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F.

O BASED THERMAL POWER PLANT

POWER PLANT
A power plant may be defined as a machine or assembly of equipment that generates and delivers
a flow of mechanical or electrical energy. The main equipment for the generation of electric
power is generator. When coupling it to a prime mover runs the generator, the electricity is
generated. The type of prime mover determines the type of power plants. The major power plants
are,
1. Steam power plant
2. Diesel power plant
3. Gas turbine power plant
4. Nuclear power plant
5. Hydro electric power plant
The Steam Power Plant, Diesel Power Plant, Gas Turbine Power Plant and Nuclear
Power Plants are called THERMAL POWER PLANT, because these convert heat into electric
energy.
INTRODUCTION
The whole world is in the grip of energy crisis and the pollution manifesting itself in the spiraling
cost of energy and uncomforted due to increase in pollution as well as the depletion of
conventional energy resources and increasing curve of pollution elements. To meet these
challenges one way is to check growing energy demand but that would show down the economic
growth as first step and to develop nonpolluting energy conversion system as second step. It is
commonly accepted that the standard of living increases with increasing energy consumption per
capita. Any consideration of energy requirement and supply has to take into account the increase
conservation measures. On the industrial font, emphasis must be placed on the increased with
constant effort to reduce energy consumption.
Fundamental changes in the process, production and services can affect considerable
energy saving without affecting the overall economy. It need not be over emphasized that in
house hold commercial and industrial use of energy has considerable scope in energy saving.

Attempt at understanding the integrated relationship between environment and energy have given
shape due to development R-134a, (an non pollutant refrirgent) to emerging discipline of
environmental management. The government of India has laid down the policy it is imperative
that we carefully utilize our renewal (i.e., non-decaying) resources of soil water, plant and animal
live to sustain our economic development our exploration or exploitation of these is reflected in
soil erosion, salutation, floods and rapid destruction of our forest, floral and wild life resources.
The depletion of these resources often tends to be irreversible since bulk of our population
depends on these natural resources. Depletion of these natural resources such as fuel, fodder, and
housing power plant;
TYPES OF FUELS
The working substance of the energy conversion device e.g prime-mover (which convert the
Natural resources of energy into power or electricity) is called fuel. The most common fuel is
fossil fuel e.g Coal, petrol, diesel or water gas in the case of steam power plants, I.C. Engines,
gas turbines, and hydro-electric power plants. Uranium 235(1U235) as fissionable and 1U238 as
fertile fuel in the case of fission reactors of nuclear power plant and hydrogen as fuel in the case
of fusion nuclear reactor. While fission reactor is conventional fusion reactor is supposed to be
non-conventional due to its uncontrolled reaction rate; and it is believed that Russians have
developed it but keeping the whole world silence. In the case of non-conventional power plants
the fuels are according to their characteristics viz., Thermoelectric material (Bi2Te3, bismuth
telluride, lead telluride etc.); thermionic materials (Na, K, Cs, W etc.); hydrogen or hydrocarbon
or coal in the case of fuel-cells and further water and methane etc. in the recent development of
the sources of energy.
Combustion of the fuel is a must in any energy conversion device. It is defined as rapidly
proceeding chemical reaction with liberation of heat and light. This phenomenon incurved in the
case of thermal power plants especially in I.C. engines and gas turbines. But in the case of fuel
cell it is of the nature of chemical reaction i.e., transfer of ions, similarly in the case of thermoelectric generator it is conduction of electron and holes, in the case of MHD power plant it is
drifting of positive and negative ion etc.

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT FUELS

THE SUN
Sun is the source of many forms of energy available to us. The most abundant element in sun is
hydrogen. It is in a plasma state. This hydrogen at high temperature, high pressure and high
density undergoes nuclear fusion and hence releases an enormous amount of energy. This energy
is emitted as radiations of different forms in the electromagnetic spectrum. Out of these X-rays,
gamma rays and most of ultraviolet rays do not pass through the earths atmosphere. But heat
energy and light energy are the main radiations that reach the earth. This energy is the basis for
the existence of life on earth.
Sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1.39e9 m and 1.5e11 m
away from earth. Sun has an effective black body temperature of 5762 K and has a temperature
of 8e6 K to 40e6 K. The sun is a continuous fusion reactor in which hydrogen (4 protons)
combines to form helium (one He nucleus). The mass of the He nucleus is less than that of the
four protons, mass having been lost in the reaction and converted to energy. The energy received
from the sun on a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation of radiation outside
atmosphere is called solar constant, and has a value 1353 Wm 2. This radiation when received
on the earth has a typical value of 1100 Wm 2 and is variable.
The wavelength range is 0.29 to 2.5 micrometers. This energy is typically converted into
usual energy form through natural and man-made processes. Natural processes include wind and
biomass. Man-made processes include conversion into heat and electricity.
PETROLEUM
Products are by far the most versatile and useful energy resources available at present.
Their low costs until 1973, ease of transportation and infinite divisibility are the three attributes
that made petroleum products the most suitable and economical commercial energy resources.
Petroleum products constitute 5095 percent of commercial energy supplies and almost all the
needs of transportation sector and mobile equipment are currently met by petroleum products.
There are only a few possible substitutes that too on a limited scale. They also constitute the
basic fuel for electric power plants while coal, natural gas and hydro resources are used in those
locations where they are available. Kerosene and LPG are the favored cooking fuels and
kerosene is the major lighting fuel in areas where there is no electricity. Before going further, it is
interesting to know a bit on the history of oil and its economic and political implications in the

past. Petroleum was first found in Pennsylvania (USA). Petroleum is used to make gasoline,
heating oil, diesel fuel, and lubricating oils. Following is brief times on energy development:
1879: Standard oil controlled 90% of refining capacity.
18701880: Kerosene is the largest volume manufactured good.
1882: Standard Oil Trust was established, which was a shield of legality and flexibility. Edison
demonstrates electricity.
1885: 250,000 light bulbs in use.
1896: Henry Ford was the chief engineer at Edison, where he builds his first gasoline-powered

engine.
1900: 8,000 automobiles, Drilling began in Texas.
1905: Oil discoveries in Louisiana and Oklahoma.
1909: Standard Oil Trust was broken up in 38 companies.
1912: 902,000 automobiles in use
1913: Ford introduced the assembly line.
1928: Texas number one oil producer.
1938: Oil discovery in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
1940s: United States shifts from petroleum exporting to petroleum importing.
1960: OPEC formed.
1986: Oil price collapse.
Petroleum is rock oil that exists down in the earths crust. They drill for petroleum to determine
the size of the reserve and to produce oil at a controlled rate. There are three steps in recovering
petroleum.
The first step is the primary recovery, which is when oil flows by natural pressure or
simple pumping. The maximum recovery is usually 30% of the oil available in the well. The next
step is the secondary recovery, which is when water or gas is pumped into the well to force oil
out. This adds an additional 1020% to be recovered. The third step is the tertiary recovery,
where hot gases and chemicals are pumped into the well to make the oil less viscous for easier
pumping. Petroleum is classified according to its viscosity and sulfur contents. Pennsylvanias
crude oil is low in sulfur and viscosity,
Venezuelas crude oil is high in sulfur and viscosity, and Middle East crude oil is usually
low in sulfur. Petroleum refining separates different components of petroleum. It changes the
chemical composition of petroleum component to produce desirable fuels and chemicals.
Petroleum refining has 3 major processes.
The first process is a physical process called distillation, which separates components according
to their boiling points. The second step is the cracking, which breaks down long chains to make

more gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. This is a chemical process using a catalyst. The third process
is the reforming process, where it converts straight chains into branched chains for better
performance in gasoline engines. Petroleum is transported long distances by super tankers across
oceans, and pipelines across continents. For short distances, petroleum is transported by barges,
trucks, and rail cars.
Petroleum products are used in internal combustion engines, where the fuel is put right
into the cylinder with the piston. A spark ignites the gasoline engines, and compression ignites
diesel engines.
HISTORY OF OIL
Though oil has been known for thousands of years, the first modern commercial drilling and
production of oil is usually said to have begun in 1859 in the US, when Col. Edwin L. Drake
sunk a well in Pennsylvania near some natural oil seepage and within a few years it was in
widespread use throughout the US. The producers, weakened by overproduction, were gradually
taken over by the refining and distribution companies led by Rockefellers Standard Oil Trust.
Standard Oil dominated the oil industry in the US until, under anti-trust legislation, it was
ordered in 1911 to divest itself of all its subsidiaries.
Of the 38 companies in the group, three companies, Exxon, Mobil and Socal took a major
role in the world oil market. Together with four other major companies Gulf, Texaco, Shell and
BP, these seven companies (the Seven sisters) dominated the world oil scene throughout the
first half this century.
During the 1920s and 30s, there was a period of intense competition, with a threat of over
production aggravated by new discoveries in Mexico, Venezuela, Sumatra and Iran and a fall in
demand during the economic depression. The major international oil companies led by Exxon,
Shell and BP developed in 1928 a secret agreement to accept their current volumes of business,
to decide jointly the shares in future increases in production. The resulting cartel continued until
it was terminated by antitrust in the 1940s in the US. Throughout this period the prices paid for
crude oil were determined by negotiation between oil companies and governments in producing
countries. This procedure continued into the 1960s, but by that time the continuing discovery and
development of large low cost oil supplies in the Middle East had led to a post war decline in the
price paid to producing countries. In an attempt to halt this decline, a group of producing

countries, viz., Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela whose GNP was substantially
dependent on oil income, formed OPEC, the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries.
The foundation of OPEC in 1960 was seen as a defensive measure by the producers
following a unilateral reduction by Exxon of the posted price they would pay for the supplies of
Middle East crude oil, which was followed by other major oil companies. The five founder
members of OPEC were at that time responsible for 80 percent of internationally traded crude
oil. Intervention by governments in the activities of oil companies in their countries had begun
dramatically in Mexico in 1938, when all operating companies in their countries were
nationalized. Much earlier, in 1913, to ensure oil supplies for the UK Navy, Churchill has taken
control of BP (then Anglo Persian) but UK rarely involved in commercial management. In 1938,
under threat of nationalization, Venezuela, then a major exporter, obliged the major companies
(Exxon, Shell, Gulf ) to increase their royalty payments, and ten years later in 1948, it
successfully implemented a law giving the Venezuelan government a 50% share in all profits.
This profit sharing arrangement was soon demanded elsewhere and in the 1950s and 1960s it
was adopted in most oil producing countries.
NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES AND UTILISATION
In 1973 the world oil outlook changed dramatically, following an embargo imposed by the Arab
members of OPEC on countries that they believed were providing assistance to Israel at the time
of the 1973 October war between Israel and her neighbors. By coincidence, at the same time
OPEC ministers decided to raise the oil price from $3 to $5.12. The day following this
announcement in Oct. 73, the
Arab members (OAPEC) agreed an immediate 5% reduction in oil production.
Subsequently, the international oil price rose to $20 a barrel by Dec. 73. Shortly after this OPEC
increased the oil price to $11.65 per barrel, giving a five-fold increase over the price two years
earlier. After this the price declined gradually in real terms, due to inflation until late in 1978,
when once again the spot market rose in response to local scarcities on the interruption of Irans
oil production. Following the lead from the spot market, OPEC began to move posted prices
upwards again.

OPEC AND ITS MEMBERS


1. Algeria

2. Libya
3. Indonesia
4. Nigeria
5. Iran
6. Qatar
7. Iraq
8. United Arab Emirates
9. Kuwait
10. Saudi Arabia
11. Venezuela
ORIGIN OF OIL
Oil and gas are names given to a wide variety of hydrocarbons found in sedimentary basins on or
under the earths surface. Oil or petroleum is generally a complex mixture of the heavier (nongaseous) hydrocarbons, averaging about two atoms of hydrogen to each carbon atom. Oil found
in different reservoirs differs in composition, and many even vary within a single reservoir. Its
properties vary from a light fluid to viscous heavy oil, grading to asphalt.
The process of oil formation started with the mixing of marine organisms with sand and
salt to form sedimentary deposits, in periods ranging from tens of millions of hundreds of
millions of years ago. Continued deposits of material led to burial, with a concomitant rise in
pressure and temperature, resulting in compaction of the sediment into sedimentary rock, called
the source rock, and conversion of the organic material into hydrocarbons (oil) embedded in the
source rock. Increasing pressure from continued burial, together with the movement of water,
with which rock below the water table is saturated, resulted in movement of the small oil
globules into the porous and permeable environment of reservoir rocks. In some situations the oil
became trapped in the reservoir rocks by a neighboring layer of impermeable rock, and these oil
bearing reservoir rocks are the sources from which oil is now obtained.
Many types of geological structure can give rise to possible traps for oil. The first, called
an anticline trap is in the form of a dome, in which gas, oil and water are held within the
reservoir rock overlain by a layer of impermeable rock that prevents the oil and gas, more
buoyant than the underlying water, from escaping to the surface. The second type, is called a
fault trap, and may occur where impermeable rock at a fault in the strata of reservoir rocks

prevents upward movement of oil. In the fourth Type, the reservoir rock changes in permeability
so that further movement of oil through the pores of the reservoir rock becomes possible.
To Summaries:
Hydrocarbons are generated in source rocks from the remains of marine organism deposited and
buried in the rocks. They are transported by surface tension, gravitational and pressure forces
into reservoir rocks, where, if there are suitable traps, they accumulate in the pores of the rock
and form the reservoirs of oil and gas found today. For oil to be formed within the source rocks,
they must have been buried for a million years or more at depths over 1 km, to get the pressure
and temperature high enough, but rarely more than about 4 km or the higher temperature at those
depths would usually decompose the oil, leaving methane gas and petroleum coke.
Exploration and Production:
First oil wells are only a few to hundred meters deep but most of todays producing
accumulations lie in the depth range 500 to 3000 meters, but the deepest producing wells are at
6500 m for oil and 7500 meter for gas. Similarly, variations in pressure from atmosphere to
1000 atm. have been found although the pressure usually increases by 100 to 150 atm. per km in
depth corresponding to the depth of the overlying column of rock pore water. Temperatures also
increases with depth at a rate given by the geothermal gradient, generally in the range 15 to 40C
per km in oil producing areas, though temperatures in oil reservoirs are usually below 110C.
Early exploration methods like geological surveys, measuring the angles of tilt of the rock strata
that emerged at the surface, correlation of nearby drilling data, are augmented by seismic
surveying; geomagnetic and gravitational surveys; geochemical tests; geothermal, radiation and
electrical conductivity surveys, etc. These exploration methods allow the identification of
structure that may be traps but they can only rarely establish the presence of oil that can be
ensured only by drilling.
Oil is driven from the reservoir rocks into the borehole by the difference in pressure.
Hence the rate of production from an oil well is limited. A measure of the rate of production from
a reservoir is the reserves to production ratio (R/P) measured in years. R/P is high in the early
years but tends to become constant in the range from 5 to about 15 years. An assessment of the
amount of oil that may be recovered from a reservoir requires information on the amount of oil

in place and an estimate of the recovery factor. The amount that can be extracted is related to the
conditions in the reservoir, oil composition and the method of extraction. The world average
recovery factor at present is about 2530%.
The production of conventional oil depends on the reservoir fluids flowing under pressure
out of the reservoir rock into the borehole. Oil recovery processes are usually considered as
falling into three categories:
Primary Recovery:
The oil recovered by the natural displacement processes that occur as oil
is produced from a reservoir;
Secondary Recovery:
The additional oil recovered as a result of water/gas injection into the reservoir to complement
the naturally occurring drive processes;
Enhanced Recovery/Tertiary Recovery :
Oil recovery by processes aimed at higher displacement efficiencies than those obtained through
the natural processes of gas and water drive, like use of chemicals, CO2 and heat.
Oil Reserves.
Serves are defined as the quantity of oil that can be commercially produced with existing
technology. At present the total world proved reserves amount to be about 1047 barrels (1047
bbl) of which 77% lies in OPEC countries (1996 estimate). The total world consumption of crude
oil in 1996 was 71.7 million barrels per day. OPEC estimates that total world oil consumption
could reach from the 70 million barrels a day in 1995 to around 100 million barrels per day by
the year 2020.
It is expected that oils share of the worldwide energy market will fall from almost 40% in 1995
to less than 37% in 2020. But oil will still be the worlds single largest source of energy. Oil is a
limited resource, so it may eventually run out, although not for many years to come. OPECs oil
reserves are sufficient to last another 80 years at the current rate of production, while non-OPEC
oil producers reserves might last less than 20 years. The worldwide demand for oil is rising and
if we manage our resources well, use the oil efficiently and develop new fields, then our oil
reserves should last for many more generations to come.
NATURAL GAS

