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TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS OF SPEAKING SKILL

(A descriptive study at Fourth Grades of Elementary Students in Indonesia)

SYNOPSIS
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Arranging the Thesis
of Bachelor of English Education

By :
SUCIATI ANANDES
Students Number : 11214201482

State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau


Faculty Of Education And Teachers Training
English Education Department
2015

Table of contents

Table of contents

BACKROUND OF PROBLEM 3
PROBLEM 5
Identification of the problem
Limitation of the problem

Formulating of the problem 7


OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

RESEARCH METHOD 8
Research design

Time and location of the research 9


Population and sample of the research 10
Data collection technique

11

Data analysis technique

13

References 14

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A. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

According to H.G Widdowson in Teaching Language as


Communication (1987: 57) Language is most important as a
means

of

communication

for

human

beings.

People

can

communicate each other to have interaction by language. In this


global era where the distance is not such a problem, people have
to do interaction with another. Because people nowadays have to
do many things to survive their life, that is why they have to do
the business not only from the local area but also with the people
who come from a very long distance. But in other hand, in this
world there are many tribes, culture, countries, in which each of
them has the different language.
English has become the most global language, the lingua
franca (An international communication)

of business, science,

education, politics and music. More than 300 millions people in


the world speak English.
In TEFLIN Journal, The Status and Function of English in
Indonesia: A review of Key Factors (Allan Launder: 2008), English
was first made mention of formally in 1955 at a conference of
teacher trainers, when Mr. Wachendorff, the first head of the
Central Inspectorate of English Language Instruction in Ministry
of Education, stated that English could never be the second
official language, but rather than it should be the first foreign
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language (Komaria, 1998: 24-25). Since the proclamation of


Indonesia on the 17th of August 1945 English has been taught in
this country as the first foreign language. This is not the first time
that the teaching of a foreign language is introduced in the
curriculum of Indonesian school. English language has been
included in the curriculum of Elementary School to University.
Because of the demand of global era, we have to know how to
use English well. In order to be able to use it well, we have to
improve speaking, listening, writing and reading skills. Dealing
with this complexity, speaking skill must be practiced since
elementary level because it is the golden age to acquire new
things more easily. According to Mackey, cited by Bambang Setyadi
in Teaching English as Foreign Language, (2006: 177), the most
common factors that affect the choice of method are age, aptitude,
second language level, interest, the time he can devote to language
learning, the size of group to with whom he practices the language,
and the culture group to which he belongs. The childrens language

development (particularly in their first language) is increasing


highly. They have known many vocabularies and are able to say
long sentences better. They are also able to speak more fluently.
As the most important aspect, speaking skill has some
factors which is made it difficult. Brown said (2001: 270) there
are some features that make speaking as difficult language skill.

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They cover clustering, redundancy, reduced forms, performance


variables, colloquial language, rate of delivery, stress, rhythm,
intonation of English and interaction. In order to successfulness
of teaching speaking skill to elementary school students, the
teacher must develop curriculum; select the appropriate teaching
materials, teaching methods, and learning assessments.
This research is aimed to find teaching methods that can
help the students improve their speaking skill. The purposes of
this research are to support and push our development as
teachers. the researcher is going to investigate them by the title:
Teaching and Learning Process of Speaking Skill (A
Descriptive

Study

at

Fourth

Grades

of

Elementary

students in Indonesia).
It long has been hypothesised that children learn the
second language better than adult and this is often used to
support the early introduction of foreign language teaching. The
children brain can more easily accept new things before puberty,
and that acquisition of language is possible without self
consciousness. There are many theories that support the
advantages of introducing foreign language in early age. In the
implementation of teaching English speaking skill, it is interesting
to know the teaching materials, teaching methods, and learning

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assessments used by the teachers to teach the elementary


school students.

B. PROBLEM
1. Identification of the problem
To identify the problem in the field, the researcher did an
observation before doing the research. In the observation, some
information about the problem in teaching and learning process
of fourth grade students at Elementary school in Indonesia was
obtained. Those existing problems are described as follows :
a. The first problem is related to the students. In general the
students had less motivation in learning English. They did not
show the interest to take part in the classroom activities,
moreover students in Elementary school. They were passive
in teaching and learning process. Actually, there were a few
of the students who wanted to learn and to practice their
English but they were not brave enough to find partners and
practice speaking English. This is perhaps related to the fact
they have inadequate mastery of vocabularies, grammar, and
pronunciation. On the other hand, some of them did not pay
attention to the teacher and the lesson whereas students as
the main part of the learning process play an important role
in maintaining the quality of interaction in the classroom.

