

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122

EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM RESEARCH:


A PROPOSAL TO BRING BACK THE CREATIVE PROCESS AND
CONCERNS WITH NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT BACK INTO THE
AREA OF TOURISM RESEARCH
Paulo Loureno
Jlio Coelho
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
paulo.lourenco@ipleiria.pt / jcoelho@ipleiria.pt
In terms of the Education system, Tourism deserves lots of attention under a
professional training perspective, understandably; the areas of Hospitality, Food
and Catering, Attractions, Events, etc., all call out their needs for well trained
professionals, and for business and marketing-savvy entrepreneurs. This idea agrees
with current education and teaching ideologies, that promote autonomous studying
and project building as mandatory skills for a higher degree student. But higher
education means research, not just training. And the question is that more than a
scientific research area in itself, tourism is seen as an area of application of
knowledge generated under some other umbrella. Technological research, for
instance, continually impacts tourism through university sponsored projects, the
origins of which is the Computer Science department not the Tourism and
Hospitality Department. Meanwhile, Tourism research has followed by and large the
Social Sciences paradigm, applying social research methodologies with a strong
emphasis on constructed indicators, supported by qualitative and quantitative
surveys, bringing some light on supply or demand characteristics, assuming a
specific point of view (economics, sociology, anthropology, public policy, etc.). This
article tries to propose ideas for new directions in Tourism research. We have tried to
investigate the possibilities for experimental product development, for laboratory use.
We believe that a tourism research group should go out of its comfort zone and try
out experimental development. Partnerships should be set so that such laboratories
could welcome knowledge from other areas, all under the umbrella of tourism, and
work on the generation of new concepts, new products, bringing innovation to
tourism research through methods and techniques already used in other scientific
areas.
Keywords:tourism, tourism research, experimental development, tourism education,
research group

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123

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN


NORTHEAST
Paulo Nicholas Mesquita Lobo
Federal University of Cear, Brazil
nicholasmesquita@gmail.com
This article aims to present and analyze how the tourism has been developed over
time on the coast of Brazils Northeast, what were your influences and
characteristics, and how they determined the form of development adopted. Thus,
attempts demonstrate how this form of development eventually cause conflicts with
the local population. Present the position of public policies during this process and
how tourism caused impacts in the localities in which they are installed are other
objectives of this article. The research focused on coastal tourism due to the
hegemony of the coast as a tourist destination in the Northeast, also analyzing the
traditional communities that inhabit the northeastern coast of Brazil.
Keywords: Tourism, Brazils Northeast, local communities, public policy.

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124

THE CLUSTER APPROACH FOR DESTINATION COMPETITIVENESS:


EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVENESS OF ANTALYA TOURISM
CLUSTER
Nedim Yzbasioglu
Volkan Otamis
Pelin Arsezen Otamis
Pnar elik
Ece Omuris
Ali Altiner
Akdeniz University, Turkey
nedimy@akdeniz.edu.tr / parsezen@gmail.com / votamis@gmail.com
As known the clusters and networks are very important for sustainability and
competitiveness. There is not still enough studies about role of clusters and networks
in the tourism destinations that want to gain competitive advantage and maintain
their advantage on a gobal scale. The aim of this paper which aiming to fulfil the this
lacking in the literature is examine the competitiveness of Antalya Tourism Cluster on
global scale according to basic features of the dynamics of the cluster by revealing
the typology of Antalya Tourism Cluster in terms of economic sustainability. To this
end, McKinseys Directional Policy Matrix was prepared by using interacting groups
method with quantitative and qualitative data for Antalya Tourism Cluster. This paper
derived from the finding of project named as "Analysing The Impact Of Network
Relations Of Tourism Cluster To Perceived Performance Of Clusters On The Basis Of
Systematic Model: Antalya Tourism Cluster" which is funded by The Scientific and
Technological Research Council Of Turkey within the scope of The Support Program
for Scientific and Technological Research Projects.
Keywords: destination competitiveness, Antalya Tourism Cluster, clusters and
networks, directional policy matrix

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125

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND RECREATION ON


BALTIC SEA COASTS: NEW DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
Polina Lemenkova
Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
pauline.lemenkova@gmail.com
Research work analyzes current situation and development of tourism in the region of
Baltic Sea. Specific case study of this paper is Prnu Bay, Estonia. This region is
known for unique environmental settings: mild maritime climate, broad beaches,
coniferous pine forests on the coastal zone and high esthetic value of the
surrounding landscapes. However, after the end of USSR, Estonia survived a difficult
period of re-structuring of economic and social system. This affected touristic
cluster, rapidly developing in new directions. Soviet touristic areas became
abandoned and re-constructed, new hotels are being actively created, intensive
privatization of recreation houses is actively ongoing. Main problem in the touristic
cluster in Estonia consists in its specific location on the Baltic Sea with cold climate
in summer period. It causes low popularity among tourists, comparing to
Mediterranean. Another problem consists in ongoing development of the country,
reflected in low investments into tourism, comparing to other European countries.
Therefore, the main perspective for the tourism development in Estonia includes
active redirection towards eco-style sustainable tourism: camping, biking, sea side
recreation, construction of summer cottages for vacations, organized tours to Natural
Parks. This paper, supported by fieldwork, has analytical character reviewing current
Estonian tourism dynamics. Sociopolitical effects on current tourism directions are
discussed, while modern touristic system in Estonia compared to Soviet. The
overview of the recreation resort places was performed in Hdemeeste municipality,
Prnu district, and resulted in series of thematic author photos. The research was
performed at the University of Tartu.
Keywords: Baltic Sea region, tourism development, recreation, post-Soviet Estonia.

