You are on page 1of 27

Raghuvir Tomar

Prepared by:

Reviewed by:
Reviewed by:

Antenna Engineering Notes


for
Chapter 1 (Radiation
Fundamentals) Revision 001

Authors

Date

Raghuvir Tomar

21 July,
2014

st

Place
LNMIIT
Jaipur,
India

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Revision History
Revision Date

001

21st July, 2014

Description

Initial draft

______________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Table of Contents
1

FREQUENCY BANDS .................................................................................... 1

1.1

Nomenclature 1 (TRADITIONAL) ........................................................................ 1

1.2

Nomenclature 2 (RADAR-BASED) ...................................................................... 1

DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................. 2

2.1

Radiation .............................................................................................................. 2

2.2

Irradiation ............................................................................................................. 2

2.3

Antenna ................................................................................................................ 2

WHY/HOW DOES RADIATION TAKE PLACE AT ALL? .............................. 2

4.

CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIPS ............................................................. 3

5.

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS ......................................................................... 4

a.

MAXWELLS FIRST EQUATION............................................................................... 4

b.

MAXWELLS SECOND EQUATION .......................................................................... 5

c.

MAXWELLS THIRD EQUATION ............................................................................. 6

d.

MAXWELLS FOURTH EQUATION .......................................................................... 7

e.

Equation of continuity of current ............................................................................... 7

f.

Integral forms of Maxwells equations ........................................................................ 7

g.

Types of media .................................................................................................... 8

h.

How to define wave ........................................................................................... 9

6.

Time-varying potentials .................................................................................... 10


a.
Equations for A and V for the time-varying case ........................................ 11
b.
Potential functions for the sinusoidally time-varying case ......................... 13
a.
b.
c.

Infinitesimally small dipole (alternating-current element) ......................................... 13


Far-field expressions ..................................................................................... 15
Radiated Power .............................................................................................. 16
Radiation Resistance ..................................................................................... 17

a.

Short antennas (elementary dipole and elementary monopole) .................................. 17


Radiation field of the elementary dipole ....................................................... 18

7.

8.

______________________________________________________________________________________

ii

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________
b.
Radiation resistance of the elementary dipole ............................................. 19
d.
Radiation resistance of the elementary monpole......................................... 19
9.
a.

10.

Dipoles and monopoles of arbitrary length ............................................................... 19


Analysis of center-fed dipole of arbitrary length.......................................... 20
b.
Half-wave dipole............................................................................................ 20
c. Quarter-wave monopole ................................................................................... 22
Unsolved problems ............................................................................................... 22

______________________________________________________________________________________

iii

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

FREQUENCY BANDS

Two most commonly used frequency-band nomenclatures are given below.


1.1

Nomenclature 1 (TRADITIONAL)

BAND
Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)
Very Low Frequency (VLF)
Low Frequency (LF)
Medium Frequency (MF)
High Frequency (HF)
Very High Frequency (VHF)
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
Super High Frequency (SHF)
Extremely High Frequency (EHF)
1.2

FREQUENCY
RANGE
<3KHz
3KHz-30KHz
30KHz-300KHz
300KHz-3MHz
3MHz-30MHz
30MHz-300MHz
300MHz-3GHz
3GHz-30GHz
30GHz-300GHz

WAVELENGTH RANGE
>100Km
10Km-100Km
1Km-10Km
100m-1Km
10m-100m
1m-10m
10cm-1m
1cm-10cm
1mm-1cm

Nomenclature 2 (RADAR-BASED)

BAND LETTER DESIGNATION


L Band
S Band
C Band
X Band
Ku Band
K Band
Ka band
Q Band
U Band
V Band
E Band
W Band
F Band
D Band

FREQUENCY
RANGE
1GHz-2GHz
2GHz-4GHz
4GHz-8GHz
8GHz-12GHz
12GHz-18GHz
18GHz-26.5GHz
26.5GHz-40GHz
33GHz-50GHz
40GHz-60GHz
50GHz-75GHz
60GHz-90GHz
75GHz-110GHz
90GHz-140GHz
110GHz-170GHz

WAVELENGTH RANGE

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

DEFINITIONS

Some commonly used pertinent definitions are summarized below.