Do you know the fact that natural gas known in the short form as CNG is used in buses, trucks
etc. in Delhi? Natural gas is a fossil fuel. This is usually formed in the Earth along with
petroleum. Its main constituent is methane. It also contains small quantities of Ethane and
Propane. Natural gas liquefied by applying high pressure is CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). In
automobiles, houses and factories,
CNG is used as a fuel. It is also used as a source of hydrogen required in the manufacture of
fertilizers.
Natural Gas (CNG) is generally a mixture of the lighter hydrocarbons with methane
(CH4) predominating, often with varying fractions of nitrogen and impurities such as hydrogen
sulfide. Natural Gas meets nearly 20% of worlds energy needs. Increase in NG supplies during
this century has been almost as dramatic as those of oil. However, development of NG industry
has been limited to markets that could be economically connected by pipeline to natural gas
reserves. The expense of constructing costly pipeline networks could only be justified where
there are both large reserves and an assured demand. The future role of NG will be largely
determined by transport costs and the world depends largely on large gas reserves and resources
in areas further away from major markets. World proven gas reserves are estimated to be about
394 billion boe (1975 values) and estimated undiscovered resources to be about 1358 billion boe.
Much will depend on when and how much of the estimated undiscovered resources in North
America and Western Europe are found and developed.
Almost all of the present world production of NG is transported by pipeline. An
alternative to gas pipelines is provided by transport by tankers carrying liquefied natural gas
(LNG). The technology is commercially available since 1960s and the costs are still high. The
gas must first be liquefied by cooling to 161C, then carried in specially designed refrigerated
tanks, and re-gasified at receiving terminals.
Approximately 25% of the energy is lost in processing the LNG, and allowing also for
transport, only about two thirds of the original supply of gas is delivered to the consumer. An
LNG processing and transport system requires high capital expenditure and this will limit the
rate of growth of international trade in LNG. NG provides a clean and convenient fuel and an
important chemical feedstock.
COAL

Coal has been used as a fuel for several millennia in China. In Europe, coal was known to the
Greeks and called anthrax from which the name anthracite is derived. Its use was very much
limited until the firewood crisis in England in the 16th century which led to wide spread use of
coke when
Darby developed the use of coke for reducing the iron ore. The changing rates of coal
production are explained by the change in market nature. When the development of railway
began, the demand for coal increased directly but also permitted it to be transported much more
cheaply. The coal market in USA was disturbed by the rapid market growth for oil and later NG.
FORMATION
Coal is composed mainly of carbon though it also contains hydrogen and oxygen and varying
small amounts of nitrogen, sulfur and other elements. It was formed by the decomposition of the
remains of vegetation growing in swamps or in large river deltas undergoing intermittent
subsidence.
The decomposed material from plants and trees was transformed first by bacterial action
into peat which becomes buried by later sedimentary deposits. Later under the movement of the
earths crust, the layers of peat become more deeply buried, and under the influence of heat and
biochemical reactions they were transformed into various types of coal or lignite, during this
coalification process, the carbon content increased as oxygen and hydrogen were released.
Methane (CH4) was formed and either escaped into atmosphere or migrated until it was captured
in a geological trap so that it formed a natural gas reservoir contained by an impervious layer
similar to those that contain petroleum.

PROPERTIES
Coals are ranked according to their carbon content. Under mild conditions of heat and pressure,
the lowest rank coals were formed, consisting of brown coal and lignite. At higher temperatures
and pressures, sub-bituminous and bituminous coals were formed, and under very high pressures,
the highest rank coals, called anthracites, were formed. The anthracites contain more than 92%
carbon, 23% hydrogen together with oxygen, volatile matter and impurities. Bituminous coal
contains about 5% hydrogen and has a carbon content of 7080%. The lowest ranks of lignite
and brown coal may have less than 50% carbon content. The rank by carbon content

approximates to a ranking by heat content though with some overlap between classes. Other
classifications of importance include the coking qualities for mechanical strength, ash content,
and volatile matter content. Sulfur is an important impurity as it appears in combustion products
as oxides of sulfur (SO2), which pollutes the environment.
MINING.
Most hard coal (bituminous and anthracite) is obtained by deep mining though modern
technology has led to the increasing use of open-cast methods using large excavators capable of
shifting hundreds of tonnes per hour and the mines may reach depths of several hundreds of feet.
Surface mining is cheaper than deep mining and rapid expansion is possible. Deep mining
requires minimum of two shafts and expects to take 10 years to bring into operation. The mining
shafts play a crucial role in providing ventilation to the mine, to remove methane associated with
coal and to reduce heat and humidity. Two principal methods of mining in use are:
1. Long wall
2. Bord and Pillar or Room and Pillar
In Long wall method, coal is extracted in one operation from a face that may be of 600 m
in length. In the older Bord and Pillar method, the area is divided into rectangles by driving a
series of roadways at right angles to each other and then mining from each of these rectangles or
pillars. In modern mines, over 90% of the coal is mined, loaded and transported mechanically.
Transport underground is mainly by means of conveyor belts (replacing earlier tubs), which
bring the coal to the main shaft for rising to the surface. At the mine head, the coal is cleaned,
sorted or screened and blended.

RESOURCES AND RESERVES


Geological resources include all coal that may become economic at some time in the future.
Reserves

include

all

coal

that

is

known

to

be

technically

and

economically

recoverable under todays conditions. These estimates are old (1978) and not updated recently.
The world total estimates for coals resources are (in billion tonnes) : Hard coal : 7725 and Brown
coal : 2399. The proven reserves are 493 and 144 resp. World possesses vast resources of coal,
far more than any of those of any other fossil fuel. Today, most of the worlds coal production is

still consumed in the countries where it is mined. Only about 10% is traded internationally. The
major portion of coal is used for electricity generation.
NUCLEAR ENERGY
Nuclear power production is based on the energy released when an atomic nucleus such as
uranium undergoes fission following the absorption of a neutron to form a compound nucleus.
This compound nucleus is unstable and may break into two or three smaller atomic nuclei with
the simultaneous emission of several neutrons together with the release of considerable amount
of energy. These neutrons may themselves be absorbed by other nuclei, and if enough of these
are uranium nuclei, it is possible for a chain reaction to develop. Chain reactions form the basis
of the operation of a nuclear reactor. Fission of a single atom of uranium yields 200 MeV (=
3.2e11 J), whereas the oxidation of one carbon atom releases only 4 eV. Natural uranium
consists of 99.3% 238U and only 0.7% of lighter isotope 235U, but it is the latter that provides
the most readily available fission energy in nuclear reactor.
The maintenance of chain reaction, with exactly one neutron (on average) eventually
causing another fission, is the design objective of any nuclear reactor.

NUCLEAR ENERGY GENERATION


If the ratio of 235U to 238U in a mixture is low, it is necessary to arrange that the neutrons be
slowed down by a moderator (a light material like water, heavy water, helium gas, beryllium,
carbon, mixed, usually in homogeneously, with the fuel) in order to take advantage of the
increase in fission cross section for low energy neutrons. If the ratio is high, it is possible to
design reactors that are based on fission caused by fast (high energy) neutrons. Reactors using
slow neutrons are called thermal reactors in contrast to fast reactors whose design makes use of
fission caused by fast neutrons. To reduce the size and increase the options for the choice of
materials for a reactor, it is possible to enrich the uranium that is to enhance the fissile 235U in
some portion of the available natural uranium at the expense of the remainder. Higher the
enrichment, easier it becomes to maintain the chain reaction, so the volume of the reactor may be
reduced and a moderator with a lower moderating ratio may be used. Light water reactors use
uranium enriched from 0.7 % to about 3%.

In a thermal reactor, the production of fissile isotopes is lower than burn-up of the fissile
component of uranium 235U in the fuel. However, in a fast reactor, using high-energy neutrons,
the number of neutrons produced per fission is higher than in a thermal reactor, and some fission
of 238U also occurs, so that there are more spare neutrons available for absorption by the
common uranium isotope 238U, giving a higher rate of fissile decay products. By suitable design
the conversion gain can be chosen so that more fissile material is produced than is consumed.
Reactors of this type are called fast breeder reactors. Practically all power reactors in operation
use 235U as a fuel.
RESOURCES
About 150 tonnes per year of natural uranium is required to meet the current demand.
Proven resources are 2191000 tonnes there may be additional resources of 2177000 tonnes
available. It is expected that FBR will take over the future requirements and hence the future
needs may not increase drastically.
LPG (LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS)
LPG is a widely used fuel in homes. From where is this obtained? You have learnt earlier the
petroleum gas is a constituent obtained when petroleum is subjected to fractional distillation. If
high pressure is applied to this gas it will be liquefied. This liquid is LPG (Liquefied Petroleum
Gas).
This is filled in strong cylinders and distributed. The main constituent of this is Butane.
Small quantities of Ethane and Propane are also found.
ACCIDENT FROM LPG
Gases in LPG are odorless. What happens if it leaks? We will not know even if it fills the whole
room. What will be the result then, if an electric switch is switched on or a matchstick is struck?
Big fire or explosion will take place. Therefore to detect the leakage of the LPG another gas,
Ethyl merchantman, having a special smell is mixed with it. Smell of this is sometimes felt when
the gas cylinder is opened. If this smell is felt never try to light the match or to operate electrical
appliances. Doors and windows must be opened and check whether there is any leak in the
cylinder.
When not in use it is better to have the valve of the cylinder closed.
ALCOHOL
Spirit lamp is used in classrooms for experiments. The spirit being used in spirit lamp is alcohol.

This is a good fuel. Atmospheric pollution is much less when it is burnt. In certain countries a
mixture containing alcohol and petrol is used as fuel in automobiles.
GASOHOL
A mixture of petrol (gasoline) and alcohol is being used as fuel in automobiles in Brazil and
Zimbabwe. This fuel is gasohol. gaso from gasoline and hol from alcohol.
HYDRO POWER
Water is the only non-conventional energy source that has been exploited by man on a large
scale. The technology is well established and simple. The industrial infrastructure for the
manufacture of water turbines, valves, gates, generators and associated electrical equipment are
well established in many countries.
Based on the capacity, it could be a micro, mini, small and big power plant. Based on the
head, it is called a low head (<15 m), medium head (15-50 m) or high head (>50 m). Based on
the type of load it may be base load or peak load. Based on the hydraulic features, it may be
conventional, pumped storage or tidal type. Based on construction, it may be run of river, valley
dam type, a diversion canal type or a high head diversion plant.

ADVANTAGES OF HEAVY FURNACE OIL

Oil is an extremely powerful energy source when it is burned. No other fuel can move a
vehicle at such speed and for such a distance as a cup of petroleum can.

Easily combustible, and produces high energy upon combustion helping in locomotion
and in the generation of electricity and various other forms of energy;

The world's economy would not function as efficiently if countries halted oil production,
import and export.

Also oil is in everyday products like plastics of all kinds, lotion, makeup etc.

Oil is easier to mine because as a liquid, it will flow through pipes, which makes it easier
to transport.

Widely and easily distributed all over the world through pipe, rail, road and sea tankers

Comparatively inexpensive due to fairly large reserves and easy accessibility

Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using oil, fairly cheaply.

An efficient oil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can
get large quantities of fuel to it.

It can run day and night, providing a constant source of power, unlike solar and wind
power which are intermittent.

Is relatively stable

Oil has high heating value

No new technology needed to use it

Oil is arguably the planet's most adjustable fossil fuel

Oil is cleaner and easier to burn than coal.

DISADVANTAGES OF FURNACE OIL


Oil may contribute to global warming in its production and use by releasing carbon

dioxide, a greenhouse gas.


Burning oil releases extra carbon dioxide that has been stored in the earth for millions of

years. This is disrupting the natural carbon cycle.


It also causes strong localized effects. CO, NOx, and particulates damage local

ecosystems and directly impact life expectancy (think smog, asthma, etc.).
Separating and refining oil takes a lot of energy. Oil exists as a mixture of hydrocarbons
with traces of sulfur and other compounds. For useful products to be separated from crude oil, it
must be treated with "thermal cracking," an energy-intensive process that separates and reforms

different hydrocarbons based on their boiling point.


Incomplete combustion of oil can form carbon monoxide, which if allowed to buildup in

a confined area can prove to be fatal.


The insecurity of oil in the global financial market is a distinct disadvantage for countries

that rely on oil.


Oil is running out. Although new oil deposits are being discovered every year, the amount
does not equal to level of annual consumption. So the little that is left continues to rise in price.

The price will continue to rise, especially if the real cost of its carbon is included.
It is now harder to find and hence more expensive.
mining of oil leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment;
Whenever there is an oil spill there is usually a massive environmental disaster.

Evaporation and fumes also pollute the environment;

Tankers and pipelines are vulnerable to terrorists and other criminals.

COMPOSITION OF HFO
Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is the residue of crude oil distillation that still flows (the quasi-solid
residue is asphalt); waste oil from other industries are often added. It is the fuel used in large
marine vessels because of price (about half the price of distillates). A typical HFO is IF-300
(Intermediate Fuel), which has a viscosity of 30010-6 m2/s at 50 C (300 cSt), 25 10-6 m2/s
at 100 C, =990 kg/m3 at 15 C, HHV=43 MJ/kg, and the flash-point at 60..80 C.
HFO (also named Bunker-C, or Residual fuel) may have a composition of 88%wt C,
10%wt H, 1%wt S, 0.5%wt H2O, 0.1%wt ash.

FLASH POINT OF HFO


The flash point of the liquid is the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapor is given to
produce a flash on application of a flame under specified test conditions.
The minimum flash point for marine fuels in the machinery space of merchant ship is
governed by the IMO; being set at 60o C to minimize fire risk during normal storage and
handling.

