You are on page 1of 52

JAIL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM.

A CASE
STUDY OF KAMITI MAXIMUM SECURITY PRISON
(KENYA)

By
KARIUKI PAUL WAHOME
(08/314/009/D/1)

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OFSCIENCES AND


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF NDEJJE UNIVERSITY

MAY, 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................................................... ii
DECLARATION ................................................................................................................................................. vi
APPROVAL .........................................................................................................................................................vii
DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................................... viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................................................................................................................... ix
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................................ x

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................................................... 1


1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the study ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Statement of the problem ........................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study .................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4.1 General Objective ...................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Research questions ........................................................................................................................................ 3
1.6 Scope of the study .......................................................................................................................................... 3
1.7 Significance of the study ............................................................................................................................. 3

CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................................. 4


LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 4
2.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Information systems ..................................................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Management Information Systems ........................................................................................................ 5
ii

2.2.1 Components of a Management Information System ............................................................ 5


2.2.2 Advantages of a Management Information System .............................................................. 6
2.2.3 Disadvantages of Management information Systems ......................................................... 7
2.3 Web Based Databases .................................................................................................................................. 7
2.3.1 Advantages of Web Based Databases ........................................................................................... 7
2.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 8
CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................................. 9
METHODOLOGY............................................................................................................................................... 9
3.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
3.1 Research design .............................................................................................................................................. 9
3.2 Study population and Sample size .......................................................................................................... 9
3.2.1 Sampling methods .................................................................................................................................. 9
3.2.2 Sample size................................................................................................................................................. 9
3.3 Case Study ..................................................................................................................................................... 10
3.4 Data collection methods ........................................................................................................................... 10
3.4.1 Observation ............................................................................................................................................ 10
3.4.2 Interviews ................................................................................................................................................ 10
3.4.2 Questionnaires ...................................................................................................................................... 10
3.4.3 Literature review .................................................................................................................................... 11
3.5 Ethical Consideration ............................................................................................................................... 11
3.6 Critique of the Research Methods ....................................................................................................... 11
3.6.1 System Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 11
3.6.2 Current System ..................................................................................................................................... 12
3.6.3 System Study .......................................................................................................................................... 12
3.6.4 System Stages......................................................................................................................................... 12
iii

3.6.5 System Design........................................................................................................................................ 13


3.6.6 System Development, Implementation and Testing. ........................................................ 14
3.7 Organizational Structure ........................................................................................................................ 15
3.8 Data Processes.............................................................................................................................................. 16
3.9 Development of the New System .......................................................................................................... 16
3.9.1 System Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 16
3.9.2 Requirement Specification ............................................................................................................. 17
3.9.3 Functional Requirements ................................................................................................................ 18
3.9.4 Non-Functional Requirements ..................................................................................................... 18
3.10 Conclusion................................................................................................................................................... 18

CHAPTER FOUR ............................................................................................................................................. 19


DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION
................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.1 Methodology Approval............................................................................................................................. 19
4.2 Data Analysis................................................................................................................................................ 19
4.3 Simplification of the Information Access .......................................................................................... 22
4.4 System Interfaces ........................................................................................................................................ 24
4.5 Implementation ........................................................................................................................................... 25
4.6 System Usage ................................................................................................................................................ 26
4.7 The User Interfaces .................................................................................................................................... 26
4.8 Querying and Reports .............................................................................................................................. 26
4.9 Results ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................................... 28


iv

FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS....................................................... 28


5.1 Findings .......................................................................................................................................................... 28
5.2 Limitations .................................................................................................................................................... 28
5.3 Recommendations ...................................................................................................................................... 29
5.4 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................... 29
References ............................................................................................................................................................. 30
APPENDICES..................................................................................................................................................... 32
Appendix I: Interview Guide ........................................................................................................................ 32
Interview with the Prisons Commissioner - Management Staff. ........................................... 32
Interview with Data Clerk - Data Entrant ........................................................................................... 33
APPENDIX II: .................................................................................................................................................... 34
Questionnaire for data clerks ................................................................................................................... 34
APPENDIX III.................................................................................................................................................... 36
Project Budget................................................................................................................................................... 36
User interfaces .................................................................................................................................................. 37
Sample report ready to be produced in Microsoft word for inmates who reside in
batian block. ....................................................................................................................................................... 41

DECLARATION

I KARIUKI Paul Wahome of registration number 08/314/009/D/1 declare that this project report
is as a result of my authentic work and efforts. To the best of my research and knowledge, this
work has not been submitted as scholarly work to any institution of higher learning for the award
of a degree or any other professional certificate.