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126

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY:


A STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CHAINS IN THE COAST OF
SERGIPE AND IN THE NORTHERN COAST OF BAHIA, BRAZIL
Queila Pahim da Silva
Letcia Barros de Moraes Lima
Federal Institute of Sergipe, Brazil
quepahim@gmail.com
The hosting industry in general, is not associated with images of pollution and
environmental degradation; however, the impacts of water use, energy, chemical
residue and waste, besides the attitude towards Brazilian coastal regions, can be
significant considering the total number of enterprises, as well as the growth of the
hotel industry in recent years. One of the great challenges of environmental
management is to find efficient mechanisms to measure environmental preservation
practices. It is understood that only from quantifiable parameters can managers be
asked to use more effective strategies for improving the use of natural resources, as
can adoption of new techniques for control of waste be encouraged. From this
perspective, this research aims to identify environmental management practices in
international network hotels in the coast of Sergipe and in the northern coast of
Bahia, and thus contribute to the improvement of hotel management in the region,
fostering the debate among researchers in this thematic.
Keywords: Seaside Tourism, International Hotel Chains Policy, Environmental
Impacts, Environmental Management in Hotels.

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127

EDUCATION FOR A REMODEL ACTION: AN OFFER OF THE


TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM DEGREE
Queila Pahim da Silva
Letcia Barros de Moraes Lima
Instituto Federal de Sergipe, Brasil
quepahim@gmail.com
This article intends to be a reflection on the relation enters theory x practice at the
professional training of Tourism through the practical experience from the project:
Micro Estgio, developed by the Federal Institute of Sergipe (IFS) that consists in
technical travels as a facilitator technique as a tool in the learning process of the
Tourism course at the Institution, since it causes an experience in the student
besides what they studied in the classroom. Every year, one subject has been
chosed to be studied. In 2012, the chosed subject was the Community Based
Tourism (TBC) at the Praia do Canto Verde, Cear, Brazil, where students
experienced this type of tourism staying at the local resident homes. The study was
contextualized from research papers, books and specialized articles of tourism and
education, local economic development, and social and regional plans, pedagogical
reports and accounts of experiences from teachers and students of the Technology
Management in Tourism degree at IFS. Furthermore, the research discusses the role
of disciplines based on the relationship between tourism and education, supported
by: teaching, research and extension. The study revealed that the technical visits
constitute practices to develop processes of action, observation, reflection,
commitment and integration to realize the theory-practice in the training of the
Technologist at Tourism Management.
Keywords: Technology Management in Tourism degree, Community Based Tourism,
Teach Learning Process, Technical Visit.

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128

REVERSE LOGISTICS AS SUSTAINABLE TOOL IN TOURISM


INDUSTRY: SCOPE AND MOTIVATION
Radoslav kapa
Masaryk University, Czech Republic
skapa@econ.muni.cz
The paper deals with activities labelled as reverse logistics (RL). It is generally
accepted that RL plays an important part in greening of companies, because the aim
of RL is to retrieve value from reverse flows (such as products scraps, production
waste, packaging, returned products, etc.) that would otherwise be lost. To achieve
this RL supports activities like recycling, remanufacturing, or repairing to close the
loop of material flows in a supply chain. Hundreds of papers were published on RL,
but just tiny quantity of them focused on service industries. What is important, the
largely intangible character of service products in tourism calls for modification of
concepts used in RL, as majority of its concepts and models were suggested within
manufacturing context. Thus, the papers aim is to analyse the scope of RL in
tourism industry specifically. Second aim is to elaborate on motives explaining why
businesses in tourism take (or dont take) part in RL-activities. Both tasks will shed
more light on the role of RL in tourism and will point out the specifics of RL in
services generally. The presented findings are a part of an exploratory-descriptive
research focusing on the approach of companies to RL in Czech Republic and are
based on collected data for 75 firms operating in tourism and travel-related services
(hotels, restaurants, travel agencies).
Keywords: Reverse logistics, reverse flows, sustainability, exploratory research

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129

INCREASING WINTER TOURISM IN PORTUGAL


Raul Ressano Garcia
Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril, Portugal
ressano@hotmail.com
Every year between seventy thousand and one hundred thousand Portuguese
practice winter sports, mainly skiing and snowboard (Carvalho, 2006). Unfortunately
most of them go abroad. Serra da Estrela is the only mountain where it is possible to
practice winter sports in Portugal but it doesnt attract many Portuguese. Problems
with accessibility,(Petur,2006) inexistency of accommodation near the ski slopes
(Carvalho,2006) and not enough kilometers of ski slopes(Tonge, Veronica) are some
of the reasons for this lack of attraction. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that
is possible to increment the number of kilometers of ski slopes in Serra da Estrela. To
provide the design of the new ski slopes we went to the mountain and marked over a
thousand points in GPS. These points marked on the field provide us the information
to design the new ski slopes. These new ski slopes will help Serra da Estrela to
become more attractive, avoiding the need for Portuguese to go abroad to practice
winter sports.

