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Haramain High Speed Railway

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Phase 1 - Package 2 - Stations

Non-Technical Summary
HHR-P1P2-SX-EIA-Vol-00
REVISION - 00

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Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment June 2010
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Client name

Saudi Rail Organisation

Project name

Haramain High Speed Rail - Phase 1 Package 2 Stations

Document name

Environmental Impact Assessment Not Technical Summary

Document number

HHR-P1P2-SX-EIA-Vol-01

Revision

Description

Issued by

Date

Sinad McMahon
00

Issue to PME

Associate
Buro Happold

Checked
Trevor Curson

29/06/10

Director
Buro Happold

This report has been prepared for the sole benefit, use and information of the Saudi Railway
Organization for the purposes set out in the report or instructions commissioning it. The
liability of Huta Hegerfeld Environmental Works Ltd and Foster Happold Haramain Joint
Venture, in respect of the information contained in the Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) report will not extend to any third party.

Author:

Sinad McMahon

Signature
Date: 29 June 2010

Reviewed by: Trevor Curson

Signature:
Date: 29 June 2010

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Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment June 2010
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY AND THE PROJECT

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Background to the project

1.3

Purpose of the document

2.0

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

3.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1

Project overview

3.2

Station characteristics

3.3

Sustainability

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

EIA METHODOLOGY

10

4.1

EIA Approach

10

4.2

Methodology

10

MAKKAH STATION

11

5.1

Baseline conditions

11

5.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

14

JEDDAH STATION

19

6.1

Baseline conditions

19

6.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

22

KING ABDULLAH ECONOMIC CITY STATION

27

7.1

Baseline conditions

27

7.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

30

MADINAH STATION

35

8.1

Baseline conditions

35

8.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

38

CONCLUSIONS

43

9.1

Summary

43

9.2

Next steps

44

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1.0

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY AND THE PROJECT

1.1

Introduction

Foster + Partners and Buro Happold joint venture with local architect, Dar Al Riyadh have
been appointed to design four stations along a new high speed railway line in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia, at Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the developing King Abdullah Economic City
(KAEC).

Buro Happold, working in conjunction with Huta-Hegerfeld Environmental Works Ltd has been
commissioned to undertake a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposals for
the construction and operation of four stations along the Haramain High Speed Rail (HHR)
route.

Figure 11 Location of project site within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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1.2

Background to the project

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is embarking on a major railway expansion plan in an
effort to increase local and international commerce, as well as making trains a more
accessible mode of transport for the population.

The Haramain High-speed Rail (HHR) aims to cater to passengers wishing to travel between
Makkah, Jeddah, KAEC and Madinah. The project will consist of a high-speed rail linking
these major cities. The large flexible stations will accommodate an anticipated 60 million
passengers by 2012 and this is expected to increase to 135 million passengers by 2042.

The government of KSA will ensure investments regarding railway infrastructure, buildings &
shops and rolling stocks whereas the Operation & Management (O&M) of the system will be
entrusted to the private sector.

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1.3

Purpose of the document

This document summarises the findings of the detailed EIA report. The structure of the
detailed EIA is presented as follows:

Volume One - Chapter 1-4 Study introduction

Volume Two - Chapter 5 Makkah Station

Volume Three - Chapter 6 Jeddah Station

Volume Four - Chapter 7 King Abdullah Economic City Station

Volume Five - Chapter 8 Madinah Station

Volume Six - Chapter 9-10 Report findings and recommendations

Chapters 5-8 address the topics listed below:

Site context

Development proposals

Air quality

Socio-economic

Drainage and flood risk

Waste management

Noise and Vibration

Ground conditions (scoped out for KAEC at the PEIA stage)

Landscape and Visual

Ecology

Energy

Archaeology and cultural heritage (scoped out for KEAC at the PEIA stage)

Transport

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2.0

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

A number of Saudi Arabian laws are applicable to the assessment of environmental impacts
for the HHR stations. The key laws include:

Sharia (Islamic law)

Basic Law of Governance, 1992

Public Environment Law (PEL), 2001

General Environmental Regulations and Rules for Implementation (GERRI), 2001

Environmental Protection Standards (General Standards), 1992.

Saudi Arabia is also a signatory to various international agreements, including:

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes,


Chemical and their Disposal, 1989

Convention on Biological Diversity, 2003

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985.

Where there are relevant laws for the region or city in which the stations are proposed, these
have been described within the main EIA report.

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3.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1

Project overview

The HHR project will be a high speed (360 km/h design speed) electrified passenger double
line, designed to provide a fast, comfortable, reliable and safe mode of transport.

In all, five passenger stations are proposed; the fifth station being located near the new
terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International Airport (the KAIA) however, the KAIA station is
not included in the scope of this detailed EIA.

The design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HHR are intended to be executed
in two phases. These consist of:

Phase 1
Package 1 Route Civils
Package 2 Stations

Phase 2
Railway Systems, Rolling Stock & 12 Year Operations

This EIA relates only to Phase 1 Package 2 Stations of the HHR. It is understood that other
EIA studies will be prepared to address Package 1 Route Civils construction and operation.

The key requirements of the HHR project are defined as follows:

All HHR Stations are designed to accommodate the peak demand forecasts for 2042 as
given in the SRO Functional Planning Report (November 2008)

Passengers board and alight trains via mixed use platforms

Platforms are straight, level and at ground level

All passengers are ticketed with assigned seats on trains

All passengers are processed through an airport style security check.

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3.2

Station characteristics

3.2.1

Generic characteristics

Each station will have its own distinct architectural identity through the careful selection of
external enclosure forms and materials, however all stations will have similarity in the way
they are organised. Some of the basic characteristics common to all four HHR stations will
include:

Platforms designed to accommodate 400m long high speed trains specifically procured
for the HHR railway

High-speed train service where all passengers have allocated seating on trains

Segregation of departing and arriving passengers in ticketed areas of station however


passengers can mix on train platforms

Environmentally controlled station concourse areas for passenger comfort

Main concourse spanning across the width of the station

Access to each platform from a service tunnel for train servicing vehicles

Modular station planning system common to all stations.

