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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


INTRODUCTION
In this generation, a lot of poor people believe that life happens to them by fate
and they always give excuses and blame on the circumstances and focus on obstacles.
Among of the poor people are just dreaming about their dreams and just think about
how good it is to be rich, but they will never do anything about their dreams. And most of
them hanging with the same people with the same level in the society, the other part of
course experience poverty. The meaning of it must be thought to the concerned
individual for them to provide and contribute a solution to the unequal part of survival. In
the world today, it is a blessing if one does not even bothered by the problem like this.
The people who suffered poverty are like mostly the unemployed people, the elderly, the
uneducated and the working poor. They may experience lack of income, work, foods
and help from the government. Some of them may have jobs but still the earnings are
not enough to sustain the needs of the whole family to a certain period of time. Poverty
also causes malnutrition in some parts of the country; it also affects the development of
the future of our country. They cannot think of ways on how to improve their lives and
country when they have to think of where they can get their daily needs.
The 4Ps program is currently being implemented by the Department of Social
Welfare and Development (DSWD). It is a conditional cash transfer program known as
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) that had started in 2008 inspired by the
successes of similar programs in Latin American such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil,
Familias en Accion in Colombia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico ( Defensor , 2010 ).
Mexico OPORTUNIDADES, apart from education and health cash grants are
accompanied by cash transfers for food and fare with clearly while in Brazil, Bolsa
Familia is parts of a larger economic and social protection scheme compose
complementary action and services to poor families. Among the significant
complementary activities are employment creation, provision of income-generating
activities, and impairment of housing conditions (Briones, 2010 ). The 4Ps is more than
a welfare program; it addresses the structural inequities in society and promotes human
capital development of the poor, thus, breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty.
The conditions attached to the grants require parents to undergo trainings on
responsible parenthood, have their children undergo health checkups and ensure
school attendance (Defensor, 2010).
In the Philippines governments version of the conditional cash transfer in the
provision in cash grants for education and health activities, poor families need to comply
with a set of conditions such as ensuring school attendance of children, regular visit o

health centers for immunization, preventive health checkups, and maternal care and the
program lasts for 5 years household-beneficiaries (Briones, 2012). These programs are
important relief in measure because many poor Filipinos are desperate to survive these
trying times and it seems that 4Ps is like a magic bullet for poverty reduction. It has
been designed to address issues on maternal mortality, and as well as keep children in
school for years but these vulnerable groups like senior citizens, chronically sick and
persons with special needs. Some of the beneficiaries are not contented with the cash
grants that they are receiving even though it reveals that most of them expressed
gratitude with the cash grants, the health and education status of their families were
improving, thus, they need jobs. This program has been supported by the local
government since the time it was implemented. They said that they will continually work
with the DSWD to find ways on how they will improve the program.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This study aimed to determine the academic performance of the 4Ps recipient of
Elementary pupils of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo Integrated School (Elementary
Department).
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1. Gender
1.2. Age
1.3. Grade
1.4. Total number of children in the family
1.5. Total number of class attendance
2. What is the socio-economic status of the respondents?/
2.1. Main source of livelihood of the parents
2.2. Monthly income of the parents
3. Is there a difference between the averages of class attendance among pupils who
are 4Ps recipients?
4. Is there a difference between the academic performances of the pupils who are
recipients of 4Ps program?

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY


This study focused on the academic performance of the 4Ps beneficiaries. It
included the selected pupils from Grades I to VI in Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo Integrated
School (Elementary Department)

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Profile of the
Respondent
1.1Gender
1.2Age
1.3.Grade level
1.4.Total number of

Academic
4Ps

Performance of the

Program

pupils

children in the family


Family socio-economic
status
1.1.Main source of
livelihood
1.2Family monthly
income

Schematic diagram of the Conceptual Framework of the study


Figure 1 Input Proven-Output system of the research study
This study used schematic diagram shows the profile of the respondents which
composed of gender, age, grade level of the respondents, and total number of children
in the family and family socio-economic status which includes main source of livelihood
and family monthly income.
With these, it links to 4Ps program and results to the expected high academic
performance of the students. This explains further that through the aid of the 4Ps
program from the government to the selected recipients, academic performance of the
elementary pupils in Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo Integrated School has a chance t increase.
All the independent variables and dependent variables are clearly discussed and
explained on how these would influence the results of this study.

As we have earned, education is the only weapon to battle against poverty. If a


child has ample education means a greater chance him or her to own a brighter
tomorrow.
However, one of the prevalent problems in our society nowadays which is called
poverty. It continuously affects the lives of the majority. Thus, education of a child has
the possibilities to deprive. The family socio-economic status where a pupil comes from
is one of the reasons for this common dilemma. But with the intervention implemented
by the government this dilemma would result into a better future of each young citizen.

Hypotheses:
1. There is significant difference between the average of class attendance among pupils
who are 4Ps recipients and pupils who are not.