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130

DARK TOURISM AS AN ALTERNATIVE FORM OF TOURISM


EVALUATION
Regina Navickiene
Lithuanian Sport University, Lithuania
regina@turinfo.lt
Alternative tourism opposite to mass tourism, as an increasing number of travelers
are abandoning the traditional holiday package. Dark tourism one of alternative
tourism forms, recently increased interest between travelers. Europe is becoming a
land of memory, every day museums receive more history, displays of wars and
disasters are expanding. Quality research shows that tourist after visiting a site of
dark tourism starts to value it. During the research there were 27 evaluation criteria,
such as: practical knowledge of history, solidity of people, being proud of your own
country, self-analyzes, increase of self-confidence, pain, suffering, in/humanity,
responsibility, memory care, sadness, desire for change, friendship, sharing,
believing in future, emotional distress, hopelessness, life lesson and etc. All criteria
were classified and based on them a questioner was made and a quantitative survey.
The results showed, that dark tourism as an alternative branch has a great possibility
to attract more tourists to the country, it also showed - it is not just emotional
despair, but also it has educational effects (especially strong in the age group under
30) that is self-programming in achieving goals with the power of self-confidence. We
can see the world is not only pleasant and beautiful place and it does not matter how
much we try, that is why it is very important to reflect the unpleasant past, disasters
which are in the heritage discourse, because that is complex heritage understanding,
which allows to create new holiday packages.
Keywords: dark tourism, alternative tourism

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131

NATURE SPORTS: UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN


SPORT, TOURISM, LEISURE AND NATURE
Ricardo Jos Esprito Santo de Melo
Rui Adelino Machado Gomes
University of Coimbra, Portugal
ricardo.es.melo@gmail.com / ramgomes@gmail.com
The term Nature Sports (NS) represents the sport activities that are carried out in
direct contact with nature. These activities are a growing phenomenon of the sport
practice, and correspond to an important product of the leisure and tourism
industries. In this paper we will analyze the evolution of these practices, and its social
representation throughout history. Furthermore, we will explore the relationship
between sport, tourism, leisure and nature, and other related concepts, which are
closely related to the NS concept. These relationships are highlighted by the analysis
of the data obtained from an empirical study, which allowed us to characterize the
practitioners and Nature Sports organizations. The results of this study are in
accordance to other data analyzed from the literature, which indicate some specific
characteristics of NS: nature based; risk and adventure; tecnologization; autonomy;
hedonism; (un)sportivization; combination, hybridization and diversification of
practices. NS also evidence some social values such as sociability, greater gender
equality, and sustainable behaviors. Finally, we will discuss the growing importance
of these activities for the tourism sector, and for the sustainability of local
development in the territories of the practices.
Keywords: Nature sports, sport, tourism, leisure, nature.

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132

DEVELOPING NATURAL ASSETS MONETARY DEPRECIATION


MEASUREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
BALANCE SHEET
Rosmini Ismail
Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
rosmini@fpe.upsi.edu.my
The paper is based on one of many components of an on-going research conducted
at Perhentian Island, Terengganu Malaysia. The ultimate objective of the research is
to construct the Environmentally Sustainable Accounting Statements (ESAS) for the
Island. The ESAS, an approach which lies within the area of environmental
accounting (EA) utilises several macro and micro level EA approaches along with
environmental economics valuation technique called Travel Cost Method. ESAS
mainly consists of Environmentally Sustainable Accounting Income Statement
(ESAIS) and the Environmentally Sustainable Accounting Balance Sheet (ESABS).
The central idea of ESAIS is to estimate real income, whereas ESAB illustrate the
value of assets, liability and equity of a tourism site. Assets identified within the
ESABS include natural capital namely beaches, rainforest, caves and other
environmental assets which were utilised for tourism activities as means of gaining
income. These assets were sometimes exploited to the point of exhaustion or
otherwise mistreated. In order to emphasize the depreciation/deterioration condition
of these assets, it was suggested that this unsustainable usage should be measured
in monetary terms. Two well established approaches namely Tourism Carrying
Capacity and Ecological Footprint were evaluated to be adapted into the ESAS as
the natural assets depreciation method. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to
discuss the suitability of employing the two approaches in depreciating the natural
asset.
Keyword: Tourism Carrying Capacity, Ecological Footprint, Tourism Balance Sheet.

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133

STUDY OF PUSH AND PULL FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THE CHOICE


OF A CITY DESTINATION:
SENIOR SEGMENT
Rui Alberto de Freitas Martins
Alejandro del Moral
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
University of Extremadura, Spain
rui.martins@ipleiria.pt / delmoral@unex.es
The growing importance of the senior segment, through the availability of leisure time
and the money available, can help to mitigate the negative economic effects of
seasonal cycles in demand of the tourist destinations cities. Therefore, to measure
the influence of the various attributes of the city at the time of the choice and adjust
the supply of tourist destinations to the needs of senior tourists, is the key to
developing marketing strategies by urban managers, enabling to attract this type of
segment. The study of the behaviour of senior tourists based on an empirical
research carried out between 2011 and 2012, in the central-west of Portugal, with a
sample of 428 people aged 55 years and over, intended to contribute to a better
understanding of the main motivational Push and Pull attributes choosing a tourist
destination city.
Keywords: Push-pull theory, tourist/visitor senior behaviour; city marketing, city
branding

