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Q. What is Entomology?

Ans.It is a branch of Zoology which is concerned with study


of various aspects of insects (Gr.entomon - insect, logos – Classification of the Class Insecta
study).
Class Insecta is divided into two subclasses –
Q. Describe various branches of Entomology? Apterygota (ametabola) and Pterygota (metabola).
Ans. Some of the important branches of Entomology are:
1. Basic Entomology Subclass Apterygota Subclass Pterygota
2. Applied Entomology
3. Physiological Entomology
4. Structural Entomology Primitive Advanced
5. Ethological Entomology Wingless Primarily winged
6. Ecological Entomology Chewing mouth parts Various types of
7. Systematic Entomology mouthparts
8. Economic Entomology Metamorphosis absent or Various degrees of
9. Evolutionary Entomology slight metamorphosis
Abdomen bears appendages Abdomen bears only anal
Q. Describe various branches of Economic Entomology. and cerci cerci
Ans. Five important branches of Economic Entomology are: Divided into 4 orders Divided into 17 orders
1. Agricultural Entomology
2. Forest Entomology
3. Veterinary Entomology
1. Subclass Apterygota (Ametabola).Four orders are
4. Domestic Entomology
– Protura (e.g., Telson Tails) Thysanura (e.g., Lepisma
5. Medical Entomology
– Silver Fish, Bristle Tails), Diplura and Collembola
(Spring Tails).
Q. Describe class Insecta.
Ans.The class Insecta (L. insectus – insect; Fr. in-secto – to
2. Subclass Pterygota (Metabola). Divided into two
cut into, i.e., segmentation); also called Hexapoda (Gr.
divisions – Exopterygota (hemimetabola) and
hexos – six; podos - feet) is the most diverse, most
Endopterygota (holometabola).
widespread, most adapted and most successful group of the
kingdom Animalia. It is represented by more than 750,000
spp. accounting for 75% of the total animal spp. Division Exopterygota Division Endopterygota
Wings develop as Wings develop as internal
Important Characteristics of the class Insecta:- external buds of buds; emerge out suddenly
(i) Their body is divided into three regions or tagmata – head, integument
thorax and abdomen; Malpighian tubules a Malpighian tubules a few
(ii) Appendages represented by a pair of antennae, a pair of few to many
compound eyes and 3 pairs of mouth parts in head region; Young hatching from Young hatching from
three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings in thorax; a pair egg is nymph /naid young is larva
of anal cerci in abdomen of adults; Metamorphosis Gradual Metamorphosis Complete
(iii)Respiration by tracheal system; or Incomplete
(iii) Presence of Malpighian Tubules for excretion and Pupal stage absent Pupal stage present
osmoregulation;
(iv) Generally oviparous; youngs hatching from eggs different
from adults, therefore, have to undergo varying degree of
1. Division Exopterygota. Divided in to three groups –
metamorphosis involving series of moults.
(i) Group Palaeoptera. Wings spread laterally at rest;
Q.Give reasons for the success of the class Insecta.
Malpighian tubules numerous. Includes one important
Ans. Following reasons attribute to success of the class
order:
Insecta:-
(i) Small body size
Order Odonata.
(ii) Strong chitinous exoskeleton
Examples: Dragon Fly, Damsel Fly.
(iii) High mobility
(iv) Fast contracting muscles
(ii) Group Orthopteroid Neoptera. Wings kept
(v) Tracheal respiration
folded over back at rest; Malpighian tubules
(vi) High adaptability
numerous; mouth parts chewing; cerci present.
(vii) Rapid multiplication
Includes five important orders:
(viii)Efficient water conservation
(ix)Quick perception of stimuli
Order Orthoptera.
• Forewings tegmina and hind wings
Q. Give classification of class Insecta; also give various
membranous;
criteria employed.
Ans. Class Insecta is classified on the basis of three criteria:- • Mouth parts chewing type;
(i) Nature of wings • Metamorphosis gradual;
(ii) Types of mouth parts • Metalegs long and jumping type;
(iii)Kinds of metamorphoses Examples: Grasshoppers, Locust, Crickets.
Order Phasmida. • Have only anterior pairs of wings; hind wings
Examples: Stick Insects, Leaf Insects. reduced knob-like called halteres;
• Metamorphosis complete;
Order Dermaptera.
• Larva limbless and vermiform called maggot;
Example: Earwig.
Examples: True Flies (Housefly, Blowfly,
Fruitfly, Horsefly), Mosquitoes.
Order Dictyoptera.
Examples: Cockroaches, Mantids.
(c) Order Siphonoptera.
• Secondarily wingless;
Order Isoptera.
• Body latero-laterally flattened;
• Social polymorphic;
• Mouth parts piercing and sucking type;
• Only sexual forms have two pairs of membranous
wings; • Legs modified for jumping;
• Metamorphosis complete;
• Mouth parts chewing; • Larva limbless vermiform.
• Metamorphosis gradual. Example: Fleas.
Example: Termites.
(d) Order Hymenoptera.
(iii) Group Hemipteroid Neoptera. Wings kept folded on
• Often social or parasitic on other insects;
back; Malpighian tubules a few; mouth parts piercing and
sucking types. Include four important orders: • Chewing and lapping type;
• Two pairs of membranous wings;
(a) Order Mallophaga. • Abdomen constricted from thorax and in
Examples: Biting or Chewing Lice. females ends in piercing ovipositor or sting;
• Metamorphosis complete;
(b) Order Anoplura. • Larva grub-like or maggot-like.
• Secondarily wingless; Examples: Ants, Bees, Wasps, Sawflies.
• Mouth parts piercing and sucking types;
(e) Order Coleoptera.
• Eyes vestigeal or lacking;
• Stoutly built body;
• Legs adapted to clinging ending in claws;
• Mouth parts chewing type;
• Metamorphosis absent.
Examples: Sucking Lice (e.g., Pediculus). • Forewing elytra and hind wings membranous;
• Metamorphosis complete;
(c) Order Hemiptera. • Larva caterpillar-like or maggot-like
• Anterior pairs of wings are hemielytra; Examples: Beetles and Weevils.
• A triangular plate ‘scutellum’ between bases of .
wings;
• Mouth parts piercing and sucking type with base of
beak far forward;
• Metamorphosis gradual.
Example: Scale Bug, Bed Bug.

(d) Order Homoptera.


• Both pairs of wings are membranous;
• Mouth parts piercing and sucking type with beak
near thorax;
• Metamorphosis gradual
Examples: Aphids, Cicadas.

(e) Order Thysanoptera.


Examples: Thrips.

2. Division Endopterygota. Divided in to five important


orders
:
(a) Order Lepidoptera.
• Wings two pairs membranous covered with minute
overlapping scales;
• Mouth parts siphoning type;
• Metamorphosis complete;
• Larva called caterpillar with chewing mouth parts,
silk glands and 5 pairs of stumpy abdominal legs.
Examples: Moths and Butterflies.
(b) Order Diptera.
• Mouth parts piercing and sucking or sponging type;