Signature
..

vi

APPROVAL

This project report has been presented for examination to the faculty board with my approval as a
university supervisor;

Signature
..
Date
.
Mr. SabiitiDeo
Email: dsabiiti@ndejjeunivesity.ac.ug
Department of Computing and Information Technology
Faculty of Science and Information Technology
Ndejje University

vii

DEDICATION

In a special way I dedicate this book to my family and precisely to my parents Mr. and Mrs.
Kariuki Wahome for the seemingly little yet huge impact they have made in my life in shaping
me and making me believe in my strength rather than my weakness and daring me to dream as
imagination is precious and makes you see whats on the other side of too far.
To my younger brother Michael, for believing in me and making me work hard to be an
exemplarily role model
On a sad note, I also dedicate this book to my brother Kim, who only saw a quarter of this. We
love you bro and we hope and pray that soon you will come back home.
Lastly, I want to extend my sincere gratitude to Miss. Mweu Mary for her endless support,
encouragement and proof reading this work. You even went to an extent of making up for what
my English grammar teacher failed to drill into me at school. Thank you!
Thanks to everyone else who toiled in the pursuit of making me better. If there were words
greater than thank you very much, I would have used them to show how grateful I am.

viii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Praise, Glory and honor go to the Lord. He knew one day this would be a success even at the
very trying moments when I almost felt like giving up. My heartfelt gratitude goes to my
supervisor Mr. DeoSabiitifor his tireless efforts and guidance on the whole development process.
Your great skills and experience could not have passed unnoticed.

In a special way, I thank Miss. Kaiser AnjaChristin, whose efforts were so rudimental to the
success of this project. She did not get tired of the many times I approached her for advice.
Vielen Dank
.
This book would not have been possible without the help of many people whose comments and
suggestions and criticism significantly improved the end result. Precisely, I acknowledge the
efforts from my friends and course mates; Opolot Daniel, Patrick Tabu, Nyachwo Diana, Hajji
Ramadhan,

Emma

Kato,

Tumwiine

Obadiah,

TukamushabaPhiona,

MagandaAhamed, Dennoh, Mamunyu, Laban, Mary and Maurice Omega.

ix

Egesa

Samson,

ABSTRACT
This project proposal is a summary of the requirements and the process that the researcher went
through in developing a jail management information system for Kamiti maximum security
prison. It highlights the background, literature review, methodology, data presentation, analysis,
implementation, findings, recommendations and conclusions.
The main objective was to develop a computer based jail management system for theabove
mentioned prison.
The research was also supplemented by library materials, the internet and other sources of
information which provided the already existing literature on the elements of an information
system, the strength and weaknesses of the pillars of developing a jail management information
system.

The method used in the survey was a longitudinal study in which used policemen and visitors of
the inmates as respondents.

In the study, the data collection methods used was questionnaires and interview that were
administered to the policemen attached at the jail and some visitors. The analysis of data
included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods. Statistical tables were also adopted to
analyze the results of the study.

The findings indicated that the number of inmates is escalating and the current manual system
cannot handle the records well and the required operations in real time and efficiently as
required. Most of the respondent acknowledged the immediate need for a computer based
solution.

The recommendations included urgingthe management of the jail to take up a computer based
solution towards the problem by procuring the developed jail management information
systemwhich would solve the problem of data security, accessibility, timely report production
and

avoid

redundancy.
x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
Kamiti Maximum Security Prison is the largest prison in Kenya. Its genesis is slated back in the
early 50s. It is located in the agricultural district of Kiambu. Originally named "Kamiti Downs",
it sits in the middle of its own 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) estates which lie fallow and untended. The
jail is characterized by two main units i.e. the remand and the prison, both under one umbrella.
Many executions have been carried out in Kamiti. Kenya's prisons are infamous for poor
conditions and inhumane treatment, although the situation has improved slightly during
MwaiKibaki's government since 2002 and some prisoners at death row have been pardoned.
1.1 Background of the study
Fueled by high crime rate in Kenya the Kamiti Maximum Security Prison has of late exceeded its
intended number of inmates from 1400 to a controversial 3000 inmates. This necessitates for a
lot of records keeping for the inmates both in the remand and prison departments. Again, records
about visitors coming to see inmates have to be kept making the records environment explode
with millions of paper documents in form of a file system all of which must be managed. This
means that records of approximately 3000 inmates on their cases details, details of where they
come from, records about the block and room they are allocated, health records and records of
the people who come to visit them are maintained in file systems creating a bunch of files. When
reports are needed, especially about prisoners, it takes a long time to produce a single report for
Management to make decisions. At times reports disappear and tracing them becomes a problem
since the system is not automated. Producing reports timely for decision-making has become
hazardous.
In the age of information technology, the need for timely information to support management in
making decisions is escalating. This calls for developing a prisons records management
information system as an answer to the above problems of managing prisons records at Kamiti
Maximum Prison.
1

The developments in information technologies have been useful in saving time and money and
reducing the costs by accelerating transactions and communication through tools like
management information systems. An automated Management Information System is
indispensable for management of Kamiti Maximum Security Prison. Unfortunately, the system
seems to be far-fetched, especially when it is done manually using many different methods of
report production. The time for solving such problems soars with exponential speed when there
are delays of report production (Musliu, 2001). However, the use of computer system and the
web could mitigate the problems caused by delay of reports production.

1.2 Statement of the problem


Continuous use of a file based system in Kamiti Maximum Security Prison has led to
inconsistency, redundancy, data insecurity, lack of proper backup measures leading to untimely
reports production, difficulties in accessing data and underutilization of resources like time.
Such complex scenarios are often not easy to satisfy manually; thus call for computer software to
handle. To compound the problem further, to date the concept of teleworking is fast catching on.
Management would wish not only to access but as well to update their information from
anywhere on the globe at any time so that they could have optimal use of their personal time.