2.1

Radiation

a) Radiation is a process in which electromagnetic (EM) waves travel through


vacuum or through some other medium containing material.
b) Radiation can be thought of as the phenomenon of transmitting electromagnetic
energy via an unbounded medium (e.g., free space). In other words, no guiding
structures (coaxial lines, waveguides, MIC lines, fibre, etc.) have to be present
for the radiation to occur.
c) Radiation is principally caused by two sources: a) time-varying charge
distribution, b) time-varying current distribution. Charge distribution is generally
measured in Coulomb/m3 and is denoted by Current distribution is generally
measured in Ampere/m3 and is denoted by J.
d) Time-varying charge distribution and time-varying current distribution are not
independent quantities (at least for the time-varying case) and are related by the
well-known equation of continuity
.J=-(

/ t)

This equation, essentially speaking, mathematizes the principle of conservation of charge


which states the following:
The time-rate of decrease of electric charge within a given volume is equal to the net outward
current flow through the closed surface of the volume.
2.2

Irradiation

Irradiation is the process of getting exposed to radiation.


2.3

Antenna

An antenna is the device which converts non-radiating (that is, guided) electromagnetic
energy into radiated electromagnetic energy.
3

WHY/HOW DOES RADIATION TAKE PLACE AT ALL?

Radiation can be visualized as the propagation (or moving away) of an effect in all
directions, from the source.
The universe has decided (for some unfathomable reasons) that the disturbance of electric
and magnetic fields due to a moving (or accelerating) electric charge will propagate
away from the charge at the speed of light (c=300,000,000 Km/sec in vacuum). Once the
charge accelerates, the fields need to re-align themselves although they will prefer not to
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

have to do so. The re-alignment effect will be felt with greater and greater time-delay as
we go further and further away from the charge, the speed at which the disturbance
travels being equal to c.
4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIPS
The two constitutive relationships that govern the electromagnetic behavior of a
given non-conducting material (whether free-space, dielectric medium, or magnetic
medium) are
B=H

(1.1)

D=*E

(1.2)

In these equations, H is the magnetic field strength in A/m, E is electric field


strength in V/m, B is the magnetic flux density in weber/m2, and D is the electric flux
density in coulomb/m2.

is the permeability of the medium and is defined by

=0r

(1.3)

where r is the relative permeability of the medium and


space, is given by
0=4*10-7 Henry/m

0, the permeability of free(1.4))

is the permeability of the medium and is defined by


=0*r

(1.5)

where r is the relative permittivity (dielectric constant) of the medium and 0, the
permittivity of free-space, is given by
0=(1/(36*))*10-9 Farad/m

(1.6)

An additional relationship that holds good for imperfect conductors (electrical


conductivity not infinite) is
J=E

(1.7)

where is the conductivity of the medium, and E is the incident field that causes a surface
current density, J (in A/m2), on the surface of the conductor.
Eq. (1.7) can easily be derived, at least in the case of a rectangular bar made of material with
finite electrical conductivity, by using Ohms law.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

5. MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
The four Maxwells equations are reproduced below. Please note that bold letters
represent vectors and a dot on top represents ( / t). All possible variations of the four
Maxwellian equations are shown. The last few variations shown (in case of each of the
equations) are for the case when ejt type of time-dependence is assumed (a very
practically used case).
a.