Drawing on Islamic architecture, the design concept for all of the stations takes the traditional
gateway arch form as the basis for its roof design (Figure 31). Each station is oriented
according to the path of the sun, turning from Madinah Station, which faces east, to northfacing Makkah Station. Their changing position is articulated through openings in the roof,
through which light tubes draw daylight down to the concourse level.

Figure 31 The station roofs have been inspired by Islamic architecture

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3.2.2

Spatial configuration

Makkah and Madinah Stations are both arranged as classic terminus stations with their main
concourse enclosures located at the platform ends, with pedestrian plazas beyond forming
the public front doors to the stations. Jeddah and KAEC Stations are both through stations
with their main concourse enclosures straddling the centre line of the ground level platforms.

Figure 32 Typical configuration of the terminus station (left) and through station (right)

Table 3-1 Spatial layout of the two types of station


Level

B1 (basement)

Terminal stations

Through stations

(Makkah & Madinah)

(Jeddah & KAEC)

Retail, plant areas, back of house,

Plant areas, back of house

access to main vehicle drop-off


L1 (ground)

Platforms, arrivals, main public plaza

Retail, back of house, access to main


vehicular drop-off

L2

Ancillary accommodation for passengers

Retail, back of house

and staff
L3

Departures

Departures

L4

Not included

Arrivals

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3.2.3

Individual station identity

Although all HHR stations will share a similar skeleton based on the common modular
system, each station will have its own identity by having an enclosure skin that is individual to
that station which will include choice of colours, decorative patterns and textures. In particular,
variations in colour are proposed to signify the four cities while remaining emblematic of the
HHR system. The stations of Madinah and Makkah are characterised by a rich colour palette:
Makkah Station references the gold leaf of the decorated Kabah and the citys significance as
a holy site, while Madinah Stations vivid green colour draws inspiration from the Mosque of
the Prophet. Jeddah Station features a shade of purple which has a particular resonance with
the city and KAEC Station is a futuristic blue and silver, representative of its role as a modern
new city.

Figure 33 Visualizations of Makkah (left) and Madinah (right) stations

Figure 34 Visualizations of Jeddah (left) and KAEC (right) stations

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3.3

Sustainability

Introducing public transportation infrastructure to KSA is inherently sustainable. Large


numbers of car journeys will be taken off the highways between the stations. This will reduce
CO2 emissions and vastly reduce primary fuel requirements as trains are significantly less
carbon intensive per passenger than other modes. It is proposed that the stations are
exemplars of sustainability.

The designers for the development are committed to reducing the potential impact of the
construction and operation of the four railway stations on the environment and enhancing the
sustainability of the design. This has been implicit in the teams approach to issues such as
energy usage, water usage, materials used and waste generated. This will be discussed in
detail in each of the relevant disciplines within each of the station chapters.
Figure 35 illustrates some of the sustainable design principles that have been adhered to
throughout the stations design.

Figure 35 Sustainable design principles that will be adhered to by all four stations

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4.0

EIA METHODOLOGY

4.1

EIA Approach

The EIA process for the HHR Project has been undertaken in accordance with the
requirements of the General Environmental Regulations and Rules for Implementation
(GERRI 2001), together with advice contained in international and national guidance on EIA
best practice.

4.2

Methodology

The methodology to which the project team has adhered to throughout the EIA process is
summarised below:

Data collection and review

Site visit

Legislative review and statutory consultation

Agreement of scope through preparation and approval of preliminary EIA

Specialist studies (detailed EIA)

Identification and assessment of potential environmental impacts (detailed EIA)

Development of mitigation measures (detailed EIA)

Development of a framework Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP).

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5.0

MAKKAH STATION

5.1

Baseline conditions

The Makkah Station site is located towards the edge of the city, within a built up area. The
King Abdul Aziz Road (KAAR) development will link the station to the centre of the city. The
baseline conditions relating to each of the EIA topic areas are summarised below.

Air quality

NOx and NO2 from road traffic, likely to be within PME standards

Particulates (PM10) from other sources, within PME air quality standards.

Socio-economic

Regional population of 6 million, 61.7% Saudi, 38.3% non-Saudi.

Within the area

50.2% are employed, but only 13.9% of workers are women

18 million tourism trips to the region in 2008, 8 million were international trips. 2.1 million
pilgrims visit Makkah city annually, increasing gradually

Within the vicinity of station are housing, schools, mosques and parks

Most locals in low-mid income jobs, but a number unemployed.

Drainage and flood risk

No watercourses or water bodies near site

Average rainfall c. 110mm a year most of which falls between October and January

Nearest storm sewer is 1.5km east, but there will be new infrastructure with KAAR

The availability of water within the network is uncertain, but may improve with KAAR.

Waste management

1,230 tonnes of waste are disposed of and treated within the Makkah region daily

An estimated 12,000 tonnes of construction and demolition waste per day for the city

Commercial waste is collected in 0.75 to 1.5m capacity containers around the city, but

data on volumes produced is limited

Landfilling or burning combined with landfilling are the most common disposal methods.
There are 7 landfills and c.6 transit stations around the region

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Construction waste is disposed of in remote areas or used for land reclamation;


industrial waste is handled separately by each industry.

Noise and vibration

Potentially sensitive receptors near the site include residences, schools and restaurants

Road traffic is the dominant source of ambient noise in the vicinity of the site, but
satisfactory internal noise levels in nearby residential properties can still be achieved.

Ground conditions

The ground is made up of 16.5m of Superficial Deposits, mostly fill materials excavated
from igneous material from an unknown location, overlying Pre Cambrian Diorite

The deeper aquifers under Makkah include the Zamzam water, which is of religious
importance; as such, activities that will introduce water to the deeper aquifers (such as
irrigation and sewage disposal) are limited and controlled

Groundwater levels at the site vary from 10.6m to 22.4m below ground level. Chloride
and sulphate levels exceed the (UK) drinking water standards

Monitoring of ground gases showed that levels of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were
above the odour detection level, but below toxic levels.