1.3 Purpose of the Study


The purpose of the study is to develop a Jail Management Information System for Kamiti
Maximum Security Prison to have their reports instantly, effectively and efficiently as and when
required.

1.4 Objectives
1.4.1 General Objective
To develop and implement a Jail Management Information System for Kamiti Maximum
Security Prison.
2

1.4.2 Specific objectives


i. To examine and assess the current file based system in Kamiti Maximum Security Prison.
ii. To analyze and design a functional records management information system based on the
assessment.
iii. To implement the designed system based on proper design specifications.

1.5 Research questions


1. How does the current system manage the records in Kamiti Maximum Security Prison?
2. What is a possible solution to the problems in records management of Kamiti prison?
3. How best can the solutions be implemented to solve the records management problems in
the jail?

1.6 Scope of the study


The study will be conducted in Kiambu District in Central province among the inmates and the
staff of Kamiti Maximum Security Prison. It will be carried out from January to March. The
distance covered from Kiambu town to Kamiti prison is approximately 20 kilometers. The study
will focus on the current system of records management in the jail.

1.7 Significance of the study


The information system will curb the problem of redundancy and increase the accuracy and
consistency hence making the system efficient. The information system will as well aid rapid
access of data and quick reports generation. It will also provide a centralized data location by
pooling resources together.
The researcher also hopes that the study will serve as informative scholarly work to other
scholars pursuing related or similar studies.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction
This chapter reviews the existing literature on Information Systems, Management Information
Systems and Web based databases. It also narrows down to various interests and concerns of
previous researchers at local and international arena on the subject of the study. It will be based
on the project objectives.

2.1 Information systems


The study of information systems originated as a sub-discipline of computer science, in an
attempt to understand and rationalize the management of technology within organizations. It has
matured into a major field of management that is increasingly being emphasized as an important
area of research in management studies, and is taught at all major universities and business
schools in the world. One researcher, (Rockart, 1996) said today, information and information
technology have become the fifth major resource available to executives for shaping an
organization, alongside people, money, materials and machines. The PC Magazine (2007)
defines an information system as a business application of the computer, made up of databases,
application programs, manuals and machine procedures. It also encompasses the computer
system that does the processing.
Whitten, et al, asserts that an information system collects, creates, and stores data and processes
that data into useful information. This is an important concept of systems analysis and design.
Data are raw facts in isolation. Data describes the fundamental components and events of a
business or an organization. Information is data that has been processed to be useful to someone.
In other words information must have a value, or its still data. Information tells people something
they dont know or confirms something they suspect, (Whitten, Bently& Barlow, 1996).
Apparently, various scholars and writers have come up with six different types information
systems namely; Decision Support System, Executive Support System, Knowledge Base
Management System, Management Information System, Transaction Processing System and
Office Automation System.
4

2.2 Management Information Systems


A Management Information system (MIS) is the whole of the related components that work
together to collect, store and disseminate data for the purpose of planning, control, coordination,
analysis and decision making at the managerial level, ( Mugan, 2000). Management Information
systems can be used as support to managers to provide a competitive advantage (Stair, 2006).
MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of prudent
and reasonable business decisions. Kenneth, et al, defined MIS as an information system at the
management level of an organization that serves the functions of planning, controlling, and
decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports, (Kenneth& Jane, 1998).
According to Garrick MIS is a general term for the computer systems in an enterprise that
provide information about its business operations. Its also used to refer to people who manage
these systems. Typically, in a large corporation MIS or the MIS department refer to a central or
centrally-coordinated system of computer expertise and management often including main frame
systems but also including by extension the corporations entire network of computer resources.
2.2.1 Components of a Management Information System

Hardware
Hardware is a generic term that refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean
the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware Input and
output devices constitute the hardware components of MIS, (Daniel, 2004).
Software
Software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and
documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. The term includes application
software such as word processors and system software such as operating systems. The programs
and applications convert data into machine-readable language, (Daniel, 2004).
Procedures
Procedures are sets of rules, protocols or guidelines, which an organization establishes for the
use of a computer-based information system (Daniel, 2004.)

Personnel
The computer experts, managers, users, analysts, programmers, database managers, and many
other computer professionals who utilize the computer-based information systems, (Phil, 2002).
Data
Data are raw facts in isolation. Data describes the fundamental components and events of a
business or an organization. It acts as a raw material for the information systems.
2.2.2 Advantages of a Management Information System

It facilitates planning:
MIS improves the quality of planning by providing relevant information for sound decision
making. Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal
contact with the scene of operations.
It Minimizes information overload:
MIS change the larger amount of data into summarized form and there by avoids the confusion
which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
MIS Encourages Decentralization:
Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at
lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change
in the organizational plans and procedures.
It brings Co-ordination:
MIS facilitates integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the
problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the
organization.
It makes control easier:
MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of
management to evaluate and improve performance. The used computers have increased the data
processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost.

2.2.3 Disadvantages of Management information Systems


Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it
has also crated job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and
middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.
Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and
more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to
email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public
knowledge.
Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue
as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant
learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it
has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued
that USA influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave.
Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of
communication for business and everything else.