MAXWELLS FIRST EQUATION


The first Maxwells equation is derivable from Faradays law

v(t)= - ( t)

(1.8)

In eq. (2.1.1),v(t) is the induced emf and is the magnetic flux whose rate of
change with time is producing v(t). We can rewrite equation (1.8) as

E.dl

B.dS

(1.9)

where the left hand side (LHS) equates the induced emf to the line integral of the
corresponding electric field (E) and the right hand side (RHS) equates the magnetic flux
to the surface integral of the corresponding magnetic flux density (B). S represents a
two-dimensional surface enclosed by a closed contour C.
Now let us use Stokes theorem

A.dl (curlA).dS

(1.10)

where A represents any arbitrary vector. Eq. (1.10) then yields


XE=

- ( B/ t)

(M1)

which is the first Maxwellian equation in its differential form. We can re-write this
equation in several other forms, as shown below. As already mentioned, the dot on top of
a mathematical quantity represents the time-derivative of that quantity.

.
XE=

-B

(M1.1)

= - ( H/ t)

(M1.2)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

= - r ( H/ t)

(M1.3)

.
=-

(M1.4)

.
=-

r H
= - r( H/ t)
= - jrH

(M1.6)

= - jB

(M1.8)

(M1.5)

(M1.7)

Note that the last two representations (M1.7 and M1.8) are applicable only when
jt

b.

type of time-dependence is assumed for both E and H vectors.

MAXWELLS SECOND EQUATION

The second Maxwells equation is derivable, after a suitable modification, from


the Amperes law which states that the line integral of magnetic field around any closed
path C is equal to the total current I enclosed by that path. Mathematically speaking, we
write Amperes law as

H.dl I

(1.11)

Let us now use Stokes theorem (eq. 1.10) to convert eq. (1.11) into
XH=

(1.12)

where J represents the surface current density (in A/m2) associated with I.
Eq. (1.12) is good enough when interactions between time-varying electric and
magnetic fields can be assumed to be negligible. As frequency increases, this, however,
becomes less and less of a safe bet. Maxwells genius lied in suggesting (based on
intuitive reasoning which was later verified experimentally) that an additional term be
added to the RHS of eq. (1.12) to account for the fact that time-varying E gives rise to
effects in total H. Eq. (1.12) was thus modified to
XH=

( D/ t)+J

(M2)

where the first term on the RHS represents the so-called displacement-current density
(in A/m2) that was added-in by Maxwell (for an interesting up-to-date view of
displacement current please visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Displacement_current).
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Eq. (M2) is the second Maxwellian equation in its differential form. We can write
this equation in several other forms too, as shown below.

.
XH=

D+J
= ( E/ t) + J
= r( E/ t) + J

(M2.1)
(M2.2)
(M2.3)

.
=

E + J

(M2.4)

.
rE + J
= r( E/ t) + J
= jrE + J

(M2.5)

= jD + J

(M2.8)

(M2.6)
(M2.7)

Note that the last two representations (M2.7 and M2.8) apply only when ejt type of
time-dependence is assumed for both E and H vectors.

c.

MAXWELLS THIRD EQUATION

The third Maxwells equation is derivable from Gausss law which states that the
net electric flux passing through a closed surface S is equal to the total electric charge Q
enclosed by that surface. In other words,

D.dS Q

(1.13)

We use divergence theorem

A.dS ( DivA)dV
S

(1.14)

to convert (1.13) into

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

( DivD)dV Q dV
V

(1.15)

In eq. (1.15), represents the volume charge density in C/m3. This equation easily yields
.D=

(M3)

which is the third Maxwellian equation in its differential form.

d.

MAXWELLS FOURTH EQUATION

The fourth Maxwells equation is derivable by taking divergence on both sides of


(M1). We get
.B=

(M4)

by assuming, without any loss of generality, that the constant involved can be assumed to
be zero.
Eq. (M4) is the fourth Maxwellian equation in its differential form.

e. Equation of continuity of current


The equation of continuity (derivable by taking divergence on both sides of M2 and
then using M3) is written as follows:
.J=

-( /

t)

(1.16)

which, for ejt type of time variation, becomes


.J = -j

(1.17)

The equation of continuity, essentially speaking, is a manifestation of the


principle of conservation of charge which states the following:
The time-rate of decrease of electric charge within a given volume is equal to the net
outward current flow through the closed surface of the volume.
f.