Landscape and visual

Central areas of the site previously developed, but these have been demolished and the
site levelled

Unplanned poor quality residences in the north and west of the site; higher quality
residences to the east

Makkahs terrain is complex. Hills prevent a line of sight to the Al Haram mosque, but
the mountains surrounding the mosque can be seen from the site.

Ecology

Very limited vegetation on the site and is of negligible ecological value.

Energy

No baseline data exists for similar rail stations, but national peak load is c.33,500 MW.

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Archaeology and cultural heritage

Makkah contains the Islamic worlds most sacred places and there are numerous
monuments and historical landmarks of early Islamic era in the wider Makkah region

No sites have been identified within the immediate vicinity of the site, but the potential
for below ground features cannot be completely ruled out.

Transport

2.5 million pilgrim visitors are believed to have performed Hajj in 2008

The baseline traffic flows are currently being determined through the Transport Impact
Assessment process.

Figure 51 Existing Makkah site

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5.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

An assessment of significance has been undertaken for each of the potential impacts
identified. The assessment has been based on professional judgment, taking into account
the receptor sensitivity and the magnitude of change from the baseline condition.

The

impacts and their significance are described below.

Key predicted impacts during construction

Dust generation from construction activities, causing nuisance and potential health
impacts - potential significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from air pollutants associated with increased construction traffic not
deemed significant

Displacement of existing population and businesses; disruption of surrounding land


uses potential significant impact (adverse)

Employment generation in the construction workforce potential significant impact


(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to increased flood risk on construction workers and
plant, local residents and the storm water sewer potential significant impact
(adverse)

Elevated sediment load and accidental release of hydrocarbons, oils and other
hazardous contaminants in any surface run-off water not deemed significant

Generation and disposal of construction and demolition waste, increasing pressure on


local waste infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts generated from construction activities potential significant impact


(adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases not deemed significant

Degradation of groundwater via increased leaching, mobilisation of contaminants and


fuel or other chemical spills not deemed significant

Visual impact from use of cranes, machinery and lighting during construction not
deemed significant

Consumption of energy and associated CO2 emissions for construction activities


potential significant impact (adverse)

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Key predicted impacts during operation

Health impacts from air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and particulates associated
with increased traffic - potential significant impact (adverse)

Increased activity to local businesses and establishment of new business potential


significant impact (beneficial)

Job creation and potential increased property values potential significant impact
(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to flood risk potential as a result of exceedance of the
surface water drainage system potential significant impact (adverse)

Discharge of pollutants such as oils through surface water drainage system to water
bodies potential significant impact (adverse)

Water demand for station and landscaping potential significant impact (adverse)

Generation and disposal of operational waste, increasing pressure on local waste


infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts from increased traffic flows and heavy goods vehicles potential
significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases potential significant impact (adverse)

Potential for radon gas exposure if Arabian Shield is penetrated potential significant
impact (adverse)

Groundwater degradation via fuel and other chemical spills not deemed significant

Demand for electricity and associated CO2 emissions - potential significant impact
(adverse)

Introduction of new landscaping and positive contribution to the townscape through high
quality and attractive design - potential significant impact (beneficial)

Potential congestion in some locations on the local road network; still to be quantified
potential significant impact (adverse)

5.2.1

Summary of residual environmental impacts

The following table (Table 5-1) sets out the potential significant environmental impacts
predicted, the mitigation measures that have been included within the design proposals or
recommended to be implemented during construction and the residual impact significance
post mitigation.

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Table 5-1 Summary of the significant impacts following mitigation


Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Air Quality
Dust generation from vehicle

Implementation of best construction

construction activities

practice and an EMMP

Minor adverse

Minor adverse

Air pollutants associated with


construction traffic
Air pollutants from increased vehicles

Development of public transit facilities

Moderate adverse

Displacement of existing population

Adhere to best practice guidelines such as

Moderate adverse

and businesses

the IFC Performance Standards (2006)

Disruption to adjacent residents, loss

Implementation of EMMP

Minor adverse

Employment generation

No mitigation required

Major beneficial

Employment generation and

No mitigation required

Major / Moderate

Socio-economic

of access

increased business to local area

beneficial

Drainage and Flood Risk


Increased flood risk

Raise awareness with construction

Negligible

workers. Construct site wide surface


water infrastructure as soon as practicable
Elevated sediment load and

Good site practice and implementation of

Minor adverse /

accidental release of hazardous

EMMP

negligible

Increased flood risk as a result of

Appropriately designed storm water

Minor adverse /

exceedance of the surface water

drainage and attenuation system

negligible

Discharge of pollutants through

Consideration of Sustainable Drainage

Negligible

surface water drainage system

Systems (SuDS)

substances

drainage system

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Water demand for station and

Use of demand reduction measures,

landscaping

efficient use and greywater recycling

Minor adverse

Waste Management
Disposal of large volumes of C&D

Modular design approach, prefabrication

waste

of elements, creation and adoption of

Minor adverse

SWMP
Disposal of large volumes of

Operational waste strategy to encourage

operational waste

waste minimisation, source segregation

Moderate adverse

etc.
Noise and Vibration
Noise generated from construction

Implementation of EMMP

activities such as piling


Noise generated from increased

Negligible /
Moderate adverse

Public transport initiatives by others

Negligible /
Moderate adverse

traffic flows and heavy goods


vehicles
Ground Conditions
Inhalation, ingestion and / or contact

Appropriate use of PPE, appropriate

of contaminated soil, dust particles,

investigation and adoption of remedial

groundwater and gases

measures if required. Implementation of

Negligible

EMMP
Groundwater degradation via

Implementation of EMMP

Negligible

Appropriate storage of fuels and

Negligible

mobilization of contaminants, fuel or


chemical spills

chemicals
Health impacts from radon gas

Preprufe and Bituthene membranes will

exposure

installed to provide an effective barrier

Negligible

Ecology
Introduction of new landscaping

No mitigation required

Moderate beneficial

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Energy
Consumption of energy for