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134

FINANCE, TOURISM AND SUSTAINABILITY


Salber Nourani
Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey
salber.ns@gmail.com
Touristic attractions wouldnt exist always so every destination has to worry about
the life and extend of their tourism activities. Tourism consider as one of the most
profitable industry for destinations nowadays. In order to protect and sustain tourism
attractions, managers and professionals have to assist other sections of the industry
as well such as finance. So the purpose of this study is to analyze that if Banks loan
can increase tourism sustainability through providing financial help to recover and
renew touristic attractions toward modern and green usage. Tourism activities cannot
be profitable and sustainable for a long run. In order to make them sustainable,
financial help can own great share in sustainability process. Northern Cyprus serves
as the setting of the study via distributing questionnaires among hoteliers, managers,
and professionals in tourism field.
Keywords: Finance, tourism, sustainability, destinations

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135

THE CONTRIBUTION OF CEMETERIAL TOURISM FOR BRAND VALUE


OF THE LISBON CITY WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TOPICS FOR
NEW TOURIST ROUTES
Sara Nunes
Jlia Fragoso da Fonseca
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
sara.nunes@ael.edu.pt
As we know the competitiveness of destinations worldwide is increasingly high,
because there are new destinations to gain more market share with respect to the
global tourist flows, including destinations located in the Middle East, Africa and
especially Asia destinations and the Pacific. These new destinations are withdrawing
importance to American and European destinations, where Portugal is inserted. As
such, it is paramount that all tourist destinations are able to attract the tourist
demand and address all types of tourism exploitable, meeting with different
motivations existing tourist and having a strong brand and internationally recognized.
Our study falls in the theme Tourism cemeterial and how it can contribute to the
growth of tourism in the city of Lisbon and to increase the value of your brand. For
such are some suggested itineraries on this subject to be held in the city, which
could then contribute to extend your existing tourism offer and enhance its brand,
thus enhancing its competitiveness as a destination. However, it will also consider
whether there are any offers within this theme implemented by the Municipality,
Tourist Offices, Lisbon Tourism Association, Travel Agency and Tourism
Entertainment and Business Events.
Keywords: Cemetery Tour, Tourism Cemeterial, Tourism supply, Brand Value.

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136

THERMAL RESORTS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN USERS


PROFILE BETWEEN PORTUGAL AND GERMANY
Sara Raquel Gomes Narciso
Paulo Nuno Maia de Sousa Nossa
University of Coimbra, Portugal
sara.gnarciso@gmail.com
This research, in Health Tourism domain, is focus on demand and practices in
thermal resorts comparing products and preferences of Portuguese and German
users. Objectives: Understand the demand and operation/service of practices in
thermal and spa resorts in Portugal and Germany, as well as define the profile of the
thermal and spa users in both countries using a convenience sample. Methodology:
Interviews with experts and surveys to users, in thermal and spa areas, between
2012/13 collected in Portugal and Germany. Results: We observed that the thermal
concept is common in both countries; however we observe different functionality in
the thermal resorts. When we look at the reasons of demand, we find that the
German users go to the thermal resorts mainly looking for well-being practices and
Portuguese users trying to improve their health status related with a specific
pathology. For a significance level of 0.05 there statistical evidence for the claim that
the disease (2(1) = 31,181; p-value = 0,000), leisure (2(1) = 15,092; p-value = 0,000),
well-being are dependent on the country(2(1) = 21,875; p-value = 0,000), this is,
illness, leisure and well-being depend on the country. Conclusions: We analyzed the
profile of both thermal users. They have common goals, however the profile differs in
the following items: sex, age, educational qualifications, reason for demand, cost,
time of permanence and therapeutic indications. The profile of spa users is common
at the gender. Differs at age, educational qualifications, secondary reason of
demand, cost, time of permanence and mainly used services.
Keywords: Thermalism, wellness, illness, Portugal, Germany

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137

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF TOURISM


INDUSTRY ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Selda Uca zer
Bilge avugil Kse
Trakya University, Turkey
seldaucaozer@trakya.edu.tr/ bilgecavusgil@trakya.edu.tr
In this century earths climate has changed quickly like no other time period it has
been seen before and there has been a great role of human activities in this change
which increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Today,
humankind face the consequences of the climate change which will affect natural
systems and human life across the globe such as melting of land and sea glaciers,
rising of global average sea level, replacement of climate zones, increase of extreme
weather events and their intensification, drought, desertification and decrease of
drinking water. Furthermore, it has been predicted that climate change will also affect
social and economical systems in various ways. Climate is a principal resource for
tourism, it determines the suitability of any location for a wide range of tourist
activities and it is a principal drive of tourism demand within the impact on the
tourists destination choice. Because of all these factors; tourism is identified as a
climate-dependent industry and it is being considered that it will be affected by the
climate change more than other economical sectors. In this paper it is aimed to find
out how climate change will affect tourism industry. Also, corporate social
responsibility policies of tourism industry against climate change will be examined.
Keywords: Tourism Industry, Corporate Social Responsibility, Climate Change