CETAIN NO OF HFO
Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay; the time period between the start
of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. In a particular diesel engine, higher

cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. Cetane numbers are
only used for the relatively light distillate diesel oils. For heavy (residual) fuel oil two other
scales are used CCAI and CII.
Heavy fuel oil or residual oil is a by-product of crude oil refining process, containing a
lot of the contaminants removed from the lighter oils. This makes it much cheaper than other
lighter marine fuels and is the main reason it is used in marine engines.
TREATMENT OF HFO
It is very viscous and requires to be kept at a temperature above pour point in bunkers and
storage tanks to ensure efficient transfer and combustion.
This is achieved by use of low steam coils in the bunker and storage tanks and a series of heaters
between here and the engine fuel pumps and injectors to keep the oil between 104F in the main
bunkers and 250F at the main engine injectors.
An image of a ship taking bunkers from a bunker barge is shown below;

Further treatment of HFO to remove some of the contaminants is required before use and this
consists of the following processes;

The heavy fuel oil is taken on board and stored in the bunkers. The bunkers contain steam coils
and maintain the HFO at 104F.
From the bunkers the HFO passes through a strainer and tube/shell heater into a positive
displacement pump that discharges the oil through a pair of duplex magnetic filters where any
ferrous metals are removed.
Transfer pumps supply the settling tanks where any sediment is allowed to drop out and the oil is
maintained at 200F. From here the HFO drops down to the centrifuges and clarifiers that
remove dirt particles and water from the HFO. Transfer pumps discharge the oil from here to the
day tanks where the temperature is maintained at 200F.
High pressure pumps now discharge the treated HFO through a final heater that controls the
temperature and viscosity automatically. The high pressure HFO is discharged through very fine
mesh strainers, onto fuel pumps and into the injectors at around 250F.

Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion Additives


Heavy fuel oil (HFO) can have high levels of contaminant metals (CM), sulfur, and asphaltenes
that can lower fuel quality. Poor quality fuel causes ash fouling, slag, and corrosion. Baker
Hughes HFO combustion additives address HFO problems, making a poor quality fuel a
premium, saleable product. Our fuel additives improve the performance of and add value to
HFO.
Ensure fuel quality
When you use HFO, you need the best possible quality to protect your boiler or engine from
problems. Our fuel additives improve the performance of HFO and residual fuel oil (RFO)
grades. These fuels often contain high sulfur and CM levels. This leads to corrosion, slag, and
ash fouling when used in industrial applications, diesel engines, utility boilers, or power
generation. These fuels may also contain high asphaltene levels that can make the fuel unstable
when stored or give poor combustion.
Treat contaminants and resulting challenges
Problems caused by contaminants in fuel can be avoided by treating the fuel with our
combustion performance additives. Our HFO fuel additives prevent corrosion from CM, reduce
slag and ash fouling, and control corrosion from high sulfur levels. Our additives also decrease
burner-tip fouling, improve combustion performance, and stabilize stored fuel. They can be used
to reduce corrosion and fouling in fuel handling systems, too. By addressing these problems, our
additives improve fuel quality and prevent harm to the boiler or engine. This reduces
maintenance cost and prolongs operational life.
Our HFO additives include fuel stability additives, combustion improvers, corrosion inhibitors,
and ash modifiers. Our HFO combustion additives can be added to problem fuels, improving
their performance. Since the fuel becomes a premium treated, usable product, it can be reliably
burnt without causing boiler or engine problems.

Treatment of Marine Main Diesel Engine Fuel and Lube Oils


Ships marine diesel engines run on heavy fuel oil (HFO) nowadays a low sulfur content, or
marine diesel oil (MDO) .The lube-oil coats the revolving and reciprocating components
dissipating the heat caused by friction. It is imperative that these systems have adequate
centrifuge and filtration systems.
The supply of good quality low sulfur heavy fuel oil is essential to the marine diesel
engine combustion process. Likewise the lubricating oil should be of the correct grade and
viscosity when supplied to the different reciprocating and revolving components of the main
engine. It is very important that the correct treatment of marine main diesel engine fuel and lubeoils is carried out. This is achieved aboard ship by maintaining the optimum temperatures and
pressures of both the fuel and lube oil through the use of pumps, heaters, and coolers.
Cleanliness is of utmost importance as is the regular maintenance and inspection of the
lube and fuel oil cleaning components consisting of centrifuges and filters.
In the following sections, these operations will be examined, including the role of the
ships watch keeping engineer in maintaining the optimum running conditions of the fuel and lube
oil systems.
The Operation of the Centrifuges
There are several types of centrifuges used to remove water and particles from the fuel and lube
oil; the most popular being the disc type as made by DeLaval rotating at 7000 revs and, the
tubular type by Sharples which rotates at 15000 revs. However we shall look at the disc bowl
type which is suitable for marine engine applications.
The centrifuges can be located close to where they are needed or kept together in a
centrifuge room. I prefer them to be located in their own room which allows room for

maintenance tools, a bench and cleaning troughs, although it can get pretty warm in the
centrifuge room as the oil heaters are contained there as well.
Anyway the dirty heavy fuel oil is drawn from the bunkers, passing through several
screens and a heater. It then enters centrifuge inlet pipe located at the centre of the top of the
upper circular cover. Fresh water is also be supplied through a similar inlet and used to form a
seal inside the centrifuge bowl. If a seal is not formed, oil will flow out of the water/sludge
outlet.
The centrifuge operates by centrifugal force, the disc assembly spinning round at high
revolutions and throwing the water and particles to the outside where they gather in a layer on
the inside of the bowl, liquid sludge and water draining away from the lower centrifuge outlet to
the sludge tank. The clean fuel oil is forced up the centre bore of the discs exiting at the top ring.
It drains from here into the upper centrifuge outlet from where the cleaned oil is piped to the
settling or day tanks ready to be supplied via the main fuel pump and filters, up to the main
engine fuel pumps and injectors.
A sketch of the fuel oil system is shown below.

The lube oil is subjected to the same treatment except that it is drawn from the main engine sump
and heated before entering the top of the centrifuge. The heater thins the oil making it more
amenable to centrifuging. After cleaning it is returned to the main engine sump, in a closed
circuit 24 hour constant operation.
A sketch of a typical lube oil system is shown below.

O
il

Filters and Screens


Another very important part in maintaining a clean oil supply is the use of a good set of filters on
the fuel and lube oil systems.
The fuel oil bunkers have steam heating coils which keep the heavy oil viscous and from here it
is drawn through a couple of medium and fine mesh screens through the fuel oil heaters, and
through the centrifuge. The clean oil is stored in the settling or day tank being drawn out by the
transfer pump which has filters on either the suction or discharge pipework or both.

The lubricating oil is drawn from the sump by the lube oil circulating pump through a set Oil
Filters and Screens

Oil Filters and Screens


of duplex filters. It is discharged by the pump through a similar set of discharge filters and the
main engine lube oil tube cooler, which uses seawater to cool the oil. The cooled, filtered oil is
then supplied under pressure to the main engine crankshaft bearings, crosshead bearings and
guides before being returned back to the sump.

Screens, Filters and Centrifuge Maintenance


Screens
The screens can be isolated and removed for cleaning. This can be carried out in the centrifuge
room and using paraffin or diesel oil to clean the dirt from the mesh.
Filters
Duplex oil filters can be changed over, isolated and cleaned using paraffin or diesel and blown
dry with compressed air before assembly. These filters will be very hot give them time to cool
down before stripping them.
Centrifuge Maintenance

Ensure the power to the centrifuge is switched off; I used to isolate the power from the
control box as well to avoid accidental starting of the drive motor.

Remove the bowl cover and remove the disc assembly from the centrifuge bowl. This unit is
quite heavy and hard to grip but there is usually a compact lifting device supplied with the
centrifuge maintenance tools for this purpose.

Use the C spanner to unlock the disc assembly

The individual discs can now be released from the assembly and cleaned with paraffin or
diesel in a suitable bucket or trough and well dried.

The stainless steel conical discs are uniquely numbered so they can be reassembled in the
correct order, this is important as the holes in the discs must line up.

The sludge can then be scraped from inside surface of the centrifuge bowl and the bowl
washed and dried.

Everything is then reassembled, taking care with gaskets and disc securing devices.

Reinstate power supply and run up the centrifuge, apply a water seal and introduce oil to be
centrifuged.
A sketch of a typical centrifuge is shown below.

Summary
Fuel and lube oils are the lifeblood of the marine diesel engine and it is imperative that the
correct grade of oils are supplied to the ships bunkers and lube oil sumps. Both oils must be
maintained in a clean condition being pumped and circulated at the correct temperature and
pressure to the relevant engine components, ensuring maximum engine efficiency.

This is achieved through the use of various mesh screens, filters and centrifuges which remove
particles and water from the oil.
Watchkeeping engineers maintain the filters and centrifuges and also ensure through the
adjustment of heaters and coolers that the oils are kept at their recommended optimum values.
Treatment and Conditioning of Fuel Oil
Diesel engines on ships are driven by diesel or heavy fuel oils which are frequently contaminated
with water and solids. To enable the propulsion engines to work with the minimum wear
possible, these oils have to undergo continuous treatment.
Contents

Water, solids, cat fines - reliably removed

Viscosity, temperature and pressure exactly adjusted

Unsupervised operation with Westfalia Separator unitrol

monitoring system and solids space monitoring system

Gentle product treatment and high yield of purified oils

2-stage treatment when water content > 10 percent

Visco Booster Units ideal fuel conditioning for every engine


Water, solids, cat fines - reliably removed
The patented Westfalia Separator unitrol system enables separators from GEA Westfalia
Separator Group to remove water and unwanted solids (such as cat fines which damage engines)
reliably and efficiently from the fuel oil even under the most extreme conditions of use at sea.
This provides reliable protection for important engine components such as cylinder liners,
pistons, piston rings or the injection system.

Viscosity, temperature and pressure exactly adjusted


Fuel oil treatment is completed by the oil being conditioned to suit the engine. Visco Booster
Units adjust the fuel oil so that the viscosity, temperature and pressure of the oil exactly meet the
individual specifications of engine manufacturers.

Unsupervised operation with Westfalia Separator


Under ordinary treatment conditions, we recommend the single-stage treatment of diesel or
heavy fuel oils by means of Westfalia Separator dtype separators. At the heart of the selfcleaning dtype separators is the patented Westfalia Separator unitrol system. This is a system
which can think for itself, designed for unmanned i.e. unsupervised operation. The fully
automatic control rules out human error, and all foreign substances which could damage the
engine are reliably separated out of the oil.
Water content monitoring system and solids space monitoring system
Two key features of the Westfalia Separator dtype separators are the water content monitoring
system (WMS) and the solids space monitoring system (SMS). Whilst the WMS ensures that oil
drains off free of water, the SMS is responsible for the optimum time for emptying the bowl. The
SMS immediately detects a high proportion of solids and initiates instant ejection.
Gentle product treatment and high yield of purified oils
Patents

such

as

the

Westfalia

Separator softstream

system

and

the

Westfalia

Separator hydrostop system furthermore ensure that the product is treated particularly gently
and that a higher yield of purified oils is obtained.

2-stage treatment when water content > 10 percent


If the water content of the oil is greater than 10 percent, a 2-stage fuel oil treatment is
recommended. A second standby separator is switched in parallel to the first in such cases so that
each separator treats 50 percent of the fuel oil. Splitting doubles the dwell time of the oil in the
centrifuges, allowing the unwanted water to be removed quickly and efficiently.

Treatment of fuel oil

Visco Booster Units ideal fuel conditioning for every engine


The perfect complement to the treatment of diesel and heavy fuel oil is engine-specific
conditioning of fuel oil. GEA Westfalia Separator developed Visco Booster Units for this very
purpose. These on-board units allow fuel oils to be conditioned fully automatically so that the
viscosity, temperature and pressure of the oil precisely match the individual specifications of
engine manufacturers. As a result, different qualities of oil no longer have a negative impact on
the engine. The engine runs smoothly, regardless of the fuel oil used to fill the tanks.
The booster units are installed between the heavy fuel oil tank and the injectionsystem of the
engine. The appropriate pressure boosting pumps ensure the required system pressure at the
injection pump. The Visco Booster Units are well on the way to becoming another standard
module for an enormous variety of ship types.

Diesel Cycle
Definition
The Diesel cycle is the thermodynamic cycle which approximates the pressure and volume of
the combustion chamber of the Diesel engine, invented by Rudolph Diesel in 1897.
Description
It is assumed to have constant pressure during the first part of the "combustion" phase (

to

in the diagram, below). This is an idealized mathematical model: real physical Diesels do have
an increase in pressure during this period, but it is less pronounced than in the Otto cycle. The
idealized Otto cycle gasoline engine, generating more of a spike in a p-V diagram.

P-V Diagram

p-V Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1-4 in clockwise
direction.

The image on the left shows a p-V diagram for the ideal Diesel cycle; where

is pressure and

is specific volume. The ideal Diesel cycle follows the following four distinct processes (The
color references refer to the color of the line on the diagram.):
Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression of the fluid (blue colour)
Process 2 to 3 is reversible constant pressure heating (red)
Process 3 to 4 is isentropic expansion (yellow)
Process 4 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling (green)[1]
The Diesel is a heat engine: it converts heat into work. The isentropic processes are impermeable
to heat: heat flows into the loop through the left expanding isobaric process and some of it flows
back out through the right depressurizing process, and the heat that remains does the work.
Work in (
Heat in (

) is done by the piston compressing the working fluid


) is done by the combustion of the fuel

Work out (
usable torque)

) is done by the working fluid expanding on to the piston (this produces

Heat out (

) is done by venting the air

Maximum thermal efficiency


The maximum thermal efficiency of a Diesel cycle is dependent on the compression ratio and the
cut-off ratio. It has the following formula under cold air standard analysis:

Work Done

Cut Off Ratio

is the cut-off ratio

(ratio between the end and start volume for the combustion phase)

r is the compression ratio

is ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv)[2]


The cut-off ratio can be expressed in terms of temperature as shown below:

can be approximated to the flame temperature of the fuel used. The flame temperature can be
approximated to the adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel with corresponding air-to-fuel ratio
and compression pressure,

can be approximated to the inlet air temperature.

