23 views

Uploaded by sandhanu

ECT

- hais11Suraya
- Alice Course
- Variable Data
- thuvienmienphi.com_tu_vung_kanji_tieng_nhat_trinh_do_n1.doc
- S4_PRG 2 Form1 if Then Else y Select Case
- Reddit Resume
- Pandas - Powerful Python Data Analysis .pdf
- Bio-Inspired Ant Colony Optimization Based Clustering Algorithm with Mobile Sink for Home Automation and Cyber Security
- RNCFormula_PMRReport
- tkcalc.py
- st.txt
- liuyezheng-200703-7
- Formula Rnc m 1 50
- mcneill perspectives darwinianmath distanceformula
- Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm Routing for MANET in Urban Environments
- matlab example
- MySQL5 With Answers
- chap03 (1)
- Two Column CV
- Zooalv Int 2 Grids (1)

You are on page 1of 19

Paths / ant trails are maintained by using Trail

pheromones

Double bridge experiment

Two paths of equal length

Both paths were chosen almost equal number of times

Ants chose the shorter path

indicate indirect communication mediated by

modifications of the environment

Stimulation of workers by performance they have

achieved

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

2013 Even

2013 Even

Simple-ACO (S-ACO)

2013 Even

Steps

Forward probabilistic ants and solution construction

biased by pheromone trails

Deterministic backward ants and pheromone

updates

Pheromone updates based on solution quality

Pheromone evaporation

Forward (to food) and backward (to nest)

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

probabilistically the next node to move to among

those in the neighborhood of the graph node on

which they are located

Given a graph G = (N,A) ,two nodes I, j N are

neighbors if there exists an arc (i, j) A

Ants memorize the paths (intermediate nodes and

the costs between such nodes)

Probabilistic choice is biased by pheromone trails

previously deposited on the graph by other ants.

While ants go forward, they do not deposit

pheromones

This, together with deterministic backward moves,

helps in avoiding the formation of loops

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

S-ACO ants employ

Explicit memory of the paths used

Loop elimination

pheromone on the arcs they traverse.

This will bias the ants moving forward

2013 Even

2013 Even

forward path, as well as the cost of the arcs

traversed if the graph is weighted.

S-ACO ants evaluate the cost of the solutions they

generate

They use this evaluation to modulate the amount of

pheromone they deposit while in backward mode

generated solution quality

Helps in directing future ants more strongly toward

better solutions

pheromone on short paths, the ants path searching

is more quickly biased toward the best solutions.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

Pheromone evaporation

2013 Even

decreases over time because of evaporation

In S-ACO, evaporation is simulated by applying

an appropriately defined pheromone

evaporation rule

For example, artificial pheromone decay can be set

to a constant rate

of the pheromones deposited in the early stages

of the search when artificial ants can build poorquality solutions.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

S-ACO algorithm

2013 Even

minimum cost path problems on graphs.

To each arc (I, j) of the graph G=(N, A), we

associate a variable i,j called artificial

pheromone trail

Also named as pheromone trail

ants.

The amount (intensity) of a pheromone trail is

proportional to the utility, as estimated by the

ants, of using that arc to build good solutions.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

solution to the problem by applying astep-bystep decision policy.

At each node, local information stored on the

node itself or on its outgoing arcs is read

(sensed) by the ant and used in a stochastic way

to decide which node to move to next.

At the beginning of the search process, a

constant amount of pheromone (e.g., i,j = 1,

(i, j) A) is assigned to all the arcs.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

pheromone trails i,j to compute the probability

of choosing j as next node:

where

node i

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

all the nodes directly connected to node i in the

graph G = (N, A), except for the predecessor of

node i (i.e., the last node the ant visited before

moving to i).

In this way the ants avoid returning to the same

node they visited immediately before node i.

Only in case

is empty, which corresponds to a

dead end in the graph, node is predecessor is

included into

This decision policy can easily lead to loops in

the generated paths

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

this decision policy until it eventually reaches

the destination node

Due to differences among the ants paths, the

time step at which ants reach the destination

node may differ from ant to ant

ants traveling on shorter paths will reach their

destinations faster

Path Retracing

2013 Even

When reaching the destination node, ant switches from forward mode

to backward mode

Retraces step by step the same path backward to the source node

An additional feature is that, before starting the return trip, an ant

eliminates the loops it has built while searching for its destination

node.

Loop Elimination

Loops receive pheromone several times when an ant retraces its path

backward to deposit pheromone trail, leading to the problem of selfreinforcing loops.

Loop elimination can be done by iteratively scanning the nodes starting

from the source node

For the node at the i-th position, the path is scanned starting from the

destination node until the first occurrence of the node is encountered,

say, at position j

i < j because the scanning process stops at position i at the latest.

If we have j >i, the sub-path from position i +1 to position j corresponds to

a loop and can be eliminated.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

2013 Even

Pheromone update

2013 Even

During its return travel to the source the k-th ant deposits

an amount k of pheromone on arcs it has visited

In particular, if ant k is in the backward mode and it

traverses the arc (i, j), it changes the pheromone value ij

as follows:

ij = ij +

j increases the probability that forthcoming ants will use

the same arc in the future

An important aspect is the choice of k .

In simplest case k = a constant value for all the ants

Only the differential path length works in favor of the

detection of short paths: ants which have detected a shorter

path can deposit pheromone earlier than ants traveling on a

longer path.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

Pheromone update

2013 Even

pheromone trail update, the ants may also

deposit an amount of pheromone trail which is a

function of the path length

the shorter the path the more pheromone is

deposited by an ant.

an ant is a non-increasing function of the path

length

Pheromone evaporation

2013 Even

that avoids quick convergence of all ants toward a

suboptimal path.