2.3 Web Based Databases


A web based database is a server which provides remote users with a secure means of accessing
data dynamically using the web browser to input information search or view a report. It acts as
the heart of any dynamic website operations because it contains the information that will be
displayed on a browser.
2.3.1 Advantages of Web Based Databases
Wide scope information assess
Information stored on a web based application can be accessed globally. This makes the site
lucrative in respect to the number of people who visit it.
Virtual community

A web enabled database server can be used to form a virtual community, where participants in
remote locations can exchange ideas in electronic formats.
Available 24 hours a day
Provided there is consistent flow of power, the site will always be available day and night as
opposed to an office which closes during night time.
Nature of data analysis
Web base instructional environments have the ability to conduct both qualitative and quantitative
data analysis. A typical web based instruction database carries both numeric and textual data.

2.4 Conclusion
Various scholars have pursued this study, what should be noted is that it is of paramount
importance in this day and age to provide the Kamiti community with enhanced services and
greater access to information, ensuring improved compliance with the slated millennium goals
through the replacement of the existing file records management system.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This chapter precisely entails the process the researcher employed in designing and developing a
Jail Management Information System. It focuses on techniques and approaches used in order to
achieve the objectives of the study. An insight to research design, study population, sample size,
data collection methods and ethical considerations were reviewed as well.

3.1 Research design


This study used a descriptive research design with both qualitative and quantitative surveys.
Qualitative method was used to get the views and reactions of respondents while the quantitative
method was used to present quantitative data. The research design included diagrammatic
representations to facilitate the flow of information in the information system. This included
Entity Relational Diagrams (ERDs) to illustrate the flow of events.

3.2 Study population and Sample size


The study population involved the Kamiti Maximum Security Prison community.

3.2.1 Sampling methods


The study used simple random method to select respondents. This method was crucial to the
study as samples obtained were representatives of the sampling population.

3.2.2 Sample size


35 respondents are from Kamiti community are expected.
9

3.3 Case Study


The case study was based on the infamous Kamiti Maximum Security Prison in Nairobi, Kenya
which is arguably the worst prison in the entire world. It is located in Kiambu District, Central
Province.

3.4 Data collection methods


Data was mainly from two sources, which were primary and secondary sources. Primary data
was collected through use of the following fact finding techniques; questionnaires, interview
guides and observation while secondary data will be from department minutes, reports, journals
and Internet.
3.4.1 Observation
The researcher moved around different offices to see how data was being handled, how reports
were being produced and what methods were in place for producing reports. Through
observation the researcher found out how data was collected and the methods used for producing
reports.

3.4.2 Interviews
Theresearcher carried out interviews with police officers who administered the current file
system. The interviews were face to face. An interview schedule was used as the researcher
hoped that this method would help him get first-hand information by interacting with the
concerned personnel.
3.4.2 Questionnaires
Questionnaires will be used as a data collection technique. The respondents were issued withset
questions which they internalized and give answers in a written a layout. The researcher then
10

didan analysis of the questionnaires to come up with a document based on the respondents
views. The researcher hoped that fact finding technique would be effective as respondents will
be given ample time and freedom to respond to the questions.
3.4.3 Literature review
Literature review from related textbooks, the internet and other reliable sources that provide
imperative data concerning the study was reviewed.

3.5 Ethical Consideration


The researcher acquired acceptance letters from relevant administrative offices to enable critical
research from concerned respondents in the Kamiti community.
The information obtained from the respondents was treated with strict confidentiality. The
findings of the study are to be disseminated to the Faculty of Basic Sciences and Information
Technology.

3.6 Critique of the Research Methods


The systems development life cycle (SDLC) described a set of steps that produced a new
computer information system. The SDLC is a problem-solving process. Each phase (step) in the
process delineates a number of activities. Performing these activities in the order prescribed by
the SDLC brought about a solution to the apparent situation. At each phase certain activities
were performed; the results of these activities were documented in a report identified with that
phase.

3.6.1 System Analysis


System analysis is the study of the current system and its problems, requirements and the
evaluation of alternative solutions. Kamiti Maximum Security Prison uses a manual records
management system and data is kept in the traditional and inefficient paper file method.
11

Accessing the details about inmates is difficult as the officers have to peruse through files which
results into a lot time consuming. On the other hand, the never ending queues of visitors coming
to see inmates welcome you at the gate.

3.6.2 Current System


The current system could be outlined as follows:
i. The current system is very unreliable as access to previous records is uncertain. It is
difficult to trace the past records as there is no centralized storage of records.
ii. Visitors are kept for long hours as the officers look for the person they have come to see
in the cells. Normally this is done block by block, cell by cell.
iii. Untimely reports production is another problem associated with the current system.
iv. The current system is inaccurate as it allows for redundancy.
v. There is wastage of resources since there is too much of paper work to be done.
vi. Accessibility of records is limited to only one officer as a file cannot be shared by two
officers hence forcing them to have one office.

3.6.3 System Study


The researcher critically studied the systems operations for the current system that revealed the
system was manual and many methods were used to produce reports that resulted into delays.

3.6.4 System Stages


Database Planning: This was developed using Mysql and PHP with Html and Java script
embedded for the forms.