Factors affecting thermal efficiency


Compression ratio:Improving internal combustion (IC) engine efficiency is a prime concern today. A lot of
engineering research has gone into the improvement of the thermal efficiency of the (IC)
engines, so as to get more work from the same amount of fuel burnt. Of the energy present in the
combustion chamber only a portion gets converted to useful output power. Most of the energy
produced by these engines is wasted as heat. In addition to friction losses and losses to the
exhaust, there are other operating performance parameters that affect the thermal efficiency.
These include the fuel lower calorific value, QLV, compression ratio ,and ratio of specific
heats,.
Compression ratio is the ratio of the total volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is
at the bottom dead Centre to the total volume of the combustion chamber when piston is at the
top dead center. Theoretically, increasing the compression ratio of an engine can improve the
thermal efficiency of the engine by producing more power output. The ideal theoretical cycle, the
Otto cycle, upon which spark ignition (SI) engines are based, has a thermal
efficiency, __, which increases with compression ratio_and is given by.
Compression Ratio (r):

where:
r = compression ratio
Vs = cylinder swept volume (combustion chamber volume) [cc, L, or m3]
Vc = cylinder volume

[cc, L, or m3]

* Increase the compression ratio increase engine power


- r (gasoline engine) = 7:12, the upper limit is engine pre ignition

- r (diesel engine) = 10:18, the upper limit is the stresses on engine parts
However, changing the compression ratio has effects on the actual engine for example, the
combus Reduce engine over heating
We know that in case of Internal Combustion engines, combustion of air and fuel takes
Place inside the engine cylinder and hot gases are generated. The temperature of gases
Will be around 2300-2500C. This is a very high temperature and may result into burning
Of oil film between the moving parts and may result into seizing or welding of the same.
So, this temperature must be reduced to about 150-200C at which the engine will work
Most efficiently. Too much cooling is also not desirable since it reduces the thermal
efficiency. So, the object of cooling system is to keep the engine running at its most
efficient operating temperature.
It is to be noted that the engine is quite inefficient when it is cold and hence the cooling
system is designed in such a way that it prevents cooling when the engine is warming up
and till it attains to maximum efficient operating temperature, then it starts cooling.
It is also to be noted that :
(a) About 20-25% of total heat generated is used for producing brake power
(useful work).
(b) Cooling system is designed to remove 30-35% of total heat.
(c) Remaining heat is lost in friction and carried away by exhaust gases.
Cooling water jackets are provided around the cylinder, cylinder head, valve seats
and any hot parts which are to be cooled. Heat generated in the engine cylinder,

conducted through the cylinder walls to the jackets. The water flowing through the
jackets absorbs this heat and gets hot. This hot water will then be cooled in the
water cooler.
This system forms closed circuit water passing from the engine returns through cooler to pump
suction and then back to engine. A header and expansion tank is placed at a reasonable height
to allow venting and pressurizing of the system. This is connected to both the engine discharge
and the pump suction line. A heater is included with a bypass and the system can warm the
engine when necessary.
Cooling water enters at the lower end of the cylinder jackets passing up to connection from the
top of the jacket to the cylinder covers and the exhaust valves (if fitted). A restricted
amount of water is taken from this discharge and passes through turbocharger cooling space
Antifreeze Mixture
In western countries if the water used in the radiator freezes because of cold
climates, then ice formed has more volume and produces cracks in the cylinder
Blocks, pipes, and radiator. So, to prevent freezing antifreeze mixtures or solutions
are added in the cooling water.
The ideal antifreeze solutions should have the following properties :
(a) It should dissolve in water easily.
(b) It should not evaporate.
(c) It should not deposit any foreign matter in cooling system.
(d) It should not have any harmful effect on any part of cooling system.
(e) It should be cheap and easily available.
(f) It should not corrode the system.

No single antifreeze satisfies all the requirements. Normally following are used as
antifreeze solutions :

(a) Methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols.


(b) A solution of alcohol and water.
(c) Ethylene Glycol.
(d) A solution of water and Ethylene Glycol.
(e) Glycerin along with water, etc
In order to facilitate starting of the diesel generator sets in the winter, or because of distant water
sources, individual drivers often take water after starting the first method, this method is very
harmful to dry after starting the engine, because the body is no cooling water, engine parts heat
up quickly, especially cylinders cover and diesel injector water jacket outside the temperature is
particularly high and, if you then add the cooling water, cylinder head and water jacket is easy
due to quench cracks or deformation while the diesel engine temperature is too high, it will make
a great damage for the diesel generator sets ,the engine should be lifted idling speed after the
load, when coupled with the cooling water temperature is normal
Boil" when, to

prevent

burns

Tank "boil", do not blindly open the radiator cap to prevent burns correct approach is: first off
the diesel engine idling for a while longer diesel generator sets the engine temperature decreases,
the pressure dropped after the tank cover and then unscrew the screw when the water or wipe
with a towel cloth car cover on the lid to prevent hot water, steam spray to the face, the body
must not be the first tank is looking down on, unscrew the hand quickly withdrawn, to be without
heat, steam, and then remove the radiator cap to prevent burns
Winter heating water
Cold winter, the diesel generator sets hard to start, if you can easily start in cold water before
filling with water during or at the end of the increase of water did not start in time, the water in
the tank room and into the water table prone to freezing, causing the water not circulating, crack
filling up even the hot water tank, on the one hand can increase the temperature of the engine
easy to start; the other hand, may try to avoid the freezing phenomenon
Antifreeze to quality
Antifreeze on the market of varying quality, many are shoddy antifreeze preservative free will
within the severe corrosion if thediesel engine cylinder head, water jacket, radiator, water
blocking ring, rubber and other components, while producing large scale, the engine cooling

efficiency, resulting in engine overheating fault so be sure to use regular factory product.
Replenish water softener
After filling the tank antifreeze, if we find lower tank liquid level, to ensure no leakage under
the premise of simply filling a clean soft water (distilled water better), because the general use of
high boiling point glycol-based antifreeze , evaporation of the antifreeze in the water, do not
need to add antifreeze and can only raise water softener is worth mentioning: do not soften the
hard water without filling. This is a good way for the diesel generator sets to run well.
Timely discharge of antifreeze to reduce corrosion
Whether ordinary or long-acting type of antifreeze antifreeze, the temperature becomes too
high, should be promptly released, thus preventing corrosion of parts to increase because of the
preservatives added antifreeze with the use of time will gradually reduce or failure, even worse,
some simply do not add preservatives, which will have a very strong corrosive effect for
the diesel generator sets, and should therefore be released in time according to the temperature of
antifreeze, and in response to cooling after the release of antifreeze Road to conduct a thorough
cleaning
Water regularly, cleaning pipe
Frequently changes the cooling water is not recommended, because the cooling water use over
time, the minerals have been precipitated, unless the water has been dirty, clogged pipes and
radiators may be outside, do not easily replaced, because even if the new replacement of the
cooling water through the softening, but also contains certain minerals, these minerals will
deposit on the water jacket, etc. and the formation of scale, the more ground water exchange,
precipitation of minerals, the more, the thicker scale, and should therefore be based on the actual
situation periodic replacement of the cooling water cooling lines in the replacement should be
cleaned, cleaning fluid in the diesel generator sets can be used caustic soda, kerosene and water,
while the preparation and maintenance of the drain switch, especially in the winter before, the
timely replacement of the damaged switch, not bolts, sticks, rags and other alternative
To open the radiator cap when the drain
Turn on the water if you do not open the radiator cap when the cooling water can flow though a
part of, but with the reduction of water inside the radiator, because the tank closed, would
produce a certain degree of vacuum, leaving the water flow slows or stops, do not turn on the
water in winter due to the net The frozen parts

Should not immediately turn on the water at high temperature


Turn off the engine before, if the engine temperature is high, do not stop immediately turn on the
water, the load should be shed to make it idle until the temperature dropped to 40-50 C and then
turn on the water when, to prevent contact with water cylinder, cylinder head, water cover the
outer surface temperature due to a sudden sharp turn on the water and drop in a sharp
contraction, and the temperature inside the diesel generator sets is also very high, shrinking
small, vulnerable to large temperature difference between inside and outside leaving the cylinder
block, cylinder head cracks
After the engine to idle winter drainage
In the cold winter, let the diesel engine cooling water should start the engine to idle after a few
minutes, mainly due to turn on the water after the water pump and other parts may be some
residual moisture, after starting again, the body of the diesel generator sets temperature can be
dried by the water pump, etc. residual moisture, to ensure that the engine is no water in the pump
to prevent freezing and tear caused by seal leakage phenomenon.
Improve efficiency of cooling tower
The purpose of a cooling tower is to conserve water. It fulfills its purpose by rejecting heat to the
atmosphere by convective and evaporative heat transfer. As water cascades through the cooling
tower, it comes into contact with air that is pushed or pulled through the fill by mechanical draft
fans. Some of the waste heat is transferred from the warmer water to the cooler air by
convection. The remainder of the heat is removed by evaporation of a small percentage of the
recirculated water. The evaporation rate is determined by the following equation:
Evaporation (E) = (0.0085) * (Recirculation rate, R) * (Temperature differential across tower,
dT)
The water that is evaporated from the tower is pure; that is, it doesnt contain any of the mineral
solids that are dissolved in the cooling water. Evaporation has the effect of concentrating these
dissolved minerals in the remainder of the tower water. If this were to occur without restriction,
however, the solubility limit of the dissolved minerals would soon be reached. When the
solubility limit is reached, dissolved minerals (most commonly calcium and magnesium salts)
precipitate as an insoluble scale or sludge. This is the off-white, mineral scale that is frequently
found in heat exchangers, in the tower fill, or deposited in the sump.

To prevent the tower from overconcentrating minerals, a percentage of the cooling water is
discharged to drain. The bleed or blowdown rate is adjusted to control the concentration of
dissolved minerals to just below their solubility limit. This limit is commonly set and controlled
by specific conductance (micromhos/cm) or total dissolved solids (mg/l) measurements.
The water that is lost by evaporation and bleed must be replaced by fresh makeup to maintain a
constant system volume. Makeup is typically obtained from potable water sources, but it may
also come from treated wastewater or recycled water supplies (Figure 7):
Makeup (MU) = Evaporation (E) + Bleed (B) + Uncontrolled losses
Reduce leakage effects by improving sealing material
An oil leak can be a sign of serious problems with an engine, or it can result from improper
maintenance. Depending on the type and size of the leak, engine performance could suffer or the
vehicle may not even run. Even a minor oil leak has the potential to become a major problem,
and leaks should be located and repaired as soon as possible
Oil can be forced past the rings and pistons, resulting in engine-oil loss. This can be caused by
age, excessive engine wear or treatment, poor vehicle maintenance and over-filling the crankcase
oil. In this situation, leaked oil may be visible at the exhaust end of the tailpipe, and the exhaust
may have a bluish tinge accompanied by a noticeably oily od
Three leakage" is diesel fuel oil, water, a flat abbreviation. "Three leakage" diesel engines are
very dangerous: one is the increased oil consumption, waste energy, increase the homework cost;
Two is to accelerate the mechanical parts wear, technical state deterioration, power down; Three
is to shorten the service life of the machine parts, increase the cost of repairs; Four is prone to
accidents; Five is the effect of cars should be neat appearance was and machine car; Six is the
pollution of the environment. Therefore, if the diesel engines appear "three leakage", should be
timely repair. Below introduced several governance "three leakage" method, for JiShou trial.
First, plus mat to leak law: diesel engines hose connector leakproof gasket leaks oil, can be in
leakproof on both sides of the gasket add a layer of double-sided smooth thin plastic mat,
forcibly tightened can prevent leakage.

Second, QiPian fluid to leak law: diesel fuel tanks, water tanks, the crankcase etc, seams leakage
QiPian on alcohol will soak QiPian liquid daub after the juncture in clean can be put to leak. But
QiPian cost high, average in an emergency use only.
Three, taking the oil to leak law: diesel fuel tank pan, cylinder head, gear battery-compartment
cover, the crankcase back cover of the place such as paper pad when leakage, as long as the
paper pad in good condition, jointing surface cleaning, both sides can in the paper pad with a
layer of butter, tighten bolts can prevent leakage. If change, with new paper pad before installing
new paper pad to soak in diesel 10 minutes, then remove them rub-up, wipe a layer in mating
surfaces on reload butter.
Four, liquid sealed plastic to leak law: diesel engines appear on the solid gasket defects (such as
pit concave, groove, rupture) and the formation of interface sex leakage and destructive in liquid
leakage sealant daub is on clean on the solid gasket combination, after curing can form even,
stable and continuous strip sex film adhesion of can be all can prevent and cure gasket, leakage
phenomenon.
Five, anaerobic adhesive to leak law: the ventilation diesel engines bolt, stud, screw plugging the
place such as leakage, with appear anaerobic adhesive daub is on the bolts and thread clean or
screw hole, can quickly fill parts form a thin film, curing space, and can withstand the
tremendous pressure, but also has a shock resistance and against pine tightening function. As for
diesel high-pressure hose connector in thread, put to leak better effects.
Six, size restore glue to leak law: diesel engines with the shaft bearing and bushings, bearing,
valves and valve sit, since the tight seal, felt cup and the place such as overhauling leakage
packing size available in clean blot out the recovery glue with a worn parts until after curing,
they form a wear-resisting, heat-resistant, mechanical strength high film layer, and then for cars,
boring, blow, file etc machinery processing, restore parts of geometric shape and cooperate with
precision and solve.
Seven, sticky glue to leak law: for diesel engines body parts, such as oil tank, cistern, tubing,
conduit of the place such as sand holes, stomata caused by leakage for glue stick in clean blot out
the's lesions, can receive to leak effect.
Maintain proper monitoring of engine for the start-up and shut-down procedures in the case of
longer standstills. The diesel exhaust is fed into two turbochargers. A portion of the exhaust gases

can be utilized in a waste-heat boiler producing steam for preheating the heavy fuel oil and those
units at standby.
Silencers lower the exhaust sound to a level below the values stipulated by Greek and EU
legislation. The system is supplied with fuel from fuel tanks, after being passed through a heavy
fuel oil treatment plant with self-cleaning separators and filter systems. The oil sludge produced
during the treatment is utilized in the incinerator for heat and steam generation.
The diesel engines and generators are cooled in a primary cooling cycle that uses demineralized
water. The cooling water is cooled in a secondary cooling cycle with heat-exchangers that make
use of seawater. Treatment of the seawater is necessary to prevent the formation of algal
vegetation. The operational wastewater from all areas of the power plant is collected and cleaned
in the wastewater treatment plant before being discharged into the sea.
Process control tasks
The DPC system for the new 24-MW units
3, 4 and 5 has the following main process control tasks
Safe and cost-effective start-up and shut-down of the three units, with the shortest possible
times for start-up
Economical handling of changing load conditions on the basis of the power demands made on
the local grid
Automatic control and monitoring of the mechanical equipment, while en Monitoring and control of power plant operation from the central control room
Video display of process data in the control room, facilitating quick intervention by the
operating personnel in the event of disturbances in addition, essential process data is shown on a
mosaic display panel and on an operator desk.
Process control concept
The customer specified high-quality process control features to ensure optimized plant operation.
The installed system with its hardware and software components and a user-friendly manmachine communication interface is designed to meet the demands in full.
The digital stored-program control system is based on a hierarchical control concept with
decentralized units. The data is transmitted over a high-speed data bus (Ethernet IEEE),
providing real time information at any point on the data bus .Monitoring and diagnostic functions

are automatic, thus ensuring reliable fault detection at operator stations in the central control
room for fast clearance of faults. The power plant control and monitoring functions are assigned
to three different control levels to ensure reliable and user-friendly operation and maintenance of
the plant:
Central unit control level
Distributed system control level
Drive control level
The high level of reliability of the DPC system is enhanced further by a redundant
MB 300 bus. This bus is based on coaxial and fiber-optic cables providing links to the process
computers for the diesel-generator sets as well as to the process computers in the vicinity of the
4 Process control concept
The customer specified high-quality process control features to ensure optimized plant operation.
The installed system with its hardware and software components and a user-friendly manmachine communication interface is designed to meet the demands in full. The digital storedprogram control system is based on a hierarchical control concept with decentralized units. The
data is transmitted over a high-speed data bus (Ethernet IEEE), providing real time information
at any point on the data bus .Monitoring and diagnostic functions are automatic, thus ensuring
reliable fault detection at operator stations in the central control room for fast clearance of faults.
The power plant control and monitoring functions are assigned to three different control levels to
ensure reliable and user-friendly operation and maintenance of the plant:
Central unit control level
Distributed system control level
Drive control level
The high level of reliability of the DPC system is enhanced further by a redundant MB 300 bus.
This bus is based on coaxial and fiber-optic cables providing links to the process computers for
thediesel-generator sets as well as to the process computers in the vicinity of the tion rate. Also
over the load and speed range, the relative impact on brake power and thermal efficiency varies.
Therefore, only testing on real engines can show the overall effect of the compression ratio.