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138

TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS


MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR MUNICIPALITIES: BRAZILIAN
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES
Simone Alves
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
alves.simone@uol.com.br / simone.alves@ifrj.edu.br
Besides giving Brazil greater foreign and domestic visibility, tourism brings huge
opportunities for job and income generation nationwide. In next three years the
country will host two major world sporting events: the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the
Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This study purpose is to contribute to
tourism destinations competitiveness research, by proposing a systemic model to
identify the factors which impact the Brazilian municipalities capability to create and
integrate value-added tourism products in order to meet the needs of local
communities and its visitors, also maintaining the competitive position of this
destination in the domestic tourism market without diminishing the prospects of the
future generations. It proposes that the available destination competitiveness models
can be divided into three main model groups: i) aggregate indices; ii) conceptual and
descriptive; and, iii) explanatory and predictive. Considering Brazilian municipalities
as tourism destinations, six sustainable tourism competitiveness determinant factors
(exogenous constructs) were formulated: Tourism Infrastructure, Information and
Communication Technologies Infrastructure (ICTs), Education, Heritage and Cultural,
Socioeconomic Development and Environmental Preservation. Besides, four
dependent factors (endogenous constructs) related to tourism activity success are
also postulated: Tourists Flow, Jobs, Wages and Revenue. All constructs were
composed from secondary indicators collected from Brazilian public sources for its
5,565 municipalities taking 2010 as the base year. The theoretical model was tested
by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method. The study also discusses
the applicability of formative and reflective models in the context of sustainable
competitiveness of destinations.

Keywords: Sustainable tourism competitiveness, structural equation modeling,


formative constructs, destination competitiveness.

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BOUTIQUE HOTELS AND CITY BREAK DESTINATIONS:


THE CASE OF LISBON
Sofia Almeida
Srgio Miguel Pratas Guerreiro
Europena University, Portugal
salmeida@europeia.pt / sergio.guerreiro@campus.ul.pt
Lisbon is perceived internationally as a glamorous and charming city, being identified
as one of the cities of the future, according to Financial Times (2012). Boutique
hotels emerged as a trend with growing popularity and importance in tourism
destinations in terms of its positioning. This concept evolved from typically unique
properties operated by individuals or small companies to constitute also an important
source of growth for multinational companies as a way to improve market share. This
article seeks to discuss the concept of boutique hotels and its importance in the
development of a city break destination, focusing its analysis in the city of Lisbon.
Starting from a conceptual approach which seeks to relate city break product with
this new type of hotels, the study is complemented with the results of a survey on the
directors of Lisbons boutique hotels in order to understand their perceptions about
this phenomena, its importance to Lisbon and to know its consumer profile. It was
possible to conclude that the most important criteria to be considered in a boutique
hotel are the interior decoration, the architectural path and the customized service. It
was also possible to discuss the role of this type of hotels in Lisbon in terms of
innovation to Lisbon as a tourism destination and its viability in the context of
Lisbons hotel industry.
Keywords: boutique hotel, city break, Lisbon

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140

AN ETHIC CODE FOR EUROPEAN HOTELS: THE TWO SIDES OF THE


COIN
Sofia Teixeira Eurico
Fernanda Maria Fernandes Oliveira
Hilde Hoefnagels
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
sofia.eurico@ipleiria.pt / foliveira@ipleiria.pt
Proposing a practical implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism on the
hospitality sector, this paper raises implementation issues regarding the Global Code
according to different realities from six different countries. Using examples from
chain hotels and family hotels from Belgium, France, Denmark, Lithuania, Portugal
and Spain, it outlines best practices and key success factors considering the Europe
2020 declaration about sustainable, smart and inclusive growth. Existing literature
assumes ethic codes as voluntary instruments to achieve a more sustainable tourism,
providing a set of written statements corresponding to a checklist of actions that are
- or not appropriate to follow in order to achieve sustainability objectives. Empirical
research has scarcely been conducted to assess the situation on the ground. The
study answers this gap and combines results led by six Higher Education Institutions
which directly participated in the project. Regarding best practices, chain hotels are
the ones that have already a more consistent and continued work, due to their
greater financial capacity, in particular in relation to the introduction of new
technologies to improve their environmental efficiency. On the opposite, small family
hotels choose to work in partnership with other stakeholders, as they can not afford it
by themselves.
Keywords: Ethic code, hospitality sector, Europe 2020 Declaration, best practices

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141

EMPLOYABILITY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PERCEPTION OF


TOURISM HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS AND TOURISM
GRADUATES
Sofia Teixeira Eurico
Fernanda Maria Fernandes Oliveira
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
sofia.eurico@ipleiria.pt
The concept of employability plays a significant emphasis in the current context of
higher education, considering the high numbers of unemployed graduates and the
current socioeconomic situation of Portugal. This paper presents the findings of a
study conducted considering higher education students and graduates in the field of
Tourism towards the concept of employability. Results give a set of views that allows
to understand the knowledge or lack of it of this dimension for individuals whose
entry into the labor market is a future reality, in the case of students, or a pressing
issue in the graduates situation. It also provides information on the approach to this
concept as training in tourism is concerned and consequently the preparation of
professionals for entering the labor market. Using the content analysis technique, and
from data collected in the academic year 2011/12 and 2012/13, the results show that
the concept of employability is understood by students as a synonym of jobs, serving
mostly issues related to entering the labor market rather than the dynamics of the
market itself. For graduates, this dimension is associated with concepts such as
entrepreneurship, innovation, responsibility and experience, revealing a more
comprehensive and knowledgeable of the main requirements imposed by the labor
market. This study reflects on the relevance of the dimension of employability in the
context of higher education, particularly from the immediate perception of its users
and considering the improvement of professional qualification in the Tourism sector.
Keywords: Employability, higher education, tourism, qualitative analysis