12

System Definition: This entailed the process of developing a prototype for Kamiti Maximum
Security Prison to ease quick report production for effective and efficient decision making. The
system was for quick retrieval and instant report production.
3.6.5 System Design
The researcher intended to curb redundancies of the current system to achieving normalization of
the data to be entered in the system tables from a logical to a physical state. There was a
conceptual database design by having the Entity Relational Diagram and the Entity Relations.
There was also a Logical design where entities, attributes, data lengths were made to remove the
redundancies in the system and duplicates. This was meant to lead to physical database design
where Mysql with PHP script was created to design the system that was enabled to get the
graphical user interfaces used by the users.
1:*

Detained by

Prison Management

Inmates

0:*
*:1

Arrested for1
Inmate

Case
*:1
Block

1:1

Harbors

Inmate
1:1

User

1:*

Captures

Inmates Details
*:1

1:*

Treated for

1:*

Accessed by

0:*

Allowed by

Inmate

Disease
*:1
Inmate
User

Figure 1: Mapping Entity Relations to Relation Schemas

13

Prison Management
*;1
Prison Management
*:0

14

3.6.6 System Development, Implementation and Testing.


Mysql with PHP system was used to develop the system. Mysql was chosen since it was very
fast in information retrieval, advanced features from authentication/authorization to storage
through the database management information system and its ability to easily access and be
accessed by network facility using Windows operating system.
The system was tested to find out whether it met Kamiti Maximum Security Prison management
requirements. It was meant to give an insight for the management to move from the traditional
manual information system to an automated Records Management Information System.
Development of a prototype will be done to validate the system specification. The requirements
were used to develop prototype software. Web pages were created to input and receive formatted
text. Programming environments (software tools) consisted of the following:
1. Hypertext markup language (HTML)
2. Javascript
3. MyStructured query language (MySQL)
4. Hypertext processor (PHP)
5. Database.
For data input, the system presented html forms that the users can access from any web browser;
the forms have text fields and also contains some links for easy navigation between forms. The
researcher intends to use PHP to link the html forms and the database; it will take the
information from the filled parts of the form, and construct sql insert statements when the user
submits his/her requests. Once the requests are submitted, the system presents the user with a
confirmation message. As for the queries, once the system receives it, the query results shall also
be presented in form of an easy to read table.

3.7 Organizational Structure


The facility is headed by a Commissioner, supported by his Deputy with 4 heads of departments
and 21 heads of sections. The department is responsible for contributing to the protection of
society by giving out punishment through confinement and encouraging offenders to become

15

law-abiding citizens. This was the identification of the main relationships, determination of
cardinalities and participation constraints.
3.8 Data Processes
Implementing an automated jail management information system will help Management of
Kamiti Maximum Security Prison to have instant report production whenever there is need. The
data shall be collected, input by the data entrants who generate the general report. When
management meets, just a click will help them retrieve data and come up with the detailed
reports for their decision making.

3.9 Development of the New System


The researcher intended to have a number of visits to acquaint self for the required data and
variables to be used for system development. The details of the variable were received and the
writing of the codes started for the web development. A database will be developed to contain
the information required for the required reports to be extracted.
3.9.1 System Requirements
The following are required to run the system: Software Requirements:
The system ran on the principles of a Relational database management system with all the
embedded advantages over other database management systems. Mysql application supported
the front end of the system and the database coupled with PHP and HTML programming. The
system was web based using Windows Operating System. Antivirus software was essential.
Hardware Requirements:
The Client:
A Pentium 4 computer of at least 128Mb but 256Mb recommended of RAM (133MHZ), System
unit with at least 20GB free Hard Disk space and a CD ROM drive.

16

The server:
A server computer with 1Gb of RAM but 2Gb recommended, System unit with a hard disk drive
of at least 250Gb, Ultra320 Intel Pentium Xeon 2200 MHZ FC-PGA Processor and a CD ROM
drive.

Environmental and Other Requirements:


1. Before use, there should be a staff capacity development to enable users adopt to the new
system and learn its PROS and CONS and whatever they were required to do at whatever stage
in processing information.
2. Some Computer table and good chairs
3. A Server as a backup for the system
4. A dust free environment and burglarproofed rooms for safety
5. Power outlet sockets in the rooms.
6. Computer network set up all in place.
3.9.2 Requirement Specification
User Requirements
The User requirements are summarized below and basically they eye at; entering data, updating
data and reports generation.
(a) Prisoners details: inmates identity number, first name, other name, gender, date of entry,
case number, charge, convict, unit, recidivism, block, crime type, cell number, crime type,
disease, file number, age variance, home address, convict, education level, and age..
(b) To perform searches on: Crime committed, Prisoner details like name, age variance, disease
suffering from, by gender (male or female), crime number, education level date of birth.
(c) To track the status of: Prisoner details, Charge (crime) committed, captured by the data
entrants and the detailed reports accumulated for decision making.
(d) To report on: Prisoners details reports made by the authorized data entrants and the detailed
report processed as a management report for decision making.

17

3.9.3 Functional Requirements


The system will be required to perform automation of the process of prisoners details,
department transactions and reports made through quick retrieval of required reports basing on
the set criteria. It ought to overcome the anomalies of the manual system.