Brake thermal efficiency


The brake thermal efficiency,___ is the ratio of the brake power to the power supplied by the
fuel,_ _ and is given
As the compression ratio increases, theoretical thermal efficiency increases, but friction loss
increases to lower mechanical efficiency m [= Pme/
(Pme + Pmf)]. However, in view of the fact that the product of theoretical thermal efficiency
th and mechanical efficiency m becomes greater, it is clear that application of high
compression ratio could improve brake thermal efficiency
The effect of compression ratio on brake thermal efficiency at different loads is shown in Figure2. It is observed that brake thermal efficiency increased when increasing compression ratio for all
fuels at all loads. For biodiesel blend, brake thermal efficiency was always less compared to that
of diesel at all compression with a compression ratio of 20.6:1. This is due to increase in
temperature of the compressed air, which results in better atomization of TPSO, which may
cause better combustion leading to increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine.

Volumetric efficiency
The effect of compression ratio on volumetric efficiency for different loading conditions is
shown in Figure-4. The volumetric efficiency decreased with increasing compression ratio and
load. For biodiesel blends, volumetric efficiency was less by 1.1% compared to that of diesel at a
compression ratio of 20.6:1 at maximum load. At the maximum load, the volumetric efficiency
was 3.4% decreased with increasing the compression ratio from 14.5:1 to 20.6:1 for the biofuel
blend. This is due to higher pressure and temperature of
the residual gas in the clearance volume and also high
combustion chamber temperature.

Volumetric efficiency
Volumetric efficiency in the internal combustion engine design refers to the efficiency with
which the engine can move the charge into and out of the cylinders. More specifically,
volumetric efficiency is a ratio (or percentage) of the quantity of air that is trapped by the
cylinder during induction over the swept volume of the cylinder under static conditions.
Volumetric Efficiency can be improved in a number of ways, most effectively this can be
achieved by compressing the induction charge (forced induction) or by aggressive cam phasing
in Normally Aspirated engines as seen in racing applications. In the case of forced induction
Volumetric Efficiency can exceed 100%.
There are several ways to improve volumetric efficiency, but a system wide approach must be
used to fully realize potential.
Many high performance cars use carefully arranged air intakes and tuned exhaust systems that
use pressure waves to push air into and out of the cylinders, making use of the resonance of the
system. Two-stroke engines are very sensitive to this concept and can use expansion
chambers that return the escaping air-fuel mixture back to the cylinder. A more modern technique
for 4 stroke engines, variable valve timing, attempts to address changes in volumetric efficiency
with changes in speed of the engine: at higher speeds the engine needs the valves open for a
greater percentage of the cycle time to move the charge in and out of the engine.

Volumetric efficiencies above 100% can be reached by using forced induction such
as supercharging or turbocharging. With proper tuning, volumetric efficiencies above 100% can
also be reached by naturally aspirated engines. The limit for naturally aspirated engines is about
100%;[1] these engines are typically of a DOHC layout with four valves per cylinder. This
process is called Inertial Supercharging and uses the resonance of the intake manifold and the
mass of the air to achieve pressures greater than atmospheric at the intake valve.
More "radical" solutions include the sleeve valve design, in which the valves are replaced
outright with a rotating sleeve around the piston, or alternately a rotating sleeve under the
cylinder head. In this system the ports can be as large as necessary, up to that of the entire
cylinder wall. However there is a practical upper limit due to the strength of the sleeve, at larger
sizes the pressure inside the cylinder can "pop" the sleeve if the port is too large.
Volumetric Efficiency is frequently abbreviated as "VE" when discussing engine efficiency.

Engine Volumetric Efficiency (v):

Where:
V = volumetric efficiency
Vair = volume of air taken into cylinder [cc, L, or m3]
Vc = cylinder swept volume [cc, L, or m3]
* Increase the engine volumetric efficiency increase engine power
- Engine of normal aspiration has a volumetric efficiency of 80% to 90%
- Engine volumetric efficiency can be increased by using(turbo and super charger can increase
the volumetric efficiency by 50%)
Mass flow rate (air &fuel)

Mass flow rate.


It is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time.
Mass flow rate is defined by the limit:[2][3]

i.e. the flow of mass m through a surface per unit time t.


(a) The air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately
measure the air flow over the engine operating range during the test. Overall measurement
accuracy must be 2 percent of full-scale value of the measurement device for all modes except
the idle and 2-percent modes. For the idle and 2-percent modes, the measurement accuracy shall
be 5 percent or less of the full-scale value. The Administrator must be advised of the method
used prior to testing.
Corrections to the measured air mass-flow-rate shall be made when an engine system
incorporates devices that add or subtract air mass (air injection, bleed air, etc.). The method used
to determine the air mass from these devices shall be approved by the Administrator.
(c) An engine air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within 1 inch of water of the
upper limit for the engine operating condition which results in maximum air flow, as established
by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the Diesel engine being tested
shall be used.

Overheating
Overheating is a major engine problem that can cause permanent damage if not prevented after
the first occurrence. This is characterized by sudden failure of the engine because of extremely
high temperatures, causing smoke or fire in the engine bay. This situation happens when the heat
generated by the engine exceeds the normal temperature range of 195 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit.
Heat plays an important role in the engine's performance. Whether it is powered by gasoline or
diesel, the engine has a heat limit to maintain. The mechanical energy needed to run the pistons

and other engine components is generated by the pressure produced by heat of the burning fuel.
The amount of energy generated is actually based on the heat produced.
More heat produced means greater engine efficiency. However, the materials composing the
engine have thermal coefficient limits, so these parts can't stand heat above 220 degrees without
detonating.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THERMAL EFFICIENCY


INCREASING COMPRESSION RATIO
Compression is by far the most important consideration if you want to start tuning this engine.
The compression ratio will determine the extent to which this engine can be tuned. It responds
dramatically to changes in compression (both static and dynamic).The XU9J4 doesnt achieve
84hp/litre through accident. Its a very well developed package. All the various components of
the engine work together to make an engine that has a very broad power range that is both
economical and a pleasure to drive. There is basically no bolt-on item that will improve this
engine. So Im not going to talk about pod filters and big exhausts. The first step is to ensure the

standard engine is healthy. If you haven't got 185+ psi per cylinder on a compression test there's
no point in proceeding with other modifications.
Liner wear is the biggest problem with the XU9J4. Disassembling an engine that has done 200250 000 Km will most likely reveal pistons in excellent condition, but worn liners. They wear
badly on the thrust side, approx. 30mm from the top. The amount of wear is a function of
servicing, but theyre basically all much the same. Typically youll find anything up to 0.003
wear at this point. All is not lost however, particularly for track cars. Its possible to hone the
liners a thou. or so, then fit new rings. A slight increase in piston-bore clearance is not an issue
for street cars. Up to 0.003 clearance is fine for track cars, even though they use strutted pistons.
You may not be able to completely remove the wear mark but the resultant rebuild will be a great
improvement on how it was.
Be very careful when choosing a place to bore and hone these liners. An inexperienced operator
will mostly give you back oval shaped liners. The liners must be clamped in a fixture which
simulates the axial load placed on the liner when the head is torqued down. The machine shop I
use has lots of experience doing exotic wet liner engines and is Aircraft Certified.
When looking to increase the CR, the first thing to consider is the compression height, which
determines the quench distance. Regardless of compression ratio, engines respond well to quench
distances (the distance from the piston crown to the cylinder head). To illustrate this consider the
following. The early 1.9L 205 GTi released in Australia was fitted with the XU9J1/Z DFZ engine
and had just 8.4:1 CR. The piston in this engine has a 9cc dish, but the compression height is
37.50mm, some 0.38mm higher than the XU9J4 and 1.22mm higher than the XU9J4Z. The
piston sits just 0.02mm down the bore. Despite the lower compression, this engine has fantastic
throttle response and low end torque.
The XU9J4Z has comparatively poor bottom end and midrange torque, with a distinctive peak at
4000 RPM as it starts to get going. The untrained think that this rush at 4000 is fantastic, but
its only a result of the flat spot prior. The XU9J4 in comparison, has a nice flat torque curve and
is two to three car lengths in front at 4000.

The quality of the petrol in your local area will determine the maximum compression you can
use, but keep in mind that the minimum octane rating for the XU9J4 was 97 RON. With 98 RON
being available in many countries, increasing the CR towards 11:1 (and beyond) should not be an
issue.
There are four methods of increasing the CR, all with their own advantages and disadvantages.
1.Copper Head Gaskets
By far the cheapest method, but also the potentially the deadliest. Copper + Aluminium in an
electrolyte makes a battery, which equals corrosion. The aluminium. head or block being the
anode and the bit which corrodes away. So maximum assembled time is 2-3 years when using a
solid copper gasket.
The standard head gasket is 1.32mm thick. Solid copper gaskets are available in 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.6
and 2.0mm thicknesses. A 0.5mm head gasket will take the CR from 9.7:1 to 10.4:1 on the
XU9J4Z, and a 0.7mm from 10.4:1 to 11:1 on an XU9J4. Because the head and the piston are
now closer, quench distance is also improved, so you can expect significant gains in midrange
torque and throttle response. Approx. AUD$120.
2.Piston/Liner Kits
A piston/liner kit is great way to upgrade an XU9J4Z to 10.4:1. Peugeots kit also contains all the
gaskets and seals you need to complete the job. In addition to more compression, you get a fresh,
as new engine. Unfortunately these are no longer available. You might find a set sitting on the
shelf somewhere gathering dust. Approx. AUD$1500.

3. Block/Liner Decking
Whether youve got an XU9J4 or Z, material can be removed from the block and liners to
optimize the compression and quench height. Aim to get the piston flush with the top of the liner.
This means approx. 1.3mm needs to be removed from the deck of an XU9J4Z. Remember what I
said about the DFZ 205 GTi? Decking the liners is a specialist job however. The liners need to be

held on a mandrel to keep them square to the long axis of the bore. If you get it wrong it will be
very ugly as the liners wont seal properly.
Done correctly, with honed liners and new rings, this upgrade makes for a very sweet engine.
You end up with approx. 10.8:1 and more torque than you ever thought possible from a normally
aspirated 1.9L engine. Allow approx. AUD$400 + honing + rings.
4. Forged Pistons
Forged pistons are of course the ultimate way to get more compression. Whilst unnecessary for
street engines, if youre looking for big hp and high rpm, theyre the best. Forged pistons also
allow several liner lives. Depending on wear, you might be able to use 83.50mm and 84.00mm
sizes on consecutive rebuilds. There are various companies around the world that make pistons
for the XU9J4. Beware of paying for what you dont need. Its possible to buy pistons with very
large domes and corresponding deep valve pockets to accept the wildest of cam lifts. Deep valve
pockets are an unnecessary reduction in compression ratio that has to be overcome with a high
dome, which causes a barrier for the flame front. Approx. AUD$1200 for custom pistons + liner
boring.
Higher compression ratio. Here, we are limited by autoignition of the gasoline knock. That is,
if the gasoline engine compression is above about 10.5, unless the octane number of the fuel is
high, knocking combustion occurs. This is annoying and if persistent, damage to the engine can
occur. Thus, gasoline engines are limited in their efficiency by the inability of the fuel to
smoothly burn in high compression ratio engines.
However, the diesel engine is not subject to this limitation. It runs at high compression ratio. In
part, this explains its high efficiency. It also runs lean, and its pumping work is low, further
increasing its efficiency over the gasoline engine. Humankind needs quiet, smoke-free, odor-free
diesels!
INCREASE CHARGE AIR MASS FLOW RATE
Generally, air flow of supercharged diesel engine (without intercooling) is the function of engine
revolving speed, compressors density of air transmitted, differential pressure of intake and outlet

tubes during valve overlap period. If operating engine at the same speed and increasing load
stably, mass flow rate will increase with the increase of charged air density similarly. Air flow of
engine can be shown on compressors performance curve (Picture 1). Gradient of curve is
controlled by density. The purpose of matching turbo charger with this operating requirement is
to select a compressor so as to make equal speed line of engine lies on the high efficient area of
compressor curve diagram. If intercooler is installed, with the increasing of load, under relevant
charged pressure, the effect of intercooling is to make density of air increase quickly. So,
gradient of air flow line with the same speed on compressor performance curve is smaller than
Picture 1.
Consider an engine operating in accordance with external characteristics, when speed increases,
engines volume flow would increase and turbocharger turbines effective flow area remains the

same, so intake air pressure of turbine will increase. Increase of vortexs available expansion
energy can enhance compressors supercharge pressure. Therefore, equal load line of engine will
not lie on the performance curve horizontally but to increase with the speed (Picture 1) and

gradient depends on whether there is intercooling or not. If engine should run in a certain range
of speed and load (e.g. vehicle generator), then draw a set of equal speed and load line to
represent operating area (Picture 1) on compressors performance curve. The whole engine
performance curve must lie on compressors surge line and low efficiency area and within the
limited range of possible speeding of turbocharger under big flow in case of fire.
There should be enough space between surge line and engines operating line among their
nearest points due to following three reasons. Firstly, although average flow rate line is away
from surge line, impulse of air intake system may evoke vibration. Secondly, if air filter is
blocked severely in use, then air flow will decrease. While air-fuel ratio decreases, due to raise of
outlet temperature, turbines efficiency remains the same and charged pressure may not decrease.
But, operating line of engine may move toward surge line. Thirdly, if engine works on high
altitude places, operating line would move toward surge line dramatically. These three factors
affect surge lines margin jointly and change with different engines and different applications.
However, there is at least 10% range of flow between the nearest points of surge line and
operating line generally. For engine with few cylinders, it should be 20%.
Generally, compared with compressor, turbine can operate in a relatively wider range of mass
flow. So, its more important to prove air flow of engine on compressor curve than that on
turbine characteristic curve. We are lucky on this point indeed. If vortex operates under
extremely unstable pulse system, then average value marked on vortex curve is inauthentic and
the results would be confusing. In order to achieve accurate estimation of operating area of
vortex curve, under the whole operating condition range , instant air flow and pressure ratio lines
should be drawn. However, estimating them is very difficult.