Integral forms of Maxwells equations

By using Stokes and Divergence theorems, the four Maxwells equations can also
be integrated and converted into their equivalent integral representations given below.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

E.dl

H .dl
C

B.dS

t S

(M.I.1)

D.dS I
t
S

(M.I.2)

D.dS dV

(M.I.3)

B.dS 0

(M.I.4)

In the above equations, vector dl represents an infinitesimally small length on a


closed path C that is bounding a surface S, vector dS represents an infinitesimally small
area on the surface S, and dV represents an infinitesimally small volume within the total
volume V bounded by the surface S.
In words, eqs. (M.I.1)-(M.I.4) can be summarized as follows:
a) The electromotive force (emf) around a closed path is equal to the time derivative
of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path.
b) The magnetomotive force (mmf) around a closed path is equal to the total current
I flowing through any surface bounded by the path. This current, in general, is
made up of two components, a fictitious displacement current and a conduction
current.
c) The total electric flux through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the total
charge contained within the volume.
d) The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero.

g. Types of media

The various types of transmission media encountered in practice are briefly discussed
below.
1. Homogeneous and non-homogeneous media
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Homogeneous media (e.g., free-space) are those whose properties (permeability,


permittivity, and conductivity) do not change with (x,y,z). Inhomogeneous media (e.g.,
human body) are those whose properties do change with (x,y,z).
2. Isotropic and anisotropic media
Isotropic media (e.g., free-space) are those whose properties do not change with
direction. Anisotropic media (e.g., human body) are those whose properties do change
with direction.
For anisotropic materials, the constitutive relationships become (instead of eqs. 1.1
and 1.2):

D E
B H

(1.18)

(1.19)

where [D], [E], [B], and [H] are 3x1 matrices and [] and [] are 3x3 matrices.

3. Linear and non-linear media


Linear media (e.g., free-space) are those whose response to the simultaneous
presence of more than one source can be computed using a linear superposition of the
media responses to individual sources. Non-linear media (e.g., many semiconductors) are
those whose response to more than one source can not be treated as a linear
superposition of the responses to individual sources.
h. How to define wave

If a physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at


other places at later times, the time delay being proportional to the space separation from
the first location, then the group of phenomena is said to constitute a wave.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

6. Time-varying potentials
For a static volume charge distribution (r), the electric scalar potential V ( r) is given
by

(1.20)
where the integration is carried out over the entire volume over which the charge is
distributed, and R,r, and r are defined in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Definitions

Note that the vector r denotes the position vector of the elemental volume over which
the charge is being considered, and is called the source-coordinate. Vector r, on the
other hand, denotes the position vector of the point of observation. Vector R denotes the
difference between r and r, that is
(1.21)

R=r-r

Similarly, for a static volume current distribution J(r), the magnetic vector potential
A(r) is given by

(1.22)
where the following definition for A has been used:

B=

XA

(1.23)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

10

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

For radiation to happen, as has already been pointed out, both charge distribution and
current distribution have to be time-varying quantities. Intuitively, we thus modify eqs.
(1.20) and (1.22) to

(1.24 and 1.25)


Finally, for the time-varying case, a finite propagation delay can be expected between the
source and its effect. Assuming v to be the speed of propagation, we thus further modify
the above equations to

(1.26 and 1.27)


These are the so-called retarded potentials.
a. Equations for A and V for the time-varying case
Using eq. (1.23) along with the Maxwells equation
XE=-(

B/ t)

(1.28)

we can write
XE=-(

t)

(1.29)

A/ t)] =0

(1.30)

XA)/

That is
X [E+(

Hence we define

E+( A/ t)] =- V

(1.31)

That is
_____________________________________________________________________________________

11

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

E = -( A/ t)] - V

(1.32)

Contrast eq. (1.32) with the corresponding definition

E= - V

(1.33)

for the static case.