3.9.4 Non-Functional Requirements


The new system will ensure that:
(a) A security system prevented unauthorized users from accessing the system. This will be
achieved by using usernames and passwords and privileges.
(b) A recovery control mechanism to restore the databases to its previous/original consistent state
incase of a hardware or software failure. Mysql was used in implementing the design as it
supports quick backup and restoration.
(c) A user accessible catalog provided description of the data in the database.
(d) A concurrency control system allowed shared access to the database. The system shall be
linked with other users in different departments in Kamiti community to allow concurrent access
since the client preferred support of a higher number of users with efficient flow of the enormous
traffic.

3.10 Conclusion
In a nutshell, Systems Development Life Cycle is an essential theory in the development of
computer information systems projects. However, an organization generally has the liberty to
choose a development pattern towards meeting its needs. Regardless of which methodology an
organization uses, the objective of systems analysis is to fully understand the current
environment and future requirements of a computer information systems project.

18

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

4.1 Methodology Approval


The methods proposed in this study were discussed with Management of Kamiti Maximum
Security Prisons. This also included all the data collection tools. The approach was accepted and
the researcher pursued it in order to meet the objectives of the study.

4.2 Data Analysis


Data was collected and then resolved conflicts in either requirements of the system and the
information provided by the various stakeholders. The analysis describes the scenario that
illustrated the problem faced by Kamiti Prison in the delay of report production for decision
making. It exposed the many methods used in report production which showed lack of
coordination that led to delay of reports production. Questionnaires and interview guide were
used to find out how reports were being processed and the time frame of producing reports by
the staff members and management. The researcher gave a deeper insight to the data got from
interviews as questionnaires were not preferred by many soldiers.

The information analyzed was mainly in 5 arenas:


Response rate, Gender of the respondents, Level of Management, Source of information and
Ease of information access from the respondents.
Table 1: Response Rate

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Response

30

23

Non- response

100

77

Total

130

100
19

Response Rate
Number of Respondents

Percentage
100
77

30

23

Response

Percentage

The response showed that many staff members were unwilling to respond to the questionnaire
and showed the soldiers resistance to change.
Table 2: Gender Diversity of the Respondents

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Female

11

25

Male

34

75

Total

45

100

20

Gender Diversity of Respondents


No. of Respondents

Percentage

75

34
25
11

Female

Male

Out of the 45 respondents, 25 percent were female while 75 percent were males. This
Indicated there was male dominance in Kamiti community. This attributed to factors like the
nature of the job and the fact that many females do not like the occupation.
Table 3: Respondent distribution at different Levels of Management

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Top Management

Middle Management

Data Clerk

43

96

Total

45

100

21

Level Management
Number of Respondents

Percentage

4.4

4.3

3.5
2.5

2.4

Top Management

1.8

Middle Management

Data Clerk

Top Management was represented by 2 percent, middle management 4 percent and data clerks
represented 96 percent of the total respondents respectively.
This indicated that many people were not informed of the method to be used. Also the crash
program employed was a contributing factor towards the uneven distribution of respondents.
Also, the nature of soldiers work was a contributing factor as there are so many orders to be
followed.

4.3 Simplification of the Information Access


Table 4: Source of Information

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Handwritten Reports

20

Photograph

15

Typewritten

By Word of Mouth

21

47

No presentation

Total

45

100

22

Sources of Information
Number of Respondents

Percentage
47

21

20
15
9

Hand written
Reports

Photgraphs

Typewritten

By Word of
mouth

No
presentation

The researcher found out that many respondents were not computer literate and those who knew
computer, just knew word processing package.

20 percent of the respondents indicated that the sources of reporting were hand written, 15
percent of the respondents said they take photographs and present them as reports of what is
going on. 9 percent indicated that they prepared type-written documents to hand in as reports. 47
percent said they used word of mouth to report to the seniors about the state of affairs. 9 percent
of the total number of respondents indicated that they did not produce any reports to the top
management. This gave a rough picture of how uncoordinated the system was for reporting. This
further illustrated how reports production was delayed.
Table 5: Ease of Information from Respondents

Number of respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

33

73

Agree

Disagree

Neither Agree nor 6

13
23

Disagree
Total

45

100

Ease of Information Acess


Number of Respondents

Percentage

73

33

Strongly Agree

Agree

13

9
2

Disagree

Neither Agree nor


Disagree

The Prisoners details collected were analyzed through relations by removing redundancies and
normalization where frequency tabulations, percentages, joins and other relevant analytical
methods were used. Kish and Leslie (1995) formula for simple random sampling for single
proportions was used for qualitative. A qualitative Evaluation research method assisted in an indepth analysis (Patton 1990).

4.4 System Interfaces


A user-friendly interface was developed, encapsulating the tables and abstracting the data
manipulation from the user. The system was database driven with various functions of data entry,
querying and reporting.
On loading, the menu showed up using Mozilla Firefox as a shortcut or could use any other
browser and the system loads. The user could browse through for whatever function was
enabled. The main menu was of various buttons for the specific tasks. The clear function erased
24

all inputs with revelation of any abstracted features. With the reports sub menu, one could not
exit without returning to the main menu. The prototype was demonstrated to the Prisons
Department for them to make comments and recommendations. Depending on comments and
recommendations, modifications were made and an operational system installed as a sample
model for the system.