Initially, matching of compressor is to select the best combination of impeller and diffuser to
make engines operating curve fall on above presented flow diagram. Final matching depends on
application of engine and required power or type of torque curve, it will be discussed afterward.
Yet, presume turbine can provide enough power to drive compressor and can meet discussed air
flow requirements, for the reason that turbines effective flow range is wider than compressor,

turbine provided by turbo charger manufactory certainly can match necessary air flow. Whether
enough power can be produced depends on turbines efficiency and turbines area (because it is
mainly used to determine the amount of effective expansion power). Turbine nozzle or volute
control its effective area, so adjusting effective area of turbine can make compressor achieve
expected supercharging pressure level (by changing above mentioned parts). If turbines area is
small, compressors supercharging pressure and mass flow rate will increase and the value of
increased pressure is far more than flow rate. This is because air temperature after supercharging
will rise, too. In Picture2, putting engines operating line onto compressors performance line
shows the influence of turbine area.

Reduce specific fuel consumtion


Specific fuel consumption, abbreviated SFC, compares the ratio of the fuel used by an engine to
a certain force such as the amount of power the engine produces.

Diesel Engine SFC is Specific Fuel Consumption of Diesel Engine. This used to know how
efficient Fuel utilization of Diesel Engine to produce electricity. Usually formula of SFC is Fuel
Consumption divided by Electricity Production (liter/kWh).
Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is a measure of the fuel efficiency of a
shaft reciprocating engine. It is the rate of fuel consumption divided by the power produced. It
may also be thought of as power-specific fuel consumption, for this reason. BSFC allows the fuel
efficiency of different reciprocating engines to be directly compared
To calculate BSFC, use the formula

where:
r is the fuel consumption rate in grams per second (g/s)
P is the power produced in watts where
is the engine speed in radians per second (rad/s)
is the engine torque in newton meters (Nm)
The above values of r,

, and

may be readily measured by instrumentation with an engine

mounted in a test stand and a load applied to the running engine. The resulting units of BSFC
aregrams per joule (g/J)
Commonly BSFC is expressed in units of grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh). The conversion
factor is as follows:
BSFC [g/kWh] = BSFC [g/J](3.6106)
The conversion between metric and imperial units is:
BSFC [g/kWh] = BSFC [lb/hph]608.277
BSFC [lb/hph] = BSFC [g/kWh]0.001644
The relationship between BSFC numbers and efficiency[edit]
To calculate the actual efficiency of an engine requires the energy density of the fuel being used.

Different fuels have different energy densities defined by the fuel's heating value. The lower
heating value (LHV) is used for internal combustion engine efficiency calculations because the
heat at temperatures below 150 C (300 F) cannot be put to use.
Some examples of lower heating values for vehicle fuels are:
Certification gasoline = 18,640 BTU/lb (0.01204 kWh/g)
Regular gasoline = 18,917 BTU/lb (0.0122225 kWh/g)
Diesel fuel = 18,500 BTU/lb (0.0119531 kWh/g)
Thus a diesel engine's efficiency = 1/(BSFC 0.0119531) and a gasoline engine's efficiency = 1/
(BSFC 0.0122225)
1. Fuel Consumption
This data will help us to define how much the engine will consume it fuel during the operation.
Fuel consumption normally in Liter/hour (L/h). If we got this data, it will be easier to continue
the calculation. The others unit to define fuel consumption are g/kWh (gram/kilo watt hour) and
lb/BHP-hr (pound/break horse power hours). For these last two units, we will need some
conversion calculation to be L/h. Following are the conversion calculation:

Where:
kW = Full power output of generator

= Diesel Fuel Density

And:

Where:
Lb

= Pound

BHP

= Break Horse Power

= Diesel Fuel Density (0.85 kg/l)

kW

= Full load output of generator

Reduce specific oill consumption


All engines use a small amount of oil over time. It gets past the piston rings and valve guide
seals and is burned in the combustion chamber. A small amount escapes through the PCV system
and a few drops usually managed to seep through a gasket or seal.
To calculate lubricating oil consumption, we should know the lube oil consumption from the
engine manufacture. The unit of lube oil consumption similar with fuel oil consumption unit,
some manufacture give in L/h, others kg/kWh and lb/BHP-hr.
The next step was to define the evaluation period. For example, if you use the diesel engine
generator set for project purpose and the project duration 2 years, it mean the evaluation period
for the diesel engine generator shall be 2 years, equal to 24 months, equal to, 720 days. Now,
define the diesel engine generator set operation during the day, for example the diesel engine
generator set purpose to supply the working equipment/tools (i.e. welding, cutting machine, etc.).
So, we can assume that the diesel engine generator set will run for 8 hours for a day or 5760
hours for 720 days.
After define the running hour for the engine, now you can calculate how much fuel and lube oil
will be used during the running hours and multiply with the fuel and lube oil price.

Where:
Fuel Consumption Rate = L/h
Lube Oil Cons Rate

= L/h

Engine running hour

= 5760 h

Fuel price

= USD xx

Note:
1.

On this calculation, engine assume working with full load during running hours

2.

Working day assume on this calculation is 360 days in a year

3.

Maintenance cost not considered


Summary:

1.

Expensive diesel engine doesnt mean the total cost will be high, the total price depend
on fuel consumption of the engine

2.

Lower engine fuel consumption rate mean more economical for the total cost.

3.

Higher rated power of generator will increase the fuel consumption rate
Reduce engine over heating
We know that in case of Internal Combustion engines, combustion of air and fuel takes
Place inside the engine cylinder and hot gases are generated. The temperature of gases
Will be around 2300-2500C. This is a very high temperature and may result into burning
Of oil film between the moving parts and may result into seizing or welding of the same.
So, this temperature must be reduced to about 150-200C at which the engine will work
Most efficiently. Too much cooling is also not desirable since it
reduces the thermal efficiency. So, the object of cooling system is
to keep the engine running at its most efficient operating
temperature.
It is to be noted that the engine is quite inefficient when it is cold and hence the cooling system is
designed in such a way that it prevents cooling when the engine is warming up and till it attains
to maximum efficient operating temperature, then it starts cooling.
It is also to be noted that:
(a) About 20-25% of total heat generated is used for producing brake power (useful work).
(b) Cooling system is designed to remove 30-35% of total heat.
(c) Remaining heat is lost in friction and carried away by exhaust gases.

Cooling water jackets are provided around the cylinder, cylinder head, valve seats and any hot
parts which are to be cooled. Heat generated in the engine cylinder, conducted through the
cylinder walls to the jackets. The water flowing through the jackets absorbs this heat and gets
hot. This hot water will then be cooled in the water cooler.
This system forms closed circuit water passing from the engine returns through cooler to pump
suction and then back to engine. A header and expansion tank is placed at a reasonable height
to allow venting and pressurizing of the system. This is connected to both the engine discharge
and the pump suction line. A heater is included with a bypass and the system can warm the
enginewhennecessary.
Cooling water enters at the lower end of the cylinder jackets passing up to connection from the
top of the jacket to the cylinder covers and the exhaust valves (if fitted). A restricted
amount of water is taken from this discharge and passes through turbocharger cooling space
Antifreeze Mixture
In western countries if the water used in the radiator freezes because of cold climates, then ice
formed has more volume and produces cracks in the cylinder
Blocks, pipes, and radiator. So, to prevent freezing antifreeze mixtures or solutions are added in
the cooling water.
The ideal antifreeze solutions should have the following properties :
(a) It should dissolve in water easily.
(b) It should not evaporate.
(c) It should not deposit any foreign matter in cooling system.
(d) It should not have any harmful effect on any part of cooling system.
(e) It should be cheap and easily available.
(f) It should not corrode the system.
No single antifreeze satisfies all the requirements. Normally following are used as antifreeze
solutions :
(a) Methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols.
(b) A solution of alcohol and water.
(c) Ethylene Glycol.
(d) A solution of water and Ethylene Glycol.
(e) Glycerin along with water, etc

In order to facilitate starting of the diesel generator sets in the winter, or because of
distant water sources, individual drivers often take water after starting the first method, this
method is very harmful to dry after starting the engine, because the body is no cooling water,
engine parts heat up quickly, especially cylinders cover and diesel injector water jacket outside
the temperature is particularly high and, if you then add the cooling water, cylinder head and
water jacket is easy due to quench cracks or deformation while the diesel engine temperature is
too high, it will make a great damage for the diesel generator sets ,the engine should be lifted
idling speed after the load, when coupled with the cooling water temperature is normal
Boil" when, to prevent burns
Tank "boil", do not blindly open the radiator cap to prevent burns correct approach is:
first off the diesel engine idling for a while longer diesel generator sets the engine temperature
decreases, the pressure dropped after the tank cover and then unscrew the screw when the water
or wipe with a towel cloth car cover on the lid to prevent hot water, steam spray to the face, the
body must not be the first tank is looking down on, unscrew the hand quickly withdrawn, to be
without heat, steam, and then remove the radiator cap to prevent burns
Winter heating water
Cold winter, the diesel generator sets hard to start, if you can easily start in cold water
before filling with water during or at the end of the increase of water did not start in time, the
water in the tank room and into the water table prone to freezing, causing the water not
circulating, crack filling up even the hot water tank, on the one hand can increase the temperature
of the engine easy to start; the other hand, may try to avoid the freezing phenomenon
Antifreeze to quality
Antifreeze on the market of varying quality, many are shoddy antifreeze preservative
free will within the severe corrosion if the diesel engine cylinder head, water jacket, radiator,
water blocking ring, rubber and other components, while producing large scale, the engine
cooling efficiency, resulting in engine overheating fault so be sure to use regular factory product.
Replenish water softener
After filling the tank antifreeze, if we find lower tank liquid level, to ensure no leakage
under the premise of simply filling a clean soft water (distilled water better), because the general
use of high boiling point glycol-based antifreeze , evaporation of the antifreeze in the water, do
not need to add antifreeze and can only raise water softener is worth mentioning: do not soften

the hard water without filling. This is a good way for the diesel generator sets to run well.
Timely discharge of antifreeze to reduce corrosion
Whether ordinary or long-acting type of antifreeze antifreeze, the temperature becomes
too high, should be promptly released, thus preventing corrosion of parts to increase because of
the preservatives added antifreeze with the use of time will gradually reduce or failure, even
worse, some simply do not add preservatives, which will have a very strong corrosive effect for
the diesel generator sets, and should therefore be released in time according to the temperature of
antifreeze, and in response to cooling after the release of antifreeze Road to conduct a thorough
cleaning Water regularly ,cleaning pipe
Frequently changes the cooling water is not recommended, because the cooling water
use over time, the minerals have been precipitated, unless the water has been dirty, clogged pipes
and radiators may be outside, do not easily replaced, because even if the new replacement of the
cooling water through the softening, but also contains certain minerals, these minerals will
deposit on the water jacket, etc. and the formation of scale, the more ground water exchange,
precipitation of minerals, the more, the thicker scale, and should therefore be based on the actual
situation periodic replacement of the cooling water cooling lines in the replacement should be
cleaned, cleaning fluid in the diesel generator sets can be used caustic soda, kerosene and water,
while the preparation and maintenance of the drain switch, especially in the winter before, the
timely replacement of the damaged switch, not bolts, sticks, rags and other alternative
To open the radiator cap when the drain Turn on the water if you do not open the radiator cap
when the cooling water can flow though a part of, but with the reduction of water inside the
radiator, because the tank closed, would produce a certain degree of vacuum, leaving the water
flow slows or stops, do not turn on the water in winter due to the net The frozen parts Should not
immediately turn on the water at high temperature
Turn off the engine before, if the engine temperature is high, do not stop immediately turn on the
water, the load should be shed to make it idle until the temperature dropped to 40-50 C and then
turn on the water when, to prevent contact with water cylinder, cylinder head, water cover the
outer surface temperature due to a sudden sharp turn on the water and drop in a sharp
contraction, and the temperature inside the diesel generator sets is also very high, shrinking
small, vulnerable to large temperature difference between inside and outside leaving the cylinder
block, cylinder head cracks After the engine to idle winter drainage In the cold winter, let

the diesel engine cooling water should start the engine to idle after a few minutes, mainly due to
turn on the water after the water pump and other parts may be some residual moisture, after
starting again, the body of the diesel generator sets temperature can be dried by the water pump,
etc. residual moisture, to ensure that the engine is no water in the pump to prevent freezing and
tear caused by seal leakage phenomenon.
IMPROVE EFFICIENCY OF COOLING TOWER
The purpose of a cooling tower is to conserve water. It fulfills its purpose by rejecting heat to the
atmosphere by convective and evaporative heat transfer. As water cascades through the cooling
tower, it comes into contact with air that is pushed or pulled through the fill by mechanical draft
fans. Some of the waste heat is transferred from the warmer water to the cooler air by
convection. The remainder of the heat is removed by evaporation of a small percentage of the
recirculated water. The evaporation rate is determined by the following equation:
Evaporation (E) = (0.0085) * (Recirculation rate, R) * (Temperature differential across tower,
dT)
The water that is evaporated from the tower is pure; that is, it doesnt contain any of the mineral
solids that are dissolved in the cooling water. Evaporation has the effect of concentrating these
dissolved minerals in the remainder of the tower water. If this were to occur without restriction,
however, the solubility limit of the dissolved minerals would soon be reached. When the
solubility limit is reached, dissolved minerals (most commonly calcium and magnesium salts)
precipitate as an insoluble scale or sludge. This is the off-white, mineral scale that is frequently
found in heat exchangers, in the tower fill, or deposited in the sump.
To prevent the tower from overconcentration minerals, a percentage of the cooling water is
discharged to drain. The bleed or blow down rate is adjusted to control the concentration of
dissolved minerals to just below their solubility limit. This limit is commonly set and controlled
by specific conductance (micromhos/cm) or total dissolved solids (mg/l) measurements.
The water that is lost by evaporation and bleed must be replaced by fresh makeup to maintain a
constant system volume. Makeup is typically obtained from potable water sources, but it may
also come from treated wastewater or recycled water supplies (Figure 7):

Makeup (MU) = Evaporation (E) + Bleed (B) + Uncontrolled losses


Reduce leakage effects by improving sealing material
An oil leak can be a sign of serious problems with an engine, or it can result from improper
maintenance. Depending on the type a nd size of the leak, engine performance could suffer or the
vehicle may not even run. Even a minor oil leak has the potential to become a major problem,
and leaks should be located and repaired as soon as possible
Oil can be forced past the rings and pistons, resulting in engine-oil loss. This can be caused by
age, excessive engine wear or treatment, poor vehicle maintenance and over-filling the crankcase
oil. In this situation, leaked oil may be visible at the exhaust end of the tailpipe, and the exhaust
may have a bluish tinge accompanied by a noticeably oily od
Three leakage" is diesel fuel oil, water, a flat abbreviation. "Three leakage" diesel engines are
very dangerous: one is the increased oil consumption, waste energy, increase the homework cost;
Two is to accelerate the mechanical parts wear, technical state deterioration, power down; Three
is to shorten the service life of the machine parts, increase the cost of repairs; Four is prone to
accidents; Five is the effect of cars should be neat appearance was and machine car; Six is the
pollution of the environment. Therefore, if the diesel engines appear "three leakages", should be
timely repair. Below introduced several governance "three leakage" method, for JiShou trial.
First, plus mat to leak law: diesel engines hose connector leak proof gasket leaks oil, can be in
leak proof on both sides of the gasket add a layer of double-sided smooth thin plastic mat,
forcibly tightened can prevent leakage.
Second, QiPian fluid to leak law: diesel fuel tanks, water tanks, the crankcase etc, seams leakage
QiPian on alcohol will soak QiPian liquid daub after the juncture in clean can be put to leak. But
QiPian cost high, average in an emergency use only.
Three, taking the oil to leak law: diesel fuel tank pan, cylinder head, gear battery-compartment
cover, the crankcase back cover of the place such as paper pad when leakage, as long as the
paper pad in good condition, jointing surface cleaning, both sides can in the paper pad with a
layer of butter, tighten bolts can prevent leakage. If change, with new paper pad before installing
new paper pad to soak in diesel 10 minutes, then remove them rub-up, wipe a layer in mating
surfaces on reload butter.