Let us now use the Maxwells equation
XH=(

D/ t)+J

(1.34)

along with eqs. (1.32) and (1.23) to get


2

A-(

A/ t )=

( .A)+

( V/ t)-J

(1.35)

Then use
.D=

(1.36)

and eq. (1.32) to get


2

V+

. ( A/ t) = - /

(1.37)

Eqs. (1.35) and (1.37) represent the two coupled differential equations for the unknown
potentials A and V. It has been shown that the following condition needs to be
additionally satisfied if solutions involving retarded potentials are desired.

( .A) = - ( V/ t)

(1.38)

Eq. (9.17) is known as Lorentz Gauge condition. Using this equation, eqs. (1.35) and
(1.37) become
2

A-(

A/ t )= -J

V/ t )= - /

(1.39)

and
2

V-(

(1.40)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

12

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Eqs. (1.39) and (1.40) represent the two independent equations for the two unknown
potentials A and V. It can be shown that the intuitively constructed solutions given by
eqs. (1.26) and (1.27) do indeed satisfy the above two equations (see section 10.10 of
Jordan and Balmains book).
b. Potential functions for the sinusoidally time-varying case
In this case, eqs. (1.39) and (1.40) become
2

A + k A= -J

(1.41)

and
2

V + k V= - /

(1.42)

and the solutions to them can be written as

(1.43 and 1.44)


where the phase variation exp (-jR) has been brought in, assuming a uniform plane
wave.
7. Infinitesimally small dipole (alternating-current element)
An infinitesimally small dipole (also known as the alternating-current element) is shown
in Figure 2. It consists of a time-varying current-element Idl where I represents the
constant current flowing in the dipole and dl represents the length of the dipole. dl is
assumed to be very small compared to the free-space wavelength involved and, hence,
the current I is assumed to be constant throughout the length of the dipole. Also, the
cross-section of the antenna is assumed to be very small compared to the free-space
wavelength involved.
The case of the infinitesimally-small dipole is not practically realizable in most
situations, but can be thought of as a building block for realizing real antennas.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

13

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Figure 2 Infinitesimally small dipole antenna

Since the length of the dipole is assumed to be along the z-axis, the magnetic vector
potential will have only a z-component. An application of eq. (1.43) yields

Az=[/(4)] [Idl {exp(-jr)}/r ]

(1.45)

In carrying out the volume integration of the current density, the following logic is used:
The result of integration of J over the dipoles cross-section is just the current I.
Moreover, since I is constant over dl, the result of integration along z is simply Idl.
Also note that the antenna is assumed to be centered at the origin of the co-ordinate
system. This means
(1.46)

r=0
and

(1.47)

R=r
It is also easy to show that

Ar=Azcos

(1.48)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

14

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

A =-Azsin

(1.49)

A =0

(1.50)

Since the antenna is symmetrical in the plane, we can also assume that neither A nor
any of the field components varies with That is,
A/

and similar equations for the field components.


Once A is known, we can use eq. (1.23) to derive the various components of the magnetic
field H. We get

Hr=0

(1.52)

H=0

(1.53)

and

H= [Idlsin/(4)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)r

(1.54)

Then we use the Maxwells equation


XH=(

D/ t)+J

(1.55)

to derive expressions for the various components of the lectric field. We get

Er=[2Idlcos/(4j)][exp(-jr)][ (jr2)r

(1.56)

E=[Idlsin/(4)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)r jr3

(1.57)

E = 0

(1.58)

a. Far-field expressions
In the radiated field equations derived above, the (1/r) terms constitute the far-field
whereas the complete (1/r)+(1/r2)+(1/r3)+ terms constitute the near field.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

15

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Generally, we are concerned with far-fields only. Thus neglecting the (1/r2) and (1/r3)
terms, the field expressions for the radiatied field of an infinitesimally small dipole
antenna become

Er=0

(1.59)

E=H

(1.60)

E = 0

(1.61)

Hr=0

(1.62)

H=0

(1.63)

H= [Idlsin/(4)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)

(1.64)

b. Radiated Power
Radiated power can be computed by first finding the average Poynting vector and then
integrating its radial component Pravg over a spherical surface centered at the element
(see Figure 3).