4.5 Implementation
The main aim of this phase was to implement the prosed system using the available technologies
to realize the designed system and meet the requirements of Kamiti Maximum Security Prison
Management.
Implementation was using Mysql and PHP, which was platform and browser independent and
ran on both windows and command driven operating systems platforms (Putty). A login form is
presented on the home page to authenticate the different users at certain levels of management so
as they can legitimately execute their duties effectively. The administrator has the rights to give
domain accounts and privileges to users. There were variables where forms were generated and
then reports were derived from queries. MySql with PHP written codes were developed for the
system and then run on Windows operating system environment. The system is fully GUI
supported with all functionalities zeroed down to easy-to-use graphical user interfaces (GUI).
Implementation of the system was tested to see whether it would be adequate for reporting
purposes. Web share would play a fundamental change in helping management and the staff to
access the system at whatever point the prison they were in, provided there was a network
running. They could login and do their administrative duties. The analysis was easier as the
extraction of data was normalized to get the required data for reporting and generation of the
latter.

25

4.6 System Usage

Figure 5.1: The above diagram show the system usage

4.7 The User Interfaces


The user interfaces consisted of forms developed and formatted using the hypertext markup
language (HTML) and cascading style sheet (CSS). The graphical user interfaces forms are given
as Appendix I. Different forms were developed to enable the users perform the following tasks:
Login to the program that takes a user where they are supposed to retrieve and submit
information. Reset can also be done. Register Users which is done by the users by creating
accounts themselves. Add or enter a prisoners details. Edit Prisoners details. Get the General
Report by the data entrant. Get the Management Report for decision making. Search for a
particular inmate using his identity card number or his names. Search either by crime (charge),
age variance, gender, prison, remands.

4.8 Querying and Reports


Queries were run based on generally specific user requirements. Capabilities were embedded to
have the following reports:
26

1. A general list for display of all prisoners and the crimes committed plus their passport size
photographs.
2. A list of all the prisoners by names and current boarding data.
3. A list of authorized users by category selection.
4. The general list showing the disparities in gender, each crime committed, convicts, remands,
recividism and disease type.
5. There is registration of users to access the system according to given privileges.
6. There is searching by name, date in prison, crime/charge, age, birth date, year, gender, disease,
prison (convicts) and remand.
The above reports were generally intended for quick process of providing information
accurately, effectively, efficiently and timely.

4.9 Results
Demographic characteristics were presented in Tables and Figures. The results of the study were
used to formulate relevant recommendations. There was a prototype of Management Information
System developed, implemented and tested. The system was run and the users will be
interviewed to see if they are satisfied with it. There will be room for the system scalability and
modularity.
Result assessment will include testing the system by key users after an incisive training them on
the use of the system, running it and then interviewing them to see if they were satisfied with it.

27

CHAPTER FIVE

FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

5.1 Findings
The researcher was able to study the requirements of a Jail Management Information System for
Kamiti Maximum Security Prison and found out that it was possible for the department to
implement the system. It was possible to set up a prototype to test the implementation of a
computer-based information system that added prisoners details stored this data and output
various reports about the prisoners depending on the user requirements with the information
system.

5.2 Limitations
There were many limitations that seemed to hinder the systems functioning and the whole
generic process of system development. This was ironed out by extensive research on the
different modalities available online eliminate the problems.
1. Power was very unreliable and using computers was hard as the researchers laptop can
only keep battery for four hours.
2. Distance factor was another major challenge as the researcher studies in in Uganda and
the scope of the study is in Kenya hence the data collection was a big challenge.
3. The department is not networked which makes the distributed computing impossible for
the integrated on-line transaction processing for prisons with the existing architecture.
But there is a proposal to network the department in order to solve this problem.
4. There is no money to facilitate the department to carry out the necessary requirements.
Justice Law and Order Sector (JLOS) as a donor agency has promised to fund the IT
project with an aim of making prisons up to date in performance.
5. The equipment in place is limited, out dated and with little memory. JLOS has promised
to purchase complete computers systems with accessories that are up to date to alleviate
and mitigate this problem.

28

5.3 Recommendations
The following recommendations were derived at as a study of the results.
1. The project is implemented as a pilot project to access its impact on the current problem
which will lead to further improvement for the right system.
2. There should be more controls over data entry errors to be enforced in the system through
automation which means that data entry is only by the rightful user and denying other
illegitimate people from accessing the data.
3. The personnel should be changed regularly to minimize social engineering attacks, hacking
and cracking as a security measure to control the system.
4. The system is web based and has to be networked in order to be accessible across the all the
offices, in and outside Kamiti Prison.
4. More users like middle level and secretaries who are in line with the system should also be
added to the system database for easy and effective information usage.
5. Users ought to be trained about the system and the privileges given for each user for data
access and the general operation of the system for easy maneuverability.
6. Have a VPN to allow for a remote and secure connection between the clients and the server
which will host the system.
7. Install a backend (database) for storage on a server and install a front end for the client (user)
for the Graphical User Interface on the workstation.