Implementation of SWMP, source local

Minor / moderate

construction activities

materials

adverse

Demand for electricity and associated

Passive and mechanical design measures

Moderate adverse

CO2 emissions

to reduce energy demand

Archaeology and cultural heritage


Disturb, damage or destroy

Consult Ministry of Antiquities and

Negligible / Minor

archaeological features, if present

Museums prior to construction.

adverse

Implementation of EMMP
Transport
Potential congestion in some

To be agreed with the Municipality and

locations on the local road network;

Ministry of Transport

Not yet known

still to be quantified

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6.0

JEDDAH STATION

6.1

Baseline conditions

The Jeddah Station site is located on the edge of the city, on a largely empty plot. The
baseline conditions relating to each of the EIA topic areas are summarised below.

Air quality

High levels of road traffic, therefore air quality near roads is worse than urban
background locations, though this is exacerbated by the hot climate and dust storms

Particulates (PM10) are within PME air quality standards, but only narrowly by the road

NO2 likely to be within PME standards.

Socio-economic

City population of 3.4 million, growing 3.5% per year; 52% are Saudi, 48% non-Saudi;
about 40% of the population are under 19 years old; there are a large number of
expatriate male workers in the city

Jeddahs literacy rate is better than the average for the Kingdom, but female literacy
rates remain significantly lower than those for males

Jeddah is an important tourism hub for the Saudi Arabian economy, bringing in more
than a quarter of the countrys tourism earnings. Visits are largely for religious
(international) and leisure (domestic) purposes

Commercial premises on the site include factories, warehouses, car sales and service
depots. Residential areas surround the south, west and northeast of the site.

Drainage and flood risk

There are no watercourses or other water bodies in the vicinity of the site

A flood event occurred in November 2009 which was as a result of an extreme rainfall
event over Jeddah, with the region receiving more than a years rainfall in 90 minutes

There is uncertainty surrounding the availability of water in the supply network.

Waste management

Over 6 million tonnes of waste is disposed of and treated within the region, annually

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12,000 tonnes of construction and demolition waste is produced daily, expected to rise
to 20-30,000 tonnes; this is disposed of in the new landfill in Thuwal or is used to cap
the old landfill, which still receives some waste unofficially, although it is closed

The majority of non-hazardous waste produced goes to the recently constructed landfill
at Buraiman, which will have mechanical recycling facilities.

Noise and vibration

Potentially sensitive receptors near the site include residences, schools and restaurants

Road traffic is the dominant source of ambient noise in the vicinity of the site, but
satisfactory internal noise levels in nearby residential properties can still be achieved.

Ground conditions

The ground is made up of 10m of alluvial deposits (sands and gravels) over PreCambrian Granodiorite. These are overlain in part by made ground from construction
and/or demolition debris

Groundwater levels in Jeddah have risen due to the disposal of used water originating
from desalination plants. Near the coast, saline water intrudes into groundwater

Groundwater on site was about 2m below ground level and varied by about 1m, and
may vary seasonally

Chloride levels in groundwater significantly exceed UK drinking water standards.


Arsenic and lead also exceed these standards, but not significantly.

Landscape and visual

The urban site has been previously developed but cleared and is partly used as car
parking by the car showrooms on its western edge. Residential, light industry, the
University, and the Haramain Expressway border the site

The site is relatively flat, with mountains to the east of Jeddah. There are no key views
into or out of the site, other than immediately adjacent to it.

Ecology

The site has very sparse vegetation with only a few grasses and small herbs. None are
endangered or threatened species

Faunal surveys identified only gull-billed tern, sparrow and black crow at the site.

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Energy

No baseline data exists for similar rail stations, but national peak load is c.33,500 MW.

Archaeology and cultural heritage

Central Al Balad, contains a number of significant historic buildings; however the site is
some distance away in an area developed since the 1960s

No sites have been identified within the immediate vicinity of the site, but the potential
for below ground features cannot be completely ruled out.

Transport

Roads near to the station are already operating close to their theoretical capacity and in
2030, increased traffic flows are predicted on the road network even without the station,
due to a number of mega projects in the city

83% of trips across the city are currently undertaken by car, 10% by taxi, bus 6% with
1% accounting for trips on foot

Public transport services in Jeddah are limited to some intercity bus services and
minibuses within the city.

Figure 61 Existing Jeddah site

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6.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

An assessment of significance has been undertaken for each of the potential impacts
identified. The assessment has been based on professional judgment, taking into account
the receptor sensitivity and the magnitude of change from the baseline condition.

The

impacts and their significance are described below.

Key predicted impacts during construction

Dust generation from construction activities, leading to nuisance potential health


impacts - potential significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from air pollutants associated with increased construction traffic not
deemed significant

Relocation or possible disruption to businesses potential significant impact


(adverse)

Employment generation in the construction workforce potential significant impact


(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to increased flood risk on construction workers and
plant, local residents and the storm water sewer potential significant impact
(adverse)

Elevated sediment load and accidental release of hydrocarbons, oils and other
hazardous contaminants in any surface run-off water not deemed significant

Generation and disposal of construction and demolition waste, increasing pressure on


local waste infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts generated from construction activities potential significant impact


(adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases not deemed significant

Degradation of groundwater via increased leaching, mobilisation of contaminants and


fuel or other chemical spills not deemed significant

Visual impact from use of cranes, machinery and lighting during construction not
deemed significant

Loss of ecological features, particularly the removal of vegetation not deemed


significant

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Consumption of energy and associated CO2 emissions for construction activities


potential significant impact (adverse)

Key predicted impacts during operation

Health impacts from air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and particulates associated
with increased traffic - potential significant impact (adverse)

Increased activity to local businesses and establishment of new business potential


significant impact (beneficial)

