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ANATOMY OF CARDIOVASCULER 1

CHODIDJAH

The Heart

Location

Thorax between the lungs

Superior surface of diaphragm

Left of the midline

Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to


the sternum

The Heart: Coverings

Pericardium
A superficial fibrous pericardium
A deep two-layer serous pericardium

The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous


pericardium
The visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart

Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium

The Heart: Heart Wall


Three layers

Epicardium

This serous membrane of smooth outer surface of heart


Outside layer
This

layer is the parietal pericardium

Connective

tissue layer

Myocardium
Middle

layer

composed

of cardiac muscle cell

responsibility

Endocardium
Inner

layer

Endothelium

for heart contracting

The Heart: Chambers

Four chambers

Atria

Right atrium

Left atrium

Ventricles

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart


Vessels returning blood to the heart include:
1.
Superior and inferior venae cavae
2.
Right and left pulmonary veins
Vessels conveying blood away from the heart include:
1.
Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left
pulmonary arteries
2.
Ascending aorta (three branches)
a.
Brachiocephalic
b.
Left common carotid
c.
Subclavian arteries

External Heart: Posterior View

Anatomy of Heart: Frontal Section

Atria of the Heart


Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart
Each atrium has a protruding auricle
Pectinate muscles mark atrial walls
Blood enters right atria from superior and inferior

venae cavae and coronary sinus


Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins

Right Atria has


inferior vein cava ( valve of inferior vein cava)
superior vein cava
sinus coronarius osteum (valve of osteum sinus coronarius)
cordis minimi veins
Pectinati mucle
terminalis cristae= tuberculum intervenosum
Ovalis fossa
Limbus of ovalis fossa
Right atrio ventricularis osteum (tricuspidalis)
Right Auricula .

Ventricles of the Heart

Right Ventricle has:


Pulmonalis trunk (semilunair valve)
Papilaris anterior muscle and papillaris posterior
muscle
Chorda tendenea
Trabecula carnae.

Left ventricle has:


Base of the aorta ( posterior, dextra and sinistra
semilunair valve)
Left atrioventriculair osteum ( bicuspidalis =
mitralis )
Papilaris muscle
Chorda tendenea
Trabecula carnae
Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta

Coronary Circulation
Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish

the myocardium

The heart has its own nourishing circulatory

system

Coronary arteries

Cardiac veins

Blood empties into the right atrium via the


coronary sinus

Coronary Circulation
Branches of ascendens aorta :
Right coronary artery
Left coronary artery
Branches of Right coronary artery
marginalis arteries
posterior descendens arteries
Supplies blood to the right ventricle . right atrium SA
node and AV node.

Branches of left coronary arteria:


circumflex branch
anterior descendens artery
Left coronary arteries: Supplies blood to the left
ventricle and left atrium
circumflex branch supplies blood to lateral side and

back of the heart


anterior descendens artery supplies blood to the font
of the left side of the heart

Veins :
great cardiac vein ( vena cordis magna),
posterior vein to left ( Vena posterior ventriculi sinistri),
coronary sinus ( Sinus coronarius), and
middle cardiac vein ( Vena cordis media)
cordis minimi vein ( cardiaca minimi vein) dexter atria
oblique atrii sinistri vein
Cardiaca anterior vein dexter atria

The Heart: Valves

Four valves

Atrioventricular valves between atria and ventricles


Bicuspid

valve (left)

Tricuspid

valve (right)

Semilunar valves between ventricle and artery


Pulmonary
Aortic

semilunar valve

semilunar valve

The Heart: Valves


Valves open as blood is pumped through
Close to prevent backflow

The Heart: Associated Great Vessels


Aorta

Leaves left ventricle

Pulmonary arteries

Leave right ventricle

Vena cava

Enters right atrium

Pulmonary veins (four)

Enter left atrium

Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs


Right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle
Right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve

pulmonary arteries lungs


Lungs pulmonary veins left atrium
Left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle
Left ventricle aortic semilunar valve aorta
Aorta systemic circulation

Cardiac Pathology
= Inadequate blood
= Angina Pectoris

Branches of the aorta

Glomus caroticus and Sinus caroticus


Glomus caroticus

( carotid body):
Is a small cluster of
chemoreceptors and
supporting cells located
near the bifurcation of
the carotid artery, that
monitors changes in the
oxygen content of the
blood and help control
respiratory activity
They release a variety of
neurotransmitter .

Sinus caroticus is the

dilated area to the


bifurcation of the
common carotid at the
level of the superior
border of thyrod
cartilage

Pulmonary circuit
The

blood pathway
between the right side
of the heart, to the
lungs, and back to the
left side of the heart.
Systemic circuit
The

pathway between
the left and right sides
of the heart.

Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs


Right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle
Right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve

pulmonary arteries lungs


Lungs pulmonary veins left atrium
Left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle
Left ventricle aortic semilunar valve aorta
Aorta systemic circulation

Blood Circulation

Coronary Circulation: Arterial Supply

Flow Chart of Fetal Circulation

Congenital Heart Disease


Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AV Canal)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

ASD

VSD

Complete AVSD

Pulmonary Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis

Coartation of the Aorta

The Heart: Conduction System

Sinoatrial

node (right

atrium)

Pacemaker

Atrioventricular

node
(junction of r&l atria and
ventricles)
Atrioventricular

bundle

(Bundle of His)
Bundle

branches (right

and left)
Purkinje

fibers

Impulse passes from atria to ventricles via the


atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

1.

2.

AV bundle splits into two pathways in the interventricular


septum (bundle branches)
Bundle branches carry the impulse toward the apex of
the heart
Purkinje fibers carry the impulse to the heart apex and
ventricular walls

Extrinsic Innervation of the Heart


Heart is stimulated by

the sympathetic
cardioacceleratory center
Heart is inhibited by the
parasympathetic
cardioinhibitory center

Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulation is

activated by stress, anxiety, or exercise


Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
stimulation is mediated by acetylcholine and opposes
the SNS

Lokasi proyeksi katub. Jantung:


Katub Aorta
: ICS II kanan, linea sternalis
Katub. Pulmonal : ICS II kiri , linea sternalis
Katub. Trikuspid : ICS IV-V linea sternalis kanan- kiri
Katub. Mitral : ICS V linea Midclavicularis, 2 cm ke
medial . ( Apex )

BATAS BATAS jantung


BATAS KANAN:
ICS V ( cartilago costa VI) Linea sternalis kanan
BATAS ATAS:
ICS II Linea parasternalis kiri
BATAS KIRI BAWAH ( APEX CORDIS )
ICS V 1- 2 cm disebelah medial linea midclavicularis.
PINGGANG JANTUNG:
ICS III linea parasternalis kiri.

The Vascular System

Taking blood to the tissues and back

Arteries

Arterioles

Capillaries

Venules

Veins

The Vascular System

RETICULAR VEIN