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Students who give positive responses to the teachers talks


and the classroom activities indicate a good quality of
classroom interaction.
b. The second problem is learning materials. The learning
materials which are good for maintaining the classroom
interaction should provide opportunities for the teacher and
students to interact. However, the students only had a
worksheet or LKS, as their main course book in Elementary
school. The materials in this book did not provide activities
stimulating interaction. Therefore, the teacher must give
them communicative and attractive activities to invite their
interest.
c. The third problem is related to the students speaking
achievement. They found it difficult to choose the appropriate
expressions in particular conditions and expressing their
ideas because of limited vocabularies, missed in pronouncing
some words and develop their confidence to speak English.
d. the last problem is English teaching learning process, media
and technique are the factors needed to support the process.
Media play an important role in facilitating the teaching
learning process. Media can provide students with learning
experience. The use of media and good teaching technique in
the English teaching and learning process are so helpful that

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the process can run effectively and efficiently and also the
teachers assessment about the students achievements.
2. Limitation of the problem
Not all problems can be investigate at once. Because it is
too board to investigate the problems above, therefore, in this
research; the writer limits the problems of his research to the
circle of the implementation of English language teaching
learning of speaking class in terms of teaching materials,
teaching methods, and learning assessments to the fourth
grades students at Elementary school in Indonesia.
3. Formulation of the problem
The problem of this research can be formulated as follow:
How is the implementation of English language teaching learning
of speaking class in terms of teaching materials, teaching
methods, and learning assessments to the fourth grade students
at Elementary school in Indonesia ?

C. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH


The objectives of the research is to investigate the application of
English language teaching learning of speaking class in terms of
teaching materials, teaching methods, and learning assessments
to the fourth grade students in Elementary school Based on
objectives above, the result of the study is expected to give
advantages as follows:

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a. Theoretically; the result of the study can give larger


knowledge about teaching English language speaking skill to
elementary

school

students

for

writers,

readers,

and

teachers.
b. Pedagogically; the result of the study is expected to be as
follows:
Motivator for the teacher to improve the quality of

English language teaching for young learners.


Reference in English language teaching for young
learners not only for the teachers but also for the writers
and the readers.

D. RESEARCH METHOD
1. Research Design
According to David Nunan in Research Method in Language
Learning (1992), Research is systematic process of inquiry
consisting of three elements or components: (1) a question,
problem,

or

hypothesis,

(2)

data,

and

(3)

analysis

and

interpretation of data.
There are two kinds of research namely Qualitative and
quantitative research. There are some differences between
Qualitative and Quantitative research. One of the differences
between both of them is in Qualitative research, the data is
analyzed using sentences, and in Quantitative research, the data
is analyzed using numbers. Richard and Cook (cited in Nunans
book:

Research

Method

in

Language

Learning)

draw

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distinction between quantitative and qualitative research as


follows:
Quantitative research is obtrusive and controlled, objective,
generalisable; outcome oriented, and assume the existence of
facts which are somehow external to and independent of the
observer or researcher. Qualitative research, on the other hand,
assumes that all knowledge is relative, that there is a subjective
element to all knowledge and research, and that holistic,
ungeneralisable studies are justifiable (an ungeneralisable study
is one in which the insights and outcomes generated by the
research cannot be applied to context or situations beyond those
in which data were collected).
From the definition above, a research that the researchers
use is qualitative research, because the data are descriptive in
the forms of written and spoken. This research combines library
and field research. Library research is to get secondary data and
field research is for getting primary data from participants
directly. Therefore, researcher will visit to the setting to do
observation.
2. Time and Location of the research
In a qualitative research, source of primary data are the
actions and the words and the source of additional data is the
written data, documents such as written data, pictures, or statistical
data (Lexy J. Moleong, Metode Penelitian Kualitatif, 2005: 216). If the

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researcher uses interview to collect the data, someone who


responds or answers the researcher question is the source of data. If
the researcher uses observation to collect the data, the source of
data is the movable thing or the process which is observed. The
source of data in this research is as follow:
1. The headmaster of elementary school who gives further
information about the history of establishing school, the aims in
Teaching English for elementary students, and school curriculum.
2. The English teacher in the fourt grade of Elemetary school who
gives some further instructional information.
3. The teaching materials and methods, learning assessments
employed in the elementary school that will be observed by the
researcher.
4. The school files (the data of teachers and students, lesson
schedule, proposal of
establishing school), students worksheet, students exercise book,
and pictures.

Natural environment as direct source of data is one of


qualitative research characteristics beside human as data collector
and analyzing the data inductively. So, the researcher has to go to
the setting directly (Nurul Zuriah , Metodologi Penelitian Sosial dan
Pendidikan, 2006:93). Therefore, selecting the suitable setting is
necessary to be concerned. The researcher selects Elementary

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school as setting of this research because it is the first time for


students in Indonesia learning English. In other words, this setting is
suitable with the goal of this research. And the researcher had
collected the data during four weeks. Nevertheless, the researcher
just observed on the fourth grade of Elementary school.