Figure 3 Speherical surface of integration

Considering only the far fields, it can be shown that

Pravg=(2/2r2)I2dl2sin2/(162)

(1.65)

The elemental area will be taken as the area of a strip on the surface of the sphere as
shown in Figure 3. That is
_____________________________________________________________________________________

16

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

da=2r2sind

(1.66)

After integrating the product of Pravg and da over =0 to =, the total far-field radiated
power can be shown to be given by

Prad =[802 (dl/)2] Ieff

(1.67)

where

Ieff=I/sqrt(2)

(1.68)

is the effective current flowing in the antenna.


c. Radiation Resistance
It is customary to define the total radiated power of an antenna in terms of the radiation
resistance Rrad of the antenna. The radiation resistance is that hypothetical resistance
which, assuming an rms current Ieff flowing through the resistance which is same as
the current flowing through the antenna, will dissipate the same amount of power as
the power radiated by the antenna.
Mathematically speaking, we can write

Prad=Rrad Ieff2

(1.69)

whereby the radiation resistance of the infinitesimally dipole antenna turns out to be

Rrad =802 (dl/)2

(1.70)

8. Short antennas (elementary dipole and elementary


monopole)
The elementary dipole antenna has a length large enough so as not to support the
constant-current assumption along the length of the antenna. For cases where the total
length of the dipole is less than quarter-wavelength, it is sufficiently accurate to describe
the current distribution along the antenna length as a linear function of z as shown in
Figure 4a.
The elementary monopole antenna shown in Figure 4b is similar in construction but is
mounted over a ground plane (assumed to be perfectly conducting). For cases where the
total length of the monopole is less than one-eighth wavelength, the current distribution
along the antenna length can be assumed to be linear. For the sake of finding the radiation
_____________________________________________________________________________________

17

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

field, the effects of the gorund plane can be incorporated by bringing in an image of the
physical antenna on the other side of the ground plane as shown in Figure 4b.

Figure 4 Short dipole (a) and short monopole (b)

a. Radiation field of the elementary dipole


Assuming a center-fed case for which the linear current distribution shown in Figure 9.4a
is valid, one can easily show that the z-component of the magnetic vector potential is
given by

Az=[/(8)] [Il{exp(-jr)}/r ]

(1.71)

Note that one has to integrate I(z)dz from z=-l/2 to z=l/2 to get to this result (see class
notes for more details).
After this, the rest of the analysis runs along lines similar to those followed for the
infinitesimally-small antenna. We can show that, for far fields,

Er=0

(1.72)

E=H

(1.73)

E = 0

(1.74)

Hr=0

(1.75)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

18

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

H=0

(1.76)

H= [Ilsin/(8)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)

(1.77)

b. Radiation resistance of the elementary dipole


The derivation for radiation resistance is also similar to what was done for the
infinitesimally-small dipole. It can be shown that

Rrad =202 (l/)2

(1.78)

Note that, compared to the infinitesimally-small dipole, a factor of four has come in, in
the formula for the radiation resistance.
c. Radiation field of the elementary monopole
Eqs. (9.50)-(9.55) would still apply as long as we remember that the monopole would
radiate only in the upper hemisphere.
d. Radiation resistance of the elementary monpole
Because the total radiated power in this case is only for the upper half of the sphere, the
radiation resistance is given by

Rrad =102 (l/)2

(1.79)

9. Dipoles and monopoles of arbitrary length


For dipoles and monopoles of arbitrary length, it is customary to assume a sinusoidal
current distribution as shown in Figure 5, for the center-fed case.