5.4 Conclusions
The Prisons system was successfully studied. The weaknesses for the studied system were
identified and areas of improvement recommended.
A prototype was developed as a demonstration on how to implement the system.

Recommendations for future work have been derived at.

29

References
1. Alavi, M., Carlos (1991). A Review of MIS Research and Disciplinary Development.
Journal of Management Information Systems.

2. Carter, Lemuria, and Belanger, (2005). The Utilization of e-government services citizen
trust, innovation and acceptance factors; France,. Information Systems.

3. Caulfield, C.G., Maj, S.P. (2002). A Case for System Dynamics it Global Journal of
Engineering Education.

4. Gilbert, A., (1997). Fundamental of Management Boston: BP1 1RWIN

5. Grammatikou, M., Stamatelopoulos, F., and Maglaris, B. (2003). Distributed information


system architecture for healthcare. Retrieved on March 22, 2011 from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/entrez/query.fcgi.

6. Harpreet, S.R. (2002).Transferring data between Heterogeneous databases using the


web. MSC Dissertation in information systems, presented to Brunel university of
informationand computing, west London.

7. Lee, S.M. and Ssllani, A. (2001). A decision support system for health care services:
Hospital management Quarterly.

8. Musliu, N. (2001). Efficient Generation of work-schedules. MSC Dissertation, presented


to Vienna University of technology, Austria.

9. Patton, M. Q. ( 1990). Qualitative Evaluation Research Methods, London: Sage


Publications.

10. Poel, P., Van, D., Waes, R. (1989). Information System Concepts: An In-depth Analysis.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
30

11. Roth, M.A, Wolfson, D. C., Kleewein, J. C., and Nelin, C.J. (2002). Information
Integration: A New generation of Information; Jhingran,. IEEE Computer. Fall.

12. Saucer, J. and Bruns, G. (1997). Knowledge-based Design of scheduling system in


industry and medicine. IEEE-expert.

13. Svendsen, C., (1996). investment Evaluation of Technology-Based Training Systems,


Master of Science Report. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Mathematics and
Informatics.

14. Trevor, Y.(2003). Client/Server Software Architecture, Software practice. Retrieved


on April 26, 2011 from http://www.cs.ubc.ca/trevor/writings/clientserverlecture

31

APPENDICES
Appendix I: Interview Guide

Introduction
This interview guide is part of the research project titled:A Jail Management Information
System prepared by Kariuki Paul from Ndejje University as part of under graduate project. The
aim is to study the existing system and to establish the requirements for the new system in
pursuit of providing a solution to the apparent anomalies. The information will be analyzed and
used to develop a management information system.
Interview with the Prisons Commissioner - Management Staff.
1. How many functional computers do you have?
2. How many people are computer literate?
3. How many departments are in operation?
4. How many sections are in operation?
5. How is data collected that make up the required reports?
6. How are reports produced?
7. How are reports accessed and retrieved?

32

Interview with Data Clerk - Data Entrant


1. Which department do you belong to?
2. What are your qualifications?
3. How do you access data for reports production?
4. What method do you use to get your reports?
5. How often do you produce reports?
6. Is the information about prisoners data readily available?
7. Are you able to meet deadlines?
8. Do you feel comfortable with the system used?
9. What aspects of the system do you think needs automation?

33

APPENDIX II:
Questionnaire for data clerks

1. Sex

Female

Male

2. Which department do you work?

3. Which sections are you placed?

4. Rate the efficiency of the current record keeping system?


Very good
Good
Poor

5. How do you produce reports?

6. Is the process of accessing data easy?


Yes

No

7. If no, give a reason?

34

8. Do you think using a computer based information system would solve the problem?
Yes

No

9. Give a reason for your answer?

10. Would you welcome the introduction of an automated record management system?
Yes

No

11. Give a reason?

....
....

35

APPENDIX III
Project Budget
No

Item

Amount (Kes)

Transport

2000

Photocopying

900

Printing

1100

Binding

1200

Phone calls

800

Miscellaneous

1500
Total 7500

36

User interfaces

The window above shows the systems home page. Color green is an affiliate color of the Kenya
prisons service. The menu items help users navigate through the software.

37

As mentioned earlier, the key beneficiaries of the system are the top management, the data clerks
and the systems administrator. These users must match their password and username to the
different levels of administration they are in. The login window is a security mechanism to
authenticate those who want to get access to the system.

In an event of either a wrong password or user name, the system returns an error message.

38

This window shows the page where data clerks are redirected when they log in. here they can
book inmates, edit records, generate reports, print reports and search for particular inmates.

The logout button takes users back to the home page.

39

The page show the window the systems administrator logs to. He has extra rights to register the
users of the system. This is for security purpose in that it helps scrutinize those who perform
their responsibilities with the system.

40

Sample report ready to be produced in Microsoft word for inmates who reside in
batian block.

41

The window above shows the web page the top management of the system view after
successfully being granted access. They are basically interested in making and viewing reports.

This page allows them to view reports and analyze it statistically. They can also retrieve the
same reports in file system and print them in Microsoft word format.

The system has a very powerful customized engine to help the managers view precise
information through filtering and sorting data.

42