Four, liquid sealed plastic to leak law: diesel engines appear on the solid gasket defects (such as
pit concave, groove, rupture) and the formation of interface sex leakage and destructive in liquid
leakage sealant daub is on clean on the solid gasket combination, after curing can form even,
stable and continuous strip sex film adhesion of can be all can prevent and cure gasket, leakage
phenomenon.
Five, anaerobic adhesive to leak law: the ventilation diesel engines bolt, stud, screw plugging the
place such as leakage, with appear anaerobic adhesive daub is on the bolts and thread clean or
screw hole, can quickly fill parts form a thin film, curing space, and can withstand the
tremendous pressure, but also has a shock resistance and against pine tightening function. As for
diesel high-pressure hose connector in thread, put to leak better effects.
Six, size restore glue to leak law: diesel engines with the shaft bearing and bushings, bearing,
valves and valve sit, since the tight seal, felt cup and the place such as overhauling leakage
packing size available in clean blot out the recovery glue with a worn parts until after curing,
they form a wear-resisting, heat-resistant, mechanical strength high film layer, and then for cars,
boring, blow, file etc machinery processing, restore parts of geometric shape and cooperate with
precision and solve. Seepage problem.
Seven, sticky glue to leak law: for diesel engines body parts, such as oil tank, cistern, tubing,
conduit of the place such as sand holes, stomata caused by leakage for glue stick in clean blot out
the's lesions, can receive to leak effect.
Maintain proper monitoring of engine for the start-up and shut-down procedures in the case of
longer standstills.
Process control tasks
The DPC system for the new 24-MW units
3, 4 and 5 has the following main process control tasks:
Safe and cost-effective start-up and shut-down of the three units, with the shortest possible
times for start-up

Economical handling of changing load conditions on the basis of the power demands made on
the local grid
Automatic control and monitoring of the mechanical equipment, while en Monitoring and control of power plant operation from the central control room
Video display of process data in the control room, facilitating quick intervention by the
operating personnel in the event of disturbances; in addition, essential process data is shown on a
mosaic display panel and on an operator desk.
Process control concept
The customer specified high-quality process control features to ensure optimized plant operation.
The installed system with its hardware and software components and a user-friendly manmachine communication interface is designed to meet the demands in full.
The digital stored-program control system is based on a hierarchical control concept with
decentralized units. The data is transmitted over a high-speed data bus (Ethernet IEEE),
providing real time information at any point on the data bus .
Monitoring and diagnostic functions are automatic, thus ensuring reliable fault detection at
operator stations in the central control room for fast clearance of faults.
The power plant control and monitoring functions are assigned to three different control levels to
ensure reliable and user-friendly operation and maintenance of the plant:
Central unit control level
Distributed system control level
Drive control level
The high level of reliability of the DPC
system is enhanced further by a redundant

MB 300 bus. This bus is based on coaxial and fiber-optic cables providing links to the process
computers for the diesel-generator sets as well as to the process computers in the vicinity of the
4 Process control concept
The customer specified high-quality process control features to ensure optimized plant operation.
The installed system with its hardware and software components and a user-friendly manmachine communication interface is designed to meet the demands in full.
The digital stored-program control system is based on a hierarchical control concept with
decentralized units. The data is transmitted over a high-speed data bus (Ethernet IEEE),
providing real time information at any point on the data bus .
Monitoring and diagnostic functions are automatic, thus ensuring reliable fault detection at
operator stations in the central control room for fast clearance of faults.
The power plant control and monitoring functions are assigned to three different control levels to
ensure reliable and user-friendly operation and maintenance of the plant:
Central unit control level
Distributed system control level
Drive control level
The high level of reliability of the DPC\ system is enhanced further by a redundant
MB 300 bus. This bus is based on coaxial and fiber-optic cables providing links to the process
computers for the diesel-generator sets as well as to the process computers in the vicinity.

Combined Cycle Plant for Power Generation:


Introduction
The process for converting the energy in a fuel into electric power involves the creation of
mechanical work, which is then transformed into electric power by a generator. Depending on
the fuel type and thermodynamic process, the overall efficiency of this conversion can be as low
as 30 percent. This means that two-thirds of the latent energy of the fuel ends up wasted. For
example, steam electric power plants which utilize boilers to combust a fossil fuel average 33
percent efficiency. Simple cycle gas turbine (GTs) plants average just under 30 percent efficiency
on natural gas, and around 25 percent on fuel oil. Much of this wasted energy ends up as thermal
energy in the hot exhaust gases from the combustion process.
To increase the overall efficiency of electric power plants, multiple processes can be combined to
recover and utilize the residual heat energy in hot exhaust gases. In combined cycle mode, power
plants can achieve electrical efficiencies up to 60 percent. The term combined cycle refers to
the combining of multiple thermodynamic cycles to generate power. Combined cycle operation
employs a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that captures heat from high temperature
exhaust gases to produce steam, which is then supplied to a steam turbine to generate additional
electric power. The process for creating steam to produce work using a steam turbine is based on
the Rankine cycle.
The most common type of combined cycle power plant utilizes gas turbines and is called a
combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. Because gas turbines have low efficiency in simple
cycle operation, the output produced by the steam turbine accounts for about half of the CCGT
plant output. There are many different configurations for CCGT power plants, but typically each
GT has its own associated HRSG, and multiple HRSGs supply steam to one or more steam
turbines. For example, at a plant in a 2x1 configuration, two GT/HRSG trains supply to one
steam turbine; likewise there can be 1x1, 3x1 or 4x1 arrangements. The steam turbine is sized to
the number and capacity of supplying GTs/HRSGs.
Combined Cycle Principles of Operation
The HRSG is basically a heat exchanger, or rather a series of heat exchangers. It is also called a
boiler, as it creates steam for the steam turbine by passing the hot exhaust gas flow from a gas
turbine or combustion engine through banks of heat exchanger tubes. The HRSG can rely on

natural circulation or utilize forced circulation using pumps. As the hot exhaust gases flow past
the heat exchanger tubes in which hot water circulates, heat is absorbed causing the creation of
steam in the tubes. The tubes are arranged in sections, or modules, each serving a different
function in the production of dry superheated steam. These modules are referred to as
economizers, evaporators, superheaters/reheaters and preheaters.
The economizer is a heat exchanger that preheats the water to approach the saturation
temperature (boiling point), which is supplied to a thick-walled steam drum. The drum is located
adjacent to finned evaporator tubes that circulate heated water. As the hot exhaust gases flow past
the evaporator tubes, heat is absorbed causing the creation of steam in the tubes. The steam-water
mixture in the tubes enters the steam drum where steam is separated from the hot water using
moisture separators and cyclones. The separated water is recirculated to the evaporator tubes.
Steam drums also serve storage and water treatment functions. An alternative design to steam
drums is a once-through HRSG, which replaces the steam drum with thin-walled components
that are better suited to handle changes in exhaust gas temperatures and steam pressures during
frequent starts and stops. In some designs, duct burners are used to add heat to the exhaust gas
stream and boost steam production; they can be used to produce steam even if there is
insufficient exhaust gas flow.
Saturated steam from the steam drums or once-through system is sent to the superheater to
produce dry steam which is required for the steam turbine. Preheaters are located at the coolest
end of the HRSG gas path and absorb energy to preheat heat exchanger liquids, such as
water/glycol mixtures, thus extracting the most economically viable amount of heat from exhaust
gases.
The superheated steam produced by the HRSG is supply to the steam turbine where it expands
through the turbine blades, imparting rotation to the turbine shaft. The energy delivered to the
generator drive shaft is converted into electricity. After exiting the steam turbine, the steam is
sent to a condenser which routes the condensed water back to the HRSG.
CCGT Design Considerations
Designs and configurations for HRSGs and steam turbines depend on the exhaust gas
characteristics, steam requirements, and expected power plant operations. Because the exhaust
gases from a gas turbine can reach 600C, HRSGs for GTs may produce steam at multiple
pressure levels to optimize energy recovery; thus they often have three sets of heat exchanger

modules one for high pressure (HP) steam, one for intermediate pressure (IP) steam, and one
for low pressure (LP) steam. The high pressure steam in a large CCGT plant can reach 40 110
bar. With a multiple-pressure HRSG, the steam turbine will typically have multiple steam
admission points. In a three-stage steam turbine, HP, IP and LP steam produced by the HRSG is
fed into the turbine at different points.
The HRSGs present operational constraints on the CCGT power plant. As the HRSGs are located
directly downstream of the gas turbines, changes in temperature and pressure of the exhaust
gases cause thermal and mechanical stress. When CCGT power plants are used for loadfollowing operation, characterized by frequent starts and stops or operating at part-load to meet
fluctuating electric demand, this cycling can cause thermal stress and eventual damage in some
components of the HRSG. The HP steam drum and superheater headers are more prone to
reduced mechanical life because they are subjected to the highest exhaust gas temperatures.
Important design and operating considerations are the gas and steam temperatures that the
module materials can withstand; mechanical stability for turbulent exhaust flow; corrosion of
HRSG tubes; and steam pressures that may necessitate thicker-walled drums. To control the rate
of pressure and temperature increase in HRSG components, bypass systems can be used to divert
some of the GT exhaust gases from entering the HRSG during startup.
The HRSG takes longer to warm up from cold conditions than from hot conditions. As a result,
the amount of time elapsed since last shutdown influences startup time. When gas turbines are
ramped to load quickly, the temperature and flow in the HRSG may not yet have achieved
conditions to produce steam, which causes metal overheating since there is no cooling steam
flow. In 1x1 configurations, the operation of the steam turbine is directly coupled to the
GT/HRSG operation, limiting the rate at which the power plant can be ramped to load. Steam
conditions acceptable for the steam turbine are dictated by thermal limits of the rotor, blade, and
casing design.
Control equipment for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are
integrated into the HRSG. As these systems operate efficiently over a narrow range of gas
temperatures, they are often installed between evaporator modules.
Flexible Combined Cycle:

The Flexicycle power plant is a combined cycle power plant with unique characteristics based
on Wrtsil gas or dual-fuel reciprocating engines. Because reciprocating engines convert more
of the fuel energy into mechanical work, they have higher simple cycle efficiencies, averaging
near 50 percent. The exhaust gases from reciprocating internal combustion engines are around
360C, much lower temperature than GT exhaust. Due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures,
HRSGs designed for reciprocating engine power plants are much simpler in design, creating
steam at one pressure level approximately 15 bar. The steam turbine process adds
approximately 20% to the efficiency of the Flexicycle power plant.

Flexicycle Power Plant based on reciprocating engines


In a Flexicycle power plant, each reciprocating engine generator set has an associated HRSG.
Bypass valves are used to control the admission of steam to the steam turbine when an engine set

is not operating. One engine can be used to preheat all the HRSG exhaust gas boilers with steam
to keep the HRSGs hot and enable fast starting. Flexicycle power plants combine the advantages
of high efficiency in simple cycle and the modularity of multiple engines supplying the steam
turbine. The steam turbine can be run with only 25 percent of the engines at full load, or 50
percent of the engines at half load. For a 12-engine power plant of around 200 megawatts (MW),
this means only three of the engines need to be operating to produce enough steam to run the
steam turbine. The result is a very efficient power plant that retains the operational agility of a
power plant based on simple-cycle engines.

BOILER:A boiler is a closed [pressure vessel |vessel] in which water or other fluid is heated

HRSG Boiler:A Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) or waste heat boiler is the standard term used for a
steam generator producing steam by cooling hot gases.
Waste heat is obviously a very desirable energy source, since the product is available almost
operating cost-free, and increases the efficiency of the cycle in which it is placed, either for
process steam generation or for incremental power generation.
Heat Recovery Steam Generators (or "HRSG," often pronounced "Herzog") are essentially
boilers that capture or recover the exhaust of a prime mover such as a combustion turbine,
natural gas or diesel engine to create steam.
The system consists of a bank of tubes that is mounted between the prime mover and the exhaust
stack. Exhaust gases at temperatures of 800F to 1200F heat these tubes. Water is then pumped
and circulated through the tubes and can be held under high pressure to temperatures of 370F or
higher resulting in the production of high pressure steam. Since the flue gas never comes in
direct contact with the water, the steam can be safely used in thermally activated cooling
equipment.
HRSGs, which range from 10250 megawatts and have an efficiency of 6085%, are typically

found in many combined cycle power plants.


Heat recovery from a reciprocating engine is much more complicated than with a gas turbine due
to the number of different heat streams that need to be tapped, as shown in the figure below.
Heat Streams from a Reciprocating Engine

Heat from the jacket water, lube oil and exhaust can all be captured, but not directly. The figure
below shows a very typical heat recovery configuration for a reciprocating engine CHP
application. The recovered heat for a reciprocating engine takes the form of low-pressure steam
or hot water in all but the largest units. It should also be noted that the heat from the jacket water
and cooling water must be ejected even if it is not being used, so often reciprocating engine sets
will be equipped with a cooling tower to eject excess heat.
Typical Reciprocating Engine CHP Configuration

CONSTRUCTION
HRSGs consist of four major components: the economizer, evaporator, superheater and water
preheater. The different components are put together to meet the operating requirements of the
unit.

TYPES OF BOILER
Modular HRSGs can be categorized by a number of ways such as direction of exhaust gases flow
or number of pressure levels. Based on the flow of exhaust gases, HRSGs are categorized into
vertical and horizontal types. In horizontal type HRSGs, exhaust gas flows horizontally over
vertical tubes whereas in vertical type HRSGs, exhaust gas flow vertically over horizontal tubes.
Based on pressure levels, HRSGs can be categorized into single pressure and multi pressure.
Single pressure HRSGs have only one steam drum and steam is generated at single pressure level
whereas multi pressure HRSGs employ two (double pressure) or three (triple pressure) steam
drums. As such triple pressure HRSGs consist of three sections: an LP (low pressure) section, a
reheat/IP (intermediate pressure) section, and an HP (high pressure) section. Each section has a
steam drum and anevaporator section where water is converted to steam. This steam then passes
through superheaters to raise the temperature beyond the one at thesaturation point.

Steam turbine
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to
do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

The steam turbine working on Rankine cycle.


RANKINE CYCLE:The model cycle for vapor cycles is the rakine cycle which is composed oif four internally
reversibly process.

T-S Diagrame

Processes:1-2

Isentropic compression in a pump.

2-3 Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler.