Job creation and potential increased property values potential significant impact
(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to flood risk potential as a result of exceedance of the
surface water drainage system potential significant impact (adverse)

Discharge of pollutants such as oils through surface water drainage system to water
bodies, potential significant impact (adverse)

Water demand for station and landscaping potential significant impact (adverse)

Generation and disposal of operational waste, increasing pressure on local waste


infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts from increased traffic flows and heavy goods vehicles potential
significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases potential significant impact (adverse)

Potential for radon gas exposure if Arabian Shield is penetrated potential significant
impact (adverse)

Groundwater degradation via fuel and other chemical spills not deemed significant

Demand for electricity and associated CO2 emissions potential significant impact
(adverse)

Introduction of new landscaping and positive contribution to the townscape through high
quality and attractive design - potential significant impact (beneficial)

Additional pressure on an already congested local road network, particularly at key


junctions next to the station potential significant impact (adverse)

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6.2.1

Summary of residual environmental impacts

The following table (Table 6-1) sets out the potential significant environmental impacts
predicted, the mitigation measures that have been included within the design proposals or
recommended to be implemented during construction and the residual impact significance
post mitigation.

Table 6-1 Summary of the significant impacts following mitigation


Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Air Quality
Dust generation from vehicle

Implementation of best construction

construction activities

practice and an EMMP

Minor adverse

Minor adverse

Air pollutants associated with


construction traffic
Air pollutants from increased

Development of public transit facilities

Moderate adverse

Relocation or possible disruption to

Follow legal process for land

Minor adverse

businesses

acquisition, consultation of affected

vehicles
Socio-economic

businesses
Disruption to adjacent residents,

Implementation of EMMP

Minor adverse

Employment generation

No mitigation required

Major beneficial

Employment generation and

No mitigation required

Major / Moderate

loss of access

increased business to local area

beneficial

Drainage and Flood Risk


Increased flood risk

Raise awareness with construction

Minor adverse /

workers. Construct site wide surface

negligible

water infrastructure as soon as


practicable

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Elevated sediment load and

Good site practice and implementation

accidental release of hydrocarbons,

of EMMP

Negligible

oils and other hazardous


contaminants
Increased flood risk as a result of

Appropriately designed storm water

Minor adverse /

exceedance of the surface water

drainage and attenuation system

negligible

Discharge of pollutants through

Consideration of Sustainable Drainage

Negligible

surface water drainage system

Systems (SuDS)

Water demand for station and

Use of demand reduction measures,

landscaping

efficient use and greywater recycling

Sewage disposal where foul sewer

On-site treatment or tinkering of

Minor adverse /

capacity is not available

effluent to a nearby sewage treatment

negligible

drainage system

Minor adverse

works
Waste Management
Disposal of large volumes of C&D

Modular design approach,

Minor adverse /

waste

prefabrication of elements, creation

negligible

and adoption of SWMP


Disposal of large volumes of

Operational waste strategy to

Moderate / minor

operational waste

encourage waste minimisation, source

adverse

segregation etc.
Noise and Vibration
Noise generated from construction

Implementation of an EMMP

Minor adverse

Public transport initiatives by others

Negligible adverse

activities such as piling

Noise generated from increased


traffic flows and heavy goods
vehicles

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Ground Conditions
Inhalation, ingestion and / or

Appropriate use of PPE, appropriate

contact of contaminated soil, dust

investigation and adoption of remedial

particles, groundwater and gases

measures if required

Negligible

Implementation of EMMP
Groundwater degradation via
mobilization of contaminants, fuel or
chemical spills

Health impacts from radon gas


exposure

Implementation of EMMP

Negligible

Appropriate storage of fuels and

Negligible

chemicals
Preprufe and Bituthene membranes
will installed to provide an effective

Negligible

barrier

Ecology
Introduction of new landscaping

No mitigation required

Moderate beneficial

Consumption of energy for

Implementation of SWMP, source local

Minor / moderate

construction activities

materials

adverse

Demand for electricity and

Passive and mechanical design

Moderate adverse

associated CO2 emissions

measures to reduce energy demand

Energy

Archaeology and cultural heritage


Disturb, damage or destroy

Consult Ministry of Antiquities and

Negligible / Minor

archaeological features, if present

Museums prior to construction.

adverse

Implementation of EMMP
Transport
Additional pressure on an already

Key access junctions have been

congested local road network,

redesigned to accommodate additional

particularly at key junctions next to

traffic

Negligible adverse

the station

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7.0

KING ABDULLAH ECONOMIC CITY STATION

7.1

Baseline conditions

The KAEC Station site is located in the desert on the edge of the KAEC masterplan area,
some of which is currently under construction. The baseline conditions relating to each of the
EIA topic areas are summarised below.

Air quality

There are very few air pollution sources, except emissions from the motorway and
naturally occurring dust

Dust levels are heavily influenced by the environmental conditions around the site,
particulate levels fall below PME Air Quality Standards

It is likely that NO2 levels also fall within PME standards.

Socio-economic

A quarry works and associated buildings are located on the site, but the majority of the
site is undeveloped.

Rabigh city is located 40km north of the site, while the nearest settlements are 3km to
the north and 8km to the south. A University is being constructed 14km south west of
the site

Rabigh province population is c.70,000; 60% are male and 27% are under 19 years old

The site has strategic significance as it is close to KAEC which will include business
centres, residential, retail development and other uses. The existing Rabigh Conversion
Industrial Plant (CIP) and Petro Rabigh petrochemical complexes are also close,
providing significant employment

The occupations of local people interviewed included police, fishermen, security guards,
construction workers, teachers, a nurse, engineers, retired, and a company director.

Drainage and flood risk

No watercourses or other water bodies are in the vicinity of the proposed development
but there appears to be an existing overland flow path / wadi which runs east to west
through the site; groundwater was found at 5.75m to 6.70m below ground level

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A flood event occurred in November 2009 which was as a result of an extreme rainfall
event over KAEC, with the region receiving more than a years rainfall in 90 minutes

The site is undeveloped and there are no sewers in the nearby roads.