Decrease in pheromone intensity favors the exploration of

different paths during the whole search process.

In real ant colonies, pheromone trails also evaporate, but,

evaporation does not play an important role in real ants

shortest-path finding.

Pheromone evaporation is important in artificial ants due to

the fact that the optimization problems tackled by artificial

ants are much more complex than those real ants can solve.

A mechanism like evaporation that, by favoring the

forgetting of errors or of poor choices done in the past,

allows a continuous improvement of the learned problem

structure seems therefore to be necessary for artificial ants.

Also bounds the maximum value achievable by pheromone trails.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

Pheromone evaporation

2013 Even

exponential speed.

In S-ACO, the pheromone evaporation is interleaved with

the pheromone deposit of the ants.

After each ant k has moved to a next node according to

the ants search behavior described earlier, pheromone

trails are evaporated by applying the following equation

to all the arcs:

Where is a parameter. After pheromone evaporation has

been applied to all arcs, the amount of pheromone k is

added to the arcs:

ij = (1 - ) ij ,

(i, j) in A

ants movement, pheromone evaporation, and

pheromone deposit.

Evolutionary Computing Techniques

- hais11SurayaUploaded bysanirahman
- Alice CourseUploaded byAnonymous T9W3derPvB
- Variable DataUploaded byJesus Enrique Colina Reyes
- thuvienmienphi.com_tu_vung_kanji_tieng_nhat_trinh_do_n1.docUploaded byDuc Ky Doan
- S4_PRG 2 Form1 if Then Else y Select CaseUploaded byJenifer Contreras
- Reddit ResumeUploaded byJohn Smith
- Pandas - Powerful Python Data Analysis .pdfUploaded byMichel Pierre
- Bio-Inspired Ant Colony Optimization Based Clustering Algorithm with Mobile Sink for Home Automation and Cyber SecurityUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- RNCFormula_PMRReportUploaded bymousamjha
- tkcalc.pyUploaded bychmurali
- st.txtUploaded byEhan Fahmi
- liuyezheng-200703-7Uploaded bySyarif Ritonga
- Formula Rnc m 1 50Uploaded byazure_ethereal
- mcneill perspectives darwinianmath distanceformulaUploaded byapi-217042382
- Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm Routing for MANET in Urban EnvironmentsUploaded bySharique Afridi Khan
- matlab exampleUploaded byapi-404665359
- MySQL5 With AnswersUploaded byRocket
- chap03 (1)Uploaded bysenpaitunz
- Two Column CVUploaded by1medjumnogima
- Zooalv Int 2 Grids (1)Uploaded byKalyan Chakravarthy
- Before OOP (Static Methods)Uploaded bybfmj
- VB Source Data Source DatabaseUploaded byPaul
- A AUploaded byYatish Gujjar
- variosUploaded byFreddy Meres Vargas
- UntitledUploaded byapi-256504985
- De Thi Tuyen Chon HSG - 2011-12-PbchauUploaded byanon_778402904
- IT113 - Quiz1_Set2Uploaded bye guin
- ACT ProjectUploaded byAbhishek Shatagopachari
- A Guide to 1401 Programming 1961Uploaded bykgrhoads
- Ranking Things and Creating League Tables in Excel TSS Practice FileUploaded byJustin Musopole

- EMD Program.matUploaded byankush
- Duke Regression PptUploaded byHarshal Chaudhari
- Simplex Method Problem 1Uploaded byL Suresh Kumar
- h2o.pdfUploaded byKevin Menjivar
- Control System Module 2 NotesUploaded byRaghunath B H
- Uni of Frankfurt - Thermodynamic PotentialsUploaded bytabooga
- a5 andrew emrazianUploaded byapi-240736473
- 3. Digital Controllers (1).pdfUploaded bysumanroyal
- Public Key Cryptosystem Using Improved Rabin Algorithm for Wireless Sensor NetworksUploaded byeditor_ijcat
- Method of JointsUploaded byLalaine Ramos
- ! Syllabus 11 Management Science & Statistical MethodUploaded bySultan Pasha
- Stochastic Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Server FailureUploaded byinventionjournals
- Handout 8Uploaded bysn_tinpet17
- Robotics Sample Questions-Uploaded bySidhu Suresh
- mcs-021Uploaded byAgnel Thomas
- The Impact of Combined Channel Mismatch Effects in Time-Interleaved ADCsUploaded byReza Bagh
- Paper MIDUploaded byParizie
- Difference Histograms A new tool for time series analysis applied to bearing fault diagnosis-dataset.pdfUploaded byanepires87
- Turing Machine and Automata SimulatorsUploaded byTruck Heart
- Maintenance CostingUploaded byAdJi Abdillah Kharisma
- IntroductionUploaded byHadis Mehari
- EM InversionUploaded byMazen A. Taher
- nullUploaded bytech4a
- Lip reading using CNN and LTSMUploaded byAlexandraZapuc
- ADT-ToCUploaded byRaghavendra R
- Document Image Segmentation Based On Gray Level Co- Occurrence Matrices and Feed Forward Neural NetworkUploaded byijcsis
- Introduction to Computation and Programming Using Python%2C Revised - Guttag%2C John v..257Uploaded byZhichaoWang
- Signal Processing VTU Syllabus for quick revisionUploaded byPavan Kulkarni
- DIGITAL FILTERSUploaded byapi-19951707
- Fem Matrix AlgebraUploaded byErcüment Kayacık