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142

BRANDING OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS:


IMAGES AS DETERMINANT TO CONSOLIDATE THE POSITIONING OF
LISBON
Susana Paulo
Nuno Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
4110341@my.ipleiria.pt
By the destinations competitiveness and by the changes of visitors consumption
behavior, it is recognized the need to accept tourist destinations as a brand that is
managed in a strategic perspective. Therefore, applied to create a unique and
attractive image, branding is a decisive tool to identify a destination and to
differentiate it from others. Being the positioning a struggle to create and maintain a
distinctive place in visitors mind, this study differs from the generality of positioning
studies that compare destinations by exploring their attributes and their recognized
benefit. This investigation focuses on the image of the tourist city destinations as a
determinant to consolidate its position. The choice of city tourist destinations results
of their assumed importance in individuals mental representations and because the
clearly importance increase of cities in the tourism industry which already have a
significant role in creating tourist flows. After the literature review, the methodology
adopted was based on the sample delimitation to Lisbon visitors, to measure
perceptions and evaluations of tourism demand, and by applying a survey in three
city zones with importance in tourism and city's identity. Then, the data was tested
according to a research model based on hypotheses definition. Nothing that, as a
city tourist destination, the image of Lisbon was positively perceived and although it
is a city with a good position in visitors set of decision, the results revealed that,
away from the initial convictions, the image is not decisive in the positioning of the
tourist destination city.
Keywords: tourist city destinations, branding, image, positioning, competitiveness,
visitors

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143

IMPORTANCE OF A MARKETING PLAN FOR A PRODUCT OR SERVICE


OF INTEREST: HOTEL FIGUEIREDO'S
Suse Silva
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt / sr.silvaa@gmail.com
Tourism is a phenomenon that has become increasingly common in recent years,
and is visible alongside a large growth in the hospitality sector. The increase in
tourism demand implies the emergence of the need for expansion of the
infrastructure associated with tourism and in recent decades are visible changes in
the industry to meet the changing needs and desires of tourists. For this reason, the
hotel has no longer only spaces intended to house people, but also multifaceted
spaces to meet the needs of its customers. Given the current need for
competitiveness in the hospitality business, it is essential to know the needs and
expectations of customers, who are increasingly dynamic, demanding and informed.
The hotel marketing approach allows sellers and buyers, allowing hotels direct
distribution channels, attracting clients motivated by his offer and also make these
customers return to use their products and services. So, the competitive market
situation exponentially increases the importance of the marketing function to achieve
the desired success of hotel activity. The marketing planning involves deciding which
marketing strategies to be used for the company to achieve its strategic objectives,
requiring the preparation of detailed marketing plan for each hotel. The objective of
this work focuses on developing a marketing plan for a tourism product or service Hotel Figueiredo's, focusing on the importance of this hotel project to implement a
plan that will bring competitive advantages and then meet the resolution of their
major problems, particularly with regard to reducing instability of the hotel and the
low occupancy rates.
Keywords: Tourism, Hospitality, Hospitality Marketing, Marketing Plan

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144

THE IMPORTANCE OF HOTELS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEME


PARKS
Sylvie Csar
Paulo Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt / sylvie.cesar87@gmail.com
The main theme of this report is hospitality in theme parks. Entertainment industries
are getting more and more space in peoples life. The first theme park was born in
the 50s by Walt Disney in California. The internationalization started after the 80s.
TRAVIS (1987) defines theme park as an amusement commercial park of large
dimension which includes several thematic presentation inside and outside ,
activities, amusements and animations, with also appropriated food service, shops
and services for the visitors. The theme can be historic, geographic, socials, or
related with future society or future industry. Modern industrial civilization focused
not only in the necessity of leisure, but it has profoundly changed the sense or
organization to promote the theme park. The families are the market segment
destined to theme park. This people come to enjoy the day in the park and stay in
nearby. PWC developed a study which confirms that the presence of a resort is an
advantage for the theme park. Two projects were developed in Disney Hotels (New
York and Cheyenne).
Keywords: Theme park, Disneyland Paris, Hospitality.

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145

ASSESSING THE FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL


INTENTIONS - THE CASE OF THE TOURISM DEPARTMENT STUDENTS
- COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES - SULTAN QABOOS
UNIVERSITY
Tamer Mohamed Atef
Masooma Al-Balushi
Sultan Qaboos University - Sultanate of Oman
tamer@squ.edu.om
The growing numbers of youth looking for the right opportunity to join the labour
market places great responsibility on graduating education institutions, to reshape
education curricula, better align and help bring closer education programs and labour
market needs. The aim is to provide young people with the skills and qualifications to
successfully join the local, national, and international workforce. Graduates join the
labour market in either government sector or private sector, few of them head
towards entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial intention has been a vigorous field of
study due to its importance to the development of any economy by means of job and
career creation and consequently minimizing the heavy demand on government jobs.
The study aims to assess the factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions among
Tourism Department students - College of Arts and Social Sciences - Sultan Qaboos
University - Sultanate of Oman, to achieve the study aim the following objectives
were identified: (1) assess entrepreneurial intentions; (2) assess job preferences; (3)
assess perception of education effect on entrepreneurial intentions; (4) assess
entrepreneurship pull factors; (5) assess entrepreneurship push factors. A
questionnaire was used to gather data and measure respondents perceptions with
regard to the subject under investigation. The findings have shown that the
respondents are considering and interested in entrepreneurship and that there are
pull and push factors that to varying degrees influence and shape their
entrepreneurship intentions. Respondents reported that the Tourism Department
study plan provided the necessary knowledge about entrepreneurship moreover it
developed their entrepreneurial skills and ability to identify business opportunities. By
shifting the demand towards self-employment rather than government and private
sector for employment; Entrepreneurship would reduce current and future
unemployment issues.
Keywords: Labour market, government sector, private sector, entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurial Intention, tourism, graduates.