Waste management

As the site is currently undeveloped there are no waste generation rates for the city.
Based on Jeddah, KAEC can be estimated to produce over 750,000 tonnes per year

Significant quantities of construction and demolition waste are anticipated from KAEC

The city is expected to have appropriate waste management infrastructure built to


support the population.

Noise and vibration

Traffic is the dominant source of ambient noise in the vicinity of the site, but levels are
not high

Future baseline noise levels from traffic already have the potential to compromise the
achievement of satisfactory internal noise levels in residential properties built in the
area, even without the station.

Landscape and visual

The quarry is the only development on site. The surrounding is largely undeveloped
desert but construction work has begun on the parts of KAEC nearer to the coast

A few small settlements are scattered around the local area, within 10 kilometres of the
station site. The landscape is almost flat, but there are hills visible to the east of the site.

Ecology

The site is generally flat with a thin layer of hardened topsoil. Vegetation cover is
limited, with dominant

flora species including

Zygophyllum

sp. and Acacia

ehrenbergiana.

Fauna recorded during the site visit include sparrow, black crow and camels.

Energy

No baseline data exists for similar rail stations, but national peak load is c.33,500 MW.

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Transport

KAEC Station is forecast to generate approximately 321,000 vehicle arrivals and


401,000 departures per hour during the pm peak once it is completed

At present there is no public transport of any form at the development site as the city is
still under construction but a range of transit services are proposed for KAEC itself. Four
LRT lines are proposed; one of which may connect to the railway station.

Figure 71 Existing KAEC site

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7.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

An assessment of significance has been undertaken for each of the potential impacts
identified. The assessment has been based on professional judgment, taking into account
the receptor sensitivity and the magnitude of change from the baseline condition.

The

impacts and their significance are described below.

Key predicted impacts during construction

Dust generation from construction activities causing nuisance and potential health
impacts - potential significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from air pollutants associated with increased construction traffic not
deemed significant

Employment generation in the construction workforce potential significant impact


(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to increased flood risk on construction workers and
plant, local residents and the storm water sewer potential significant impact
(adverse)

Elevated sediment load and accidental release of hydrocarbons, oils and other
hazardous contaminants in any surface run-off water not deemed significant

Generation and disposal of construction and demolition waste, increasing pressure on


local waste infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts generated from construction activities potential significant impact


(adverse)

Visual impact from use of cranes, machinery and lighting during construction not
deemed significant

Loss of ecological features, particularly the removal of vegetation and habitat not
deemed significant

Consumption of energy and associated CO2 emissions for construction activities


potential significant impact (adverse)

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Key predicted impacts during operation

Health impacts from air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and particulates associated
with increased traffic - potential significant impact (adverse)

Job creation potential significant impact (beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to flood risk potential as a result of exceedance of the
surface water drainage system potential significant impact (adverse)

Discharge of pollutants such as oils through surface water drainage system to water
bodies, not deemed significant

Water demand for station and landscaping potential significant impact (adverse)

Sewage disposal where the foul sewer capacity is not available potential significant
impact (adverse)

Generation and disposal of operational waste, increasing pressure on local waste


infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts from increased traffic flows and heavy goods vehicles not deemed
significant

Demand for electricity and associated CO2 emissions potential significant impact
(adverse)

Positive contribution to the landscape through high quality and attractive design and
replacement of quarry - potential significant impact (beneficial)

Introduction of new planting potential significant impact (beneficial)

Potential congestion in some locations on the local road network; still to be quantified
potential significant impact (adverse)

7.2.1

Summary of residual environmental impacts

The following table (Table 7-1) sets out the potential significant environmental impacts
predicted, the mitigation measures that have been included within the design proposals or
recommended to be implemented during construction and the residual impact significance
post mitigation.

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Table 7-1 Summary of the significant impacts following mitigation


Description of significant

Mitigation

impact

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Air Quality
Dust generation from vehicle

Implementation of best construction

construction activities

practice and an EMMP

Air pollutants associated with

Minor adverse

Minor adverse

construction traffic
Air pollutants from increased

Development of public transit facilities,

vehicles

e.g. LRT

Moderate adverse

Socio-economic
Employment generation

No mitigation required

Major beneficial

Raise awareness with construction

Minor adverse / negligible

Drainage and Flood Risk


Increased flood risk

workers. Construct site wide surface


water infrastructure as soon as
practicable
Elevated sediment load and

Good site practice and implementation of

accidental release of

an EMMP

Negligible

hydrocarbons, oils and other


hazardous contaminants
Increased flood risk as a result

Appropriately designed storm water

of exceedance of the surface

drainage and attenuation system

Minor adverse / negligible

water drainage system


Discharge of pollutants through

Consideration of Sustainable Drainage

surface water drainage system

Systems (SuDS)

Water demand for station and

Use of demand reduction measures,

landscaping

efficient use and greywater recycling

Sewage disposal where foul

On-site treatment or tinkering of effluent

sewer capacity is not available

to a nearby sewage treatment works

Negligible

Minor adverse

Minor adverse / negligible

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Description of significant

Mitigation

impact

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Waste Management
Disposal of large volumes of

Modular design approach, prefabrication

C&D waste

of elements, creation and adoption of

Minor adverse

SWMP
Disposal of large volumes of

Operational waste strategy to encourage

operational waste

waste minimisation, source segregation

Moderate adverse

etc
Noise and Vibration
Noise generated from

Good construction practices outlined in

construction activities such as

EMMP

Minor adverse

piling
Noise generated from increased

Public transport initiatives by others

Negligible adverse

No mitigation required

Moderate beneficial

No mitigation required

Moderate beneficial

Consumption of energy for

Implementation of SWMP, source local

Minor / moderate adverse

construction activities e.g.

materials

traffic flows and heavy goods


vehicles
Landscape and visual
Replacement of quarry with high
quality and attractive station
design
Ecology
Introduction of new planting
Energy

powering plant
Demand for electricity and

Passive and mechanical design

associated CO2 emissions

measures to reduce energy demand

Moderate adverse

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Description of significant

Mitigation

Residual impact

impact

significant
(post mitigation)

Transport
Potential congestion in some

To be agreed with the Municipality and Ministry of

locations on the local road

Transport

Not yet known

network; still to be quantified

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8.0

MADINAH STATION

8.1

Baseline conditions

The Madinah Station site is located on the edge of the city, close to the desert. The station
site will be on the edge of the Knowledge Economic City development, once it is completed.
The baseline conditions relating to each of the EIA topic areas are summarised below.