3. Population and Sample of the research


Population is all of the research of subject. The population of this
research is all the students of Elementary school (for narrowing the
sample,

the

researcher

just

observed

elementary

school

in

Pekanbaru). While sample is part of population, which is chosen to


participate in the study. The researcher used purposive sample as
the sampling technique. This is the technique which is done by
taking the subject not based on the strata, random or area but baed
on the availability of time, fund and energy in order to reach a
certain purpose. The researcher observed not at all of classes but
only a class, that is fourth grade. And learning process of speaking
skill in terms of teaching materials, teaching methods, and
assessments.
4. Data collection Technique
a. Classroom Observation
Classroom observation is an observation that is focused on
the understanding of how social events of the language classroom
are enacted (David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning,
1992:93) In this classroom observation, the subjects of observation
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are teacher and students activities in English language teaching


learning. It focuses on the teaching and learning methods and
assessment. The researcher uses non participatory observation, in
non participatory observation, the researcher does not participate in
the activity of the research object.
In this research, the observation is systematic. The researcher
had decided the observation scheme. Generally, the observation
scheme contains teaching material consist of teaching materials,
textbooks, and teaching aids, teaching methods, with particular
reference on the teaching methods and the medium of instruction,
and learning assessments covering the technique of learning
assessment. The observation will be done by the researcher at the
fourth grade of Elementary School. Here, the researcher observed
the teaching and learning process and assessment process, what
kinds of assessments which used by the teacher, and how many
times the teacher assesses their students, in according to increase
the students comprehension in English speaking skill.

b. Interview
According to M. Iqbal Hasan, Pokok-Pokok Metode Penelitian dan
Aplikasinya (2002:85) Interview is the technique of data collection
by asking question to the respondents and the answer will be noted
or

recorded.

Interview

is

done

to

get

further

instructional

information about teaching and learning process of speaking skill at

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elementary school. The researcher interviewed the headmaster and


the teacher who teaches speaking at the forth grade class.
In the interview, the researcher used semi-structural interview (i.e.
the interviewer has general idea of what will do interview and what
should come out of interview, but the interviewer does not use a list
for predetermined question). The researcher used the general idea
to interview. In interviewing the headmaster, the general idea which
will be asked are the history of establishing school, the aims in
Teaching English for elementary students, and school curriculum.
This is to obtain further explanation about the researchers
classroom observation or another question which related to
teaching learning and assessment process which not be gathered
from observation.

c. Doumentation
It is done to obtain the written data, such as note, transcript,
newspaper, magazine, agenda, etc. The researcher used this
method to obtain documents which is related to this research. They
are school files (the data of teachers, a syllabus for fourth grade,
lesson plan), students worksheet, students textbook, and pictures.
5. Data Analysis Technique
Technique of data analysis that the researcher used are as
follows:
a. All of the data collected through observation, interview, and
documentation was categorized as follows:
i. Language teaching and learning material
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ii. Language teaching and learning method


iii. Language learning assessments
b. Each data above was described as detail as the researcher got.
c. The researcher analyzed what extend the instructional practice
described above meet the principle of English language teaching
for young learners.
d. The analysis found the implementation of teaching speaking at
elementary classroom.

References

Bambang Setyadi. (2006). Teaching English as Foreign Language.


Graha Ilmu: Yogyakarta.
David Nunan. (1992). Research Method in Language Learning.
Cambridge University Press: USA.
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Hornby, A.S. (1995). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of


Current Language. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Lexy J. Moleong. (2005). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. PT. Remaja
Rosdakarya: Bandung.
Lucy Pollard. (2008). Teaching English. Lucy Pollard Copyright:
London.
Martin H. Manser. (1995). Oxford Learnoers Pocket Dictionary.
Oxford University Press: Oxford.
M. Iqbal Hasan. (2002). Pokok-Pokok Metode Penelitian dan
Aplikasinya. Ghalia Indonesia: Jakarta.
Nurul

Zuriah.

(2006).

Metodologi

Penelitian

Sosial

dan

Pendidikan. PT. Bumi Aksara: Jakarta.


Suharsimi

Arikunto.

(2006).

Prosedur

Penelitian:

Suatu

Pendekatan Praktik. PT. Asdi Mahasatya: Jakarta.


Zakiyatus Syarifatul A. (2009). English Language TeachingLearning at Citischool Bilingual Kindergarten Semarang in
Academic

Year

2008/2009,

Unpublished

Thesis.

IAIN

Walisongo: Semarang.

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