Figure 5 Center-fed dipole and monopole of arbitrary length


_____________________________________________________________________________________

19

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

a. Analysis of center-fed dipole of arbitrary length


In this case, we write the current as

I (z)= Im sin {(H-z)}

for z>0

I (z)= Im sin {(H+z)}

for z<0

(1.80)
(1.81)

The magnetic vector potential can then be written as

(1.82)
Assuming only far fields, we make the following simplifying approximations:
(1.83)

R=r-zcos ()
for the phase term in the numerator of the two integrands, and

(1.84)

R=r
in the denominator of the two integrands. Eq. (1.82) then yields

Az=[m/(4)][exp(-jr)/r][2/{sin2}][cos{Hcos}-cos(H)]
(1.85)
from which the six field components can be derived exactly as was done for the
infinitesimally-small dipole. Then, expressions for radiated power and radiation
resistance can also be worked out. The expression for radiated power involved the use of
numerical techniques as discussed below for a specific case (half-wave dipole).
b. Half-wave dipole
For a half-wave dipole,
H=/4
L=/2

(1.86)
(1.87)

Thus, eq. (1.85) simplifies to


_____________________________________________________________________________________

20

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Az=[m/(4)][exp(-jr)/r][2/{sin2}][cos/2)cos()}]
(1.88)
Using the same methodology that we used for the infinitesimally-small dipole, it can be
shown that, for far fields,

Er=0

(1.89)

E=H

(1.90)

E = 0

(1.91)

Hr=0

(1.92)

H=0

(1.93)

H= =[jm/(2)][exp(-jr)/r][cos/2)cos}]/[sin
(1.94)
The average Poynting vector can be shown to be

Pravg=[(m/(82r2)][cos2/2)cossin2]
(1.95)

After integrating the product of Pravg and da over =0 to =, the total far-field radiated
power can be shown to be given by

Prad ==[(m/(2)] I

(1.96)

where I is a definite integral defined by

I=

(1.97)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

21

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

Since I can not be found analytically, we need to use numerical techniques.


different numerical techniques are possible:

Two

1). Use trapezoidal or Simpsons rule for numerical integration. Using trapezoidal rule
(5 degree intervals), the approximate value of I turns out to be 0.609. Please see pp. 330331 of Jordan and Balmains book for more details.
2). Transform I into an infinite series and then numerically sum that series. This way
too, the value of I turn out to be approximately equal to 0.609. Please see pp. 330-331 of
Jordan and Balmains book for more details.
Thus, the total far-field radiated power of a center-fed half-wave dipole turns out be
approximately given by

Prad ==[(0.609m/(2)]

(1.98)

which, in terms of the rms current Ieff, can be written as

Prad ==[(0.609eff/()]

(1.99)

The radiation resistance of the center-fed half-wave dipole thus can be written as

Rrad ==[(0.609/()]

(1.100)

which, for free space, works out to approximately 73 ohm.


c. Quarter-wave monopole
The analysis of the quarter-wave monopole (after including its image antenna and
removing the ground plane) is similar to that for the half-wave dipole. The only
difference is that the radiation will happen in the upper hemisphere only. Thus

Rrad ==[(0.609/(2)]

(1.101)

which, for free space, works out to approximately 36.5 ohm.

10.

Unsolved problems

Assume free-space as the medium, unless otherwise stated.


1) Solve problems 7,8 and 9 from Jordan and Balmains book (pp. 332-333). For
problem 9, use the sine and cosine integral definitions given in section 10.08.
2) Find the radiation resistance of a Herzian dipole (i.e., an infinitesimally small
dipole) of length =(/40) where is the free-space wavelength involved.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

22

Antenna Engineering Notes for Chapter 1 by R.Tomar


Rev 001
______________________________________________________________________

3) An antenna whose radiation resistance is 300 ohms operates at a frequency of


1GHz and with a current of 3 Amperes. Find the radiated power.
4) The field amplitude due to a half-wave dipole at 10Km is 0.1V/m. The antenna
operates at 100MHz. Find the length of the antenna. Also find the radiated
power per m2.
5) What is the length of a half-wave dipole antenna at 1MHz, if the antenna is
situated in a perfect dielectric medium whose dielectric constant is equal to 10?
6) Calculate the radiation resistance of a quarter-wave dipole antenna using a) linear
current distribution, b) sinusoidal current distribution. Compare the two values
thus obtained.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

23