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146

DESTINATION BRAND AWARENESS OF REGION CENTER OF


PORTUGAL: TOURISTS AND TOURISM PROFESSIONALS
PERSPECTIVES
Teresa Aragonez
Manuel Gouveia
Irina Saur-Amaral
IPAM Lab Aveiro Research Unit in Marketing and Consumption @IPAM, Portugal
teresa.aragonez@talent-sgps.com / manuel.gouveia@ipam.pt / irina.amaral@ipam.pt
Current research focuses on destination brand awareness/brand image of Region
Center of Portugal. A questionnaire-based survey was applied (816 valid responses),
based on random sampling at BTL 2013. The image of the Region Center of Portugal
reveals key cities: Coimbra, Ftima, Aveiro and Figueira da Foz (specific city-related
attributes are associated with academia, monuments, culture, religion,
nature/sun&sea and food). Regional strengths are Food and Nature. Future
developments include: a) implementation of a tourism observatory in the region to
measure key variables for brand image consolidation; b) place marketing/branding
with national positioning/differentiation based on diversity, uniqueness and quality
under one umbrella brand "Center of Portugal"; c) development of
methodologies/strategies to promote place brands close to tourists and regional
stakeholders using social media. Practitioners could benefit from integrating these
results in their business strategies, hence motivating the alignment of their strategies
with DMOs, using Region's strengths to differentiate themselves.
Keywords: Destination brand awareness, Center of Portugal, destination attributes,
place marketing, place brand

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147

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOURIST PROFILE IN PROMOTING A


TOURIST DESTINATION: THE CASE OF CARAMULO
Teresa Maria Rodrigues Fecha
Paulo Jorge Santos Almeida
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal
palmeida@ipleiria.pt
Determine the profile of the tourist is a very important theme in the context of
research of Tourism Marketing, a time that allows you to determine what its
characteristics in order to direct the actions of Marketing adapting forms
of communication specific to this type of tourist. In scientific terms, this thesis aims
to focus on reciprocal assistance of territorial dynamics and tourist. Featuring an
interdisciplinary component to establish a link between the marketing and tourism,
trying to find answers to the success of the tourist region of the Caramulo Mountains
through the determination of the target audience- who frequents this destination with
obvious gains at the level of the management of organizations that operate in these
areas. To reach the final outcome, it was made a literature review covering topics
such as tourism, the profile, tourist destination, tourism marketing and promotion,
because they felt that central themes for the achievement of a work of this nature.
The methodology used was based on the use of a questionnaire to the tourists who
visited the Caramulo Mountains during the study period. For this purpose, the
support of various entities in the region was fundamental. After the collection of data,
these were organized and analyzed with the objective of responding to questions of
research proposals. This study obtained interesting findings such as for example the
type of market that frequents this destination belong to the category of senior and, in
promotional actions developed not to be considered all the tourist potential of the
region. Regarding the parameters of satisfaction, it can be assumed that the
expectations of these tourists are overcome and the great majority ponders return
and even advise the region.
Keywords: Tourism, Tourist, tourist promotion, Marketing

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148

THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM AS A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT


STRATEGY IN THE NATURAL PARKS OF PRAINHA AND GRUMARI
RIO DE JANEIRO BRAZIL
Thiago Ferreira Pinheiro Dias Pereira
State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
thp21@ig.com.br
Observing the history of the development of different human societies it is possible to
note that there isn't only one point of view concerning nature-society relations, where
several are the perceptions of different cultures and people with diverse ideologies,
backgrounds and social conditions. The general objective of this work was to
highlight how the effective development of Tourism, more specifically Ecotourism,
Sun and Beach Tourism and Cultural Tourism, in two urban Natural Parks in Rio de
Janeiro Brazil, can be interpreted as a possible local development strategy,
associating nature conservation with the empowerment of local communities, as well
as allowing the economic sustainability of these parks. In this sense, through
literature searches, fieldworks, interviews and questionnaires, it was revealed that,
despite the existing particularities, both areas face significant pressures from urban
expansion, thus presenting numerous conflicts of interest, which can be minimized
through participatory planning and management based on greater dialogue between
the various actors involved. Concepts such as landscape, identity and community
and also the landscape ecology approach were important tools used in the search for
a better understanding of the issues raised. In this way, seeking actual maintenance
of natural and cultural diversity in these parks, the respective existing tourism
infrastructures, the main actors involved and also the barriers for increasing a
sustainable tourism development were highlighted. Therefore, in order to
approximate the nature-society relations, ensuring the permanence of the local
community, as well as biodiversity conservation, zoning proposals and communitybased tourism projects were presented.
Keywords: Nature-society relations, conflicts of interest, community-based tourism
and biodiversity.