Air quality

The main source of air pollution is emissions from existing traffic along King Abdul Aziz
Road, but air quality is further compromised by the hot climate and dust storms

Wind blown dust accounts for high levels of particulates in unsheltered locations, but
inhabited areas experience air pollutants associated with traffic

For all locations, particulate levels meet PMEs objectives; it is also expected that NO2
levels will also fall within the PME Standards.

Socio-economic

The Madinah region population is greater than 1,700,000; 75% are Saudi and 25% nonSaudi, 52.8% are male and 36.9% are working; only 20% of workers are women

Madinah has millions of religious (Hajj and Umrah) visitors every year. There are about
3.4 million domestic tourists and 375,000 inbound tourist trips, the most common
purpose being religious tourism at approximately 1.5 million trips

There is a date farm to the east of the station site, partially within site boundary. A truck
stop and service area with restaurants is also present 600m to the east of the site.
Several other houses and buildings are located near to the site.

Drainage and flood risk

There are no watercourses or other water bodies in the vicinity of the proposed
development and no history of localised flooding at the site

The proposed KEC development should protect the site from some flooding

It is thought that there are proposals in the KEC masterplan for storm water drainage
infrastructure but not before the station opens. The availability of water in the networks
is uncertain.

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Waste management

There is limited data on waste generation within Madinah; however it is thought to be


lower than Jeddah due to the smaller population size

Solid waste treatment is carried out within the Madinah Material Recovery Facility
(MRF). The MRF facility has a design capacity of 1,200 tons/ day, and is currently
operating at 800 tons/day, of which approximately 200 tonnes of recyclable material is
recovered

A landfill received the residual waste, which should have capacity to operate for another
20 years.

Noise and vibration

Road traffic is the dominant source of ambient noise in the vicinity of the site, but
satisfactory internal noise levels in nearby residential properties can still be achieved.

Ground conditions

The ground is made up of granular Superficial Deposits (2.0-4.5 m thick) over basalt (at
least 19m thick). A layer of volcanic ash lies within the basalt

Groundwater beneath Madinah is anticipated to be relatively deep; no groundwater was


encountered up to 20m beneath the site during the investigation.

Landscape and visual

Madinah lies on the edge of the Rahat lava field and with open desert to the east

Mountains can be seen from the site towards the north west; the most significant of
these are Jebel Uhud

Small farmsteads, including a date palm plantation, lie to the immediate east of the site.
The site itself is open, relatively flat, and undeveloped; although pylons, fencing and
vehicle tracks cross the site in parts.

Ecology

Only a few grass species, small herbs and date palms were recorded during the site
visit, none of which are endangered or threatened species

Dog/fox, gull-billed tern, sparrow, black crow, pigeon and cows have been seen on site.

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Energy

No baseline data exists for similar rail stations, but national peak load is c.33,500 MW.

Archaeology and cultural heritage

Madinah is second only to Makkah in spiritual importance among Muslims and has
many historic and culturally important sites

No sites have been identified within the immediate vicinity of the HHR site but the
potential for below ground features cannot be completely ruled out.

Transport

The undeveloped site has very limited highway infrastructure of relevance although new
highway infrastructure will be constructed as part of the KEC development

There is negligible public transport use in Madinah and limited services

A light rapid transit (LRT) system and bus services are planned for the city.

Figure 81 Existing Madinah site

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8.2

Predicted impacts and mitigation

An assessment of significance has been undertaken for each of the potential impacts
identified. The assessment has been based on professional judgment, taking into account
the receptor sensitivity and the magnitude of change from the baseline condition.

The

impacts and their significance are described below.

Key predicted impacts during construction

Dust generation from construction activities causing nuisances and potential health
impacts - potential significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from air pollutants associated with increased construction traffic not
deemed significant

Displacement or interruption of small number of businesses; disruption of surrounding


land uses potential significant impact (adverse)

Employment generation in the construction workforce potential significant impact


(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to increased flood risk on construction workers and
plant, local residents and the storm water sewer potential significant impact
(adverse)

Elevated sediment load and accidental release of hydrocarbons, oils and other
hazardous contaminants in any run-off water not deemed significant

Generation and disposal of construction and demolition waste, increasing pressure on


local waste infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts generated from construction activities potential significant impact


(adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases not deemed significant

Degradation of groundwater via increased leaching, mobilisation of contaminants and


fuel or other chemical spills not deemed significant

Visual impact from use of cranes, machinery and lighting during construction not
deemed significant

Ground clearance, particularly the removal of vegetation not deemed significant

Consumption of energy and associated CO2 emissions for construction activities


potential significant impact (adverse)

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Key predicted impacts during operation

Health impacts from air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and particulates associated
with increased traffic - potential significant impact (adverse)

Increased activity to local businesses and establishment of new business potential


significant impact (beneficial)

Job creation and potential increased property values potential significant impact
(beneficial)

Significant rainfall event leading to flood risk potential as a result of exceedance of the
surface water drainage system potential significant impact (adverse)

Discharge of pollutants, such as oils through surface water drainage system to water
bodies, potential significant impact (adverse)

Water demand for station and landscaping potential significant impact (adverse)

Generation and disposal of operational waste, increasing pressure on local waste


infrastructure potential significant impact (adverse)

Noise impacts from increased traffic flows and heavy goods vehicles potential
significant impact (adverse)

Health impacts from inhalation, ingestion and/or contact of contaminated soil, dust
particles, groundwater and gases potential significant impact (adverse)

Potential for radon gas exposure if Arabian Shield is penetrated potential significant
impact (adverse)

Groundwater degradation via fuel and other chemical spills not deemed significant

Demand for electricity and associated CO2 emission potential significant impact
(adverse)

Introduction of new landscaping and positive contribution to the townscape through high
quality and attractive design - potential significant impact (beneficial)

Increased traffic flows in some locations on the local road network not deemed
significant.