3-4 Isentropic expansion in turbine.
4-1 Constant heat rejection in a condenser.
A modern steam turbine generator installation
Because of the high pressures used in the steam circuits and the materials used, steam turbines
and their casings have high thermal inertia. When warming up a steam turbine for use, the main
steam stop valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly
bypass the valve and proceed to heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine.
Also, a turning gear is engaged when there is no steam to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even
heating to prevent uneven expansion. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear, allowing
time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing), then the turning gear is disengaged and
steam is admitted to the turbine, first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating
the turbine at 1015 RPM (0.170.25 Hz) to slowly warm the turbine. The warm up procedure
for large steam turbines may exceed ten hours.[15]

During normal operation, rotor imbalance can lead to vibration, which, because of the high
rotation velocities, could lead to a blade breaking away from the rotor and through the casing. To
reduce this risk, considerable efforts are spent to balance the turbine. Also, turbines are run with
high quality steam: either superheated (dry) steam, or saturated steam with a high dryness
fraction. This prevents the rapid impingement and erosion of the blades which occurs when
condensed water is blasted onto the blades (moisture carry over). Also, liquid water entering the
blades may damage the thrust bearings for the turbine shaft. To prevent this, along with controls
and baffles in the boilers to ensure high quality steam, condensate drains are installed in the
steam piping leading to the turbine.
Maintenance requirements of modern steam turbines are simple and incur low costs (typically
around $0.005 per kWh);[15] their operational life often exceeds 50 years.[15]
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINE:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Condensing turbine
Condensing bleeder turbine
Back pressure turbine
Extraction turbines
Topping turbine
Mixed pressure turbine

Turbocharging and Supercharging

Increasing Engine Power


There are a few ways to increase engine horsepower:

Larger engine displacement


But its costly and adds unwanted weight
Nitrous oxide
Short duration of increased power
Turbochargers and Superchargers
Lightweight, relatively cheap, continuous supply of power

Turbocharging and Supercharging


Weve all heard the saying, Theres no replacement for displacement, and You just cant beat
cubic inches. The basis for these statements is that the greater an engines displacement, the

more air and fuel can be squeezed into the cylinders, and the higher its potential power output.
But theyre not entirely accurate: There is another way to stuff more air and fuel into the
cylinderslots more, in factwithout increasing an engines size. Its called supercharging, which
is a way to force more air into an engine than it could normally take in by atmospheric pressure
alone. Only the most efficient normally aspirated race engines with very specialized induction
tuning can exceed 100 percent volumetric efficiency (VE), but a superchargers forced induction
makes exceeding 100 percent easy; 15 pounds of boost pressure (defined as pressure above the
normal 14.7 psi atmospheric pressure) effectively doubles an engines displacementwith
correspondingly huge potential horsepower increases Supercharging :
Supercharging
The method of increasing the inlet air density is called Supercharging.
More fuel + More air = Bigger explosion = Greater horsepower.
Supercharging can be done both for SI engines as well as in CI engines Supercharging of an
engine can be done using either one of the following components;
1) Superchargers
2) Turbochargers
Why Supercharging :
1. Increases the power of an engine.
2. Increases the torque produced.
3. Necessary in aero-planes as they have less oxygen at high altitudes. Ensures complete
combustion of the fuel. Reduces pollution to some extent
4. Improve volumetric efficiency
5. Reduce exhaust emissions
6. Reduce combustion induced noise.
Supercharger :
A supercharger is an equipment that compresses the air being delivered to an engine, allowing
the combustion chamber to be overfilled without enlarging the space. The higher concentration
of oxygen provided by a super- charger is matched with a larger amount of fuel from the fuel
injectors thus boosting the power of the engine.
Turbochargers :

Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system whose function is same as that of
Supercharger. In order to achieve the boost, the turbocharger uses the exhaust flow from the
engine to spin a turbine, which in turn spins an air pump. The turbocharger is bolted to the
exhaust manifold of the engine. The exhaust from the cylinders spins the turbine, which works
like a gas turbine engine. The turbine is connected by a shaft to the compressor, which is located
between the air filter and the intake manifold. The compressor pressurizes the air going into the
pistons.

Working of turbochargers
1. They are used to increase the volumetric efficiency of the engine by increasing the air-fuel
mixture entering the cylinder
2. The turbocharger housing contains a turbine and centrifugal air compressor on the same shaft
3. The exhaust leaving cylinder spins turbine
4. The compressor forces more air into the cylinder
Compressor typically increases pressure by 6-8 psi, but it can be greater
5. Increased air pressure allows more fuel to burn
6. The compressed air is usually cooled to allow more air in the cylinder and to prevent knocking
7. The increase of 6-8 psi increases horsepower by 308. 40%Turbocharger vs. Supercharger
9. Both operate on the same principle
Both use forced induction to increase engine performance
10. Supercharger use belts and chains that are directly connected to the engine to drive the
compressor
Results in the engine needing to withstand the stresses of generating the increased power
11. Turbochargers do not place a direct mechanical load on the engine
Allows the turbocharger to produce more power that the supercharger without stronger
hardware in the engine

Turbo lag
Turbo lag is the delay between opening the throttle and the turbo spinning and producing boost.
The problem of turbo lag can be eliminated by using a system called anti-lag or ALS. Most of the
world rally cars use this system to improve their performance.
Turbo lag can make even the highest performing turbocharged engine feel sluggish and
unresponsive. This is because larger turbos take longer to spool, thus creating a time gap between
when you hit the throttle and when your engine generates full horsepower response. Though
some turbo lag is inevitable, it's certainly possible to reduce turbo lag with a few bolt-on engine
modifications.

PARTS OF TURBO CHARGER


A turbocharger consists of a compressor wheel and exhaust gas turbine wheel coupled together
by a solid shaft and that is used to boost the intake air pressure of an internal combustion engine.
The exhaust gas turbine extracts energy from the exhaust gas and uses it to drive the compressor
and overcome friction. In most automotive-type applications, both the compressor and turbine
wheel are of the radial flow type. Some applications, such as medium- and low- speed diesel
engines, can use an axial flow turbine wheel instead of a radial flow turbine. The flow of gases

through a typical turbocharger with radial flow compressor and turbine wheels is shown in
Figure.
Compressor Side
The compressor side is usually made of aluminum alloys and it also consists
of two parts. The inlet part or casing deals with drawing air from the
surrounding areas i.e engine room or deck spaces. If air is drawn from the
deck spaces, special ducting is made for the same. The advantage of
drawing air from the deck spaces is low air temperature and humidity. While
the advantage of drawing air from the engine space is that the air is
pressurized

and

there

is

no

need

for

long

and

complex

ducting

arrangements.
The main parts on the compressor side are inducer, impeller, diffuser and
inlet and outlet casing.

Turbine Side
The turbine side is usually made of cast iron material. The inlet side of the turbine have
nozzle blade ring which is used for two purposes

To guide the incoming gas onto the turbine wheel

To house the turbine bearings


The outlet side of the turbine casing consists of blower and air passages to supply air to
labyrinths seals.

Wastegates
On the exhaust side, a Wastegate provides us a means to control the boost pressure of the engine.
Some commercial diesel applications do not use a Wastegate at all. This type of system is called
a free-floating turbocharger. However, the vast majority of gasoline performance applications
require a Wastegate. There are two (2) configurations of Wastegates, internal or external. Both
internal and external Wastegates provide a means to bypass exhaust flow from the turbine wheel.
Bypassing this energy (e.g. exhaust flow) reduces the power driving the turbine wheel to match
the power required for a given boost level. Similar to the BOV, the Wastegate uses boost pressure
and spring force to regulate the flow bypassing the turbine.

Internal Wastegates are built into the turbine housing and consist of a "flapper" valve, crank arm,
rod end, and pneumatic actuator. It is important to connect this actuator only to boost pressure;

i.e. it is not designed to handle vacuum and as such should not be referenced to an intake
manifold.
External Wastegates are added to the exhaust plumbing on the exhaust manifold or header. The
advantage of external Wastegates is that the bypassed flow can be reintroduced into the exhaust
stream further downstream of the turbine. This tends to improve the turbine's performance. On
racing applications, this Wastegated exhaust flow can be vented directly to atmosphere.
Methods of Turbocharging and their Advantages and Limits
Constant Pressure Turbocharging: The exhaust from various cylinders discharge into a
common manifold at pressures higher than the atmospheric pressure. The exhaust gasses from all
the expanded in the exhaust valves to an approximately constant pressure in common manifold
from here it passes to turbine. Thus the blow-down energy, in the form of internal energy, is
converted into work in the turbine. The exhaust gases are maintained at constant pressure during
the whole cycle so that a pure Reaction turbine can be used. Advantages: The exhaust piping is
very simple for a multi-cylinder engine as well as single-cylinder, highly efficient turbine can be
used. Engine speed is not limited by the pressure waves in the exhaust pipes. Disadvantages:
Scavenging is not efficient. At part load the efficiency of turbine reduces due to partial
admissions to the turbine Pulse Turbocharging: Considerable part of the blow-down energy is
converted into exhaust pulses as soon as the exhaust valve opens. Towards the end of exhaust the
pressure in the exhaust pipe drops below the scavenging and large air pressure making
scavenging quite easy. The rate of the exhaust gas at the various turbine inlet is different and
variable in time. Advantages: The space required is less due to short and smaller diameter pipes.
Comparatively better scavenging is obtained at low loads due to reduced pressure.
Disadvantages: With large number of cylinders complicated inlet and exhaust pipe arrangements
are needed. The length of the pipe or engine speed is limited.
Two Stage Turbocharging
Two Stage Turbocharging: Two stage turbocharging is defined as use of two turbochargers of
different sizes In series; for example a high-pressure stage operating on pulse system and a lowpressure stage on constant pressure operation. Advantages: Better matching of the turbochargers
to engine operating conditions possible. The efficiency of two-stage turbocharger is higher than

that of a single stage turbocharger having a high boost ratio. Disadvantages: The space
requirement is higher. The total system is heavier.

Limitations of Turbocharging
The use of Turbochargers requires special exhaust manifolds. Fuel injection has to be modified
to inject more fuel per unit time. The efficiency of the turbine is sensitive to gas velocity so
difficult to obtain good efficiency over a wide range of operations. One of the main problem with
turbochargers is that they do not provide an immediate power boost. It takes a second for the
turbine to get up to speed before boost is produced. This results in a lag known as Turbo Lag
Advantages of Turbochargers over Superchargers: Less weight and size. No load on the engine.
Efficiency of the engine is increased.
Difference between Supercharger & Turbocharger
1.

Firstly the driving power of the two units is considered. The compressors in
Superchargers are driven by the power taken directly from the engine whereas as

mentioned above for driving a turbocharger unit the exhaust gases are used. Since the
supercharger draws mechanical energy from the engine directly it is less efficient when
compared to a turbocharger which uses the waste gas energy.
2.

With this advantage of turbochargers over superchargers, the former are used
where fuel economy is a concern i.e in many of the present cars, whereas the
superchargers are employed in sports cars which are meant for faster speeds and not
better economy.

3.

Secondly a supercharger is easier to control in terms of the power output while


the turbochargers are known for their dramatic rise in pressures and tremendously high
working temperatures making them inherently more difficult to control at the time when
they deliver the additional power.

4.

Another important difference between the two is that since the supercharger is
driven directly by the engine through belts, the response of the same is pretty
instantaneous and a sudden increase in power is observed. On the other hand in
turbochargers, exhaust gases control the drive and hence the system takes a bit of time
before it it reaches the operating speed after opening the throttle which is also referred
to asTurbo Lag.

5.

Complexity in design is another factor and at this point turbocharger takes the
lead with its compactness and require significantly less space. In contrast a
supercharger is more difficult to adopt in a car and the modification is too time
consuming as more space is needed for the same.

6.

Expensiveness of the two is quite differentiating with the superchargers being


more costly than a conventional turbocharger. Now a days all vehicle having either
supercharger or turbocharger, are intercooled. Since the temperature of the
compressed incoming air is high, an intercooler is used to cool this air making it more
efficient in terms of combustion.

HEAT BALANCE SHEET


Observed Data:- (One hour test)

For Engine # 08
Generator rpm =500
Kilowatt hour generated by engine = 14079 Kwh
Kilowatt hour generated by turbine= 7261 Kwh
HFO consumed by engine=2920Kg
SFC of engine=207gm/Kwh
Mass flow rate of HFO=0.8111Kg/sec
C.V net of HFO=9781Kcal/Kg (40924KJ/Kg)
Density of HFO=892Kg/m^3
Total heat supplied =33194Kw
Brake power of engine =14820Kw ( Gen. =95%)
Indicated power of engine =17435Kw (Mech. =95%)
Energy to H/T coolant (close circuit)
Energy from engine block= 96*4.2*(83-77)
=2419Kw
Energy from turbo charger (12% of engine block)= 2419*0.12
=289Kw
Energy from charge air cooler =96*4.2*(91-83)
=3226Kw
Total energy to H/T coolant =3226+2419+289
=5934Kw
Energy to L/T coolant (close circuit)
Energy from charge air cooler=105*4.2*(45-41)
=1764Kw
Energy from lube oil cooler =105*4.2*(49-45)
=1764Kw
Total energy to L/T coolant= 1764+1764
=3528Kw
Total energy extracted by H/T, L/T from engine= 3528+5934
=9462Kw
Energy of H/T used for condensate heating=1/2*96*4.2*(91-65)
=5242Kw
Net energy extracted by H/T, L/T from engine =9462-5242
=4220Kw

Energy to cooling tower = Net energy extracted by H/T, L/T =4220Kw

Energy to Exhaust Gases


=25.46*1.25*(407-61)
=11011Kw
Energy to surroundings
Heat supplied (Indicated power + Energy to cooling water + Energy to exhaust)
=33194-(17435 + 4220 + 11011)
=528Kw
Energy distribution

Kilowatt

%age

Heat suplied

33194

100%

Brake power

14820

44.64%

Frictional power

2615

7.87%

Energy to cooling water

4220

12.71%

Energy to exhaust

11011

33.17%

Energy to surrounding

528

1.6%

Steam turbine
Observed data
Kilowatt generated in one hour=7261Kwh
Steam flow rate=5500Kg/hr
Total boilers in operation=07
Total steam flow rate=5500*7
=38500kg/hr
Steam t/b inlet pressure=10.3bar
Steam t/b inlet temp=342C
Condensate pressure=0.095bar
Speed reduction=6750/1500 rpm
Inlet enthalpy h1 (from steam table) =3141Kj/Kg
Outlet enthalpy h2 (from steam table) =184.5Kj/Kg
Work done by steam turbine=h1-h2
=2956.8Kj/Kg
Total work done=(38500/3600)*2956.8
31621.3Kw
Now t/b (25%) brake power =0.25*31621.3
=7905.3Kw (counter checked)
Winding loses=7905.3-7261
=644Kw (Gen. 88%)

REFERENCE:
Density of Coolant : 1100 kg/m^3
(Energy to flowing fluid= mass flow rate * specific heat * temp. gradient)
Specific Heat Of Coolant : 4.20kj/kg-k
Specific Heat Of Water : 4.18kj/kg-k
Specific Heat Of Exhaust Gases : 1.25kj/kg-k
Mass flow rate of L/T Coolant: 105Kg/sec
Mass flow rate of H/T Coolant: 96Kg/sec
Mass flow rate of Exhaust gases : 25.46Kg/sec
Mass flow rate of HFO: 0.811Kg/sec
.