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149

TOURIST CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN


EMOTION IN LEISURE MARKETING, INVOLVEMENT AND IMAGE OF
THE TOURISM DESTINATIONS ON TOURIST PURCHASE DECISION: A
RESEARCH AGENDA
Vasco Ribeiro Santos
Fernando Pessoa University, Portugal
vasco-rs@hotmail.com
Drawing on the literature on tourism, this research agenda is specifically focused on
the consumer behaviour in tourism. Emotions on leisure marketing, the involvement
and the image of tourist destinations help to explain and predict the different facets
of consumer behaviour in tourism decision making in leisure vacations and are
explored here. Involvement is now a crucial construct in the study and research of
consumer behaviour in marketing tourist and leisure. This study establishes a
significant relationship between this constructs. Involvement has a high influence on
consumer choices, shaping their purchasing behaviour, depending on the
antecedents and consequences of involvement. The image of tourist destinations has
an impact on consumer behaviour, specifically on the choices of tourists. The role of
image as a key factor in destination marketing is thus confirmed. Emotional factors
are particularly powerful in the formation of holiday options. Finally, the experience of
buying and consumption occur at the level of behaviour. In this sense, further
research could be necessary. Overall, this research advances the understanding of
the travel behaviour on leisure vacations in destinations offering important managerial
implications and future research. The aim of this study was to complement and
advance this knowledge about the impacts on travel behaviour.
Keywords: Consumer behaviour in tourism, involvement, tourist destinations image,
emotions in leisure marketing

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150

GEO-TOURISM AND INTERPRETATION IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN


Ya'qoob Salim Al Busaidi
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
yabusaid@squ.edu.om
Across the world, Interpretation has been playing a major role in communicating the
various values of geology to different groups of people. Due to the fact that geology
of Oman is considered as one of the main attractive features to tourists, the tourism
sector has been working on the development and promotion of some geological sites
(e.g. al-Hotta cave), and trekking trails. Despite this effort, the interpretation of these
sites is challenged by various issues relative to managerial and operational aspects.
The paper will focus on the following:
1. Values of interpretation to geo-parks
2. Interpretation of geo-attractions in Oman, examples
3. Managerial issues in interpreting geology to visitors in Oman
4. Operational issues in interpreting geology in Oman
5. Recommendations
The research depends on field trips and published governmental documents and
studies.
Keywords: geo-tourism, interpretation

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151

ARE THE CONSOLIDATED TOURIST DESTINATIONS AND CREATIVE


CAPITAL NODES CONNECTED TO GLOBAL CITIES?
Yolanda Romero Padilla
Enrique Navarro Jurado
Gonzalo C. Malvrez
University of Mlaga, Spain
yrp@uma.es / enavarro@uma.es / gcmalgar@upo.es
This paper proposes deepening into the current thinking on role of a creative class in
well established tourist destinations. It show a new case study backed by substantial
data analyses from a complex territorial setting with relevant tourist functions in the
Spanish south. This work proposes the hypothesis of international tourist
destinations acquiring diversity, dynamism, innovation and creativity, similar to global
cities, though providing advantages due to their scale (size) and their urban or
diversity functions. The main findings back that these destinations have significant
flows of people, ideas and capital. After review of the literature on the creative class
thesis in various socioeconomic settings, and the results from our case study it can
be concluded that there is some evidence on the relationship between the creative
classes and consolidated international tourist destinations. Costa del Sol in the
Mediterranean south of Spain, is an example of such a dynamic urban agglomeration
whose international connectivity and diversified social composition improve its
capacity for creativity and entrepreneurship with respect to its immediate context.
This represent a significant opportunity for future development in a scenario
otherwise compromise by decline -as was predicted in the scientific debate some
years ago-. The results are clearly applicable to other enclaves worldwide. This work
invites reflection on the possibility of identifying new tourism peripheries types whose
characterization would be qualitative rather than geographical.
Keywords: creative class, coastal tourism, urbanization process, global cities,
tourism destination

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152

CURRICULUM FOR THE EDUCATIONAL PROFILE TOURISM


TECHNICIAN AND THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC POLICY ON THE
ENROLMENT OF PUPILS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROFILE TOURISM
TECHNICIAN IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF
SERBIA
Zoran Knezevic
Refik Secibovic
Marijana Secibovic
College of Tourism and Management, Konjic, Bosnia and Herzegovina
zoran2202@yahoo.com
The aim of the research is to compare the curricula for the educational profile tourism
technician. The educational profile tourism technician lasts four years. The 1995/1996
school year is compared with the 2011/2012 school year. There is a total of 99
vocational schools educating tourism technicians with around 8000 pupils. This
number of pupils also comprises other educational profiles related to tourism (cooks,
waiters, confectioners, etc.). The curriculum for the educational profile tourism
technician and other vocational profiles includes general education subjects and
vocational education subjects. The number of general education subjects and
vocational education subjects is the same. The total number of lessons (general
education and vocational subjects) was 4677 in 1995, 4630 in 2007 and 4549 in
2012. It is necessary to revise the curriculum and adapt it to contemporary
developments in tourism. Apart from the curriculum, it is interesting to analyse the
data reflecting the interest pupils show for this educational profile. The data for four
school years, 2004-2008, was analysed and variations in the interest for the
educational profile were noted.
Keywords: curriculum, enrolment.

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