8.2.1

Summary of residual environmental impacts

The following table (Table 81) sets out the potential significant environmental impacts
predicted, the mitigation measures that have been included within the design proposals or

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recommended to be implemented during construction and the residual impact significance


post mitigation.

Table 81 Summary of the significant impacts following mitigation


Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Air Quality
Dust generation from vehicle

Implementation of best construction

construction activities

practice and an EMMP

Air pollutants associated with

Minor adverse

Minor adverse

construction traffic
Air pollutants from increased

Development of public transit facilities

Moderate adverse

Displacement of, or interruption of

Assumed compensation through the

Minor adverse /

small number of businesses

Government committee process

negligible

Employment generation

No mitigation required

Major beneficial

Employment generation and

No mitigation required

Major / Moderate

vehicles
Socio-economic

increased business to local area

beneficial

Drainage and Flood Risk


Increased flood risk

Raise awareness with construction

Minor adverse /

workers. Construct site wide surface

negligible

water infrastructure as soon as practicable


Elevated sediment load and

Good site practice and implementation of

accidental release of

EMMP

Negligible

hydrocarbons, oils and other


hazardous contaminants
Increased flood risk as a result of

Appropriately designed storm water

Minor adverse /

exceedance of the surface water

drainage and attenuation system.

negligible

drainage system

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Discharge of pollutants through

Consideration of Sustainable Drainage

Negligible

surface water drainage system

Systems (SuDS)

Water demand for station and

Use of demand reduction measures,

landscaping

efficient use and greywater recycling

Sewage disposal where foul sewer

On-site treatment or tankering of effluent

Minor adverse /

capacity is not available

to a nearby sewage treatment works

negligible

Disposal of large volumes of C&D

Modular design approach, prefabrication

Minor adverse

waste

of elements, creation and adoption of

Minor adverse

Waste Management

SWMP
Disposal of large volumes of

Operational waste strategy to encourage

operational waste

waste minimisation, source segregation

Moderate adverse

etc.
Noise and Vibration
Noise generated from construction

Good construction practices and

Moderate adverse

activities such as piling

implementation of an EMMP

Noise generated from increased

Public transport initiatives by others

Negligible adverse

Inhalation, ingestion and / or

Appropriate use of PPE, appropriate

Negligible

contact of contaminated soil, dust

investigation and adoption of remedial

particles, groundwater and gases

measures if required. Implementation of

traffic flows and heavy goods


vehicles
Ground Conditions

EMMP
Groundwater degradation via

Implementation of EMMP

Negligible

Appropriate storage of fuels and

Negligible

mobilization of contaminants, fuel


or chemical spills

chemicals

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Description of significant impact

Mitigation

Residual impact
significant
(post mitigation)

Health impacts from radon gas

Preprufe and Bituthene membranes will

exposure

installed to provide an effective barrier

Negligible

Ecology
Introduction of new landscaping

No mitigation required

Moderate beneficial

Consumption of energy for

Implementation of SWMP, source local

Minor / moderate

construction activities e.g.

materials

adverse

Demand for electricity and

Passive and mechanical design measures

Moderate adverse

associated CO2 emissions

to reduce energy demand

Energy

powering plant

Archaeology and cultural heritage


Disturb, damage or destroy

Consult Ministry of Antiquities and

Negligible / Minor

archaeological features, if present

Museums prior to construction.

adverse

Implementation of EMMP.

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9.0

CONCLUSIONS

9.1

Summary

The EIA has identified a number of potentially significant environmental impacts as a result of
the HHR development. Many of the impacts for all four stations are considered significantly
beneficial, most notably employment generation and the provision of a significant amenity to
the public in the form of improved public transport facilities. In addition, Makkah Station also
develops a semi-vacant and unplanned site and Jeddah Station develops a vacant site to
provide a development of high visual quality.

Some potentially significant adverse impacts that are also predicted for all four stations,
include:

Emissions and the resulting degradation of air quality associated with the high number
of vehicles

Increased pressure to local waste infrastructure associated with the high quantities of
waste expected during operation

Use of resources and climate change impacts as a result of the high energy demands of
the station.

In addition, Makkah Station could potentially have a significant adverse impact by displacing
current occupiers from the site. This can however be mitigated by adherence to best practice
guidelines such as the World Bank and IFC Performance Standards (2006) with regard to the
displacement of people.

The EIA process concludes that the majority of predicted negative environmental impacts
from the development can be adequately mitigated, either through the design of the station or
good construction practice. This conclusion sits alongside the positive environmental impacts
identified by this EIA process, and the wider environmental and social benefits which will arise
from this major public transport scheme.

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Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment June 2010
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9.2

Next steps

9.2.1

Good construction practice

In order to ensure that the recommendations included in the EIA to mitigate the significant
adverse impacts identified are successfully implemented, particularly during the construction
phase, an Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) has been developed.

In it intended that the EMMP is reviewed and updated by the SRO and contractor prior to
commencement of construction activities, taking into account any mitigation measure
requirements in the PME environmental permit.

SRO will appoint an Environmental

Representative, who will be responsible for all environmental matters on-site that will include
monitoring the performance of the project against the statutory requirements.

Haramain High Speed Rail Project Four Rail Stations


Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment June 2010
Copyright @ Buro Happold / HUTA Hegerfeld Environmental Works Ltd

Page 44

Haramain High Speed Rail Project Four Rail Stations


Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment June 2010
Copyright @ Buro Happold / HUTA Hegerfeld Environmental Works Ltd