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ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
KEVIN CASSEL

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MMAE: 501

Engineering Analysis I

Kevin W. Cassel

Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department

Illinois Institute of Technology

10 West 32nd Street

Chicago, IL 60616

cassel@iit.edu

Problem

Problem # 1:

Problem # 2:

Problem # 3:

Problem # 4:

Problem # 5:

Problem # 6:

Problem # 7:

Reference

Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 10

Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 21

Jeffrey, Section 1.7, Problem 9

Jeffrey, Section 1.7, Problem 10

Jeffrey, Section 3.3, Problem 16

Jeffrey, Section 3.7, Problem 8

Jeffrey, Section 3.8, Problem 9

Problem # 1

Problem:

Prove that

|AB| = |A||B|

when A and B are general square 2 2 matrices.

Solution:

Let us consider two matrices A and B where

a

a12

b

A = 11

and B = 11

a21 a22

b21

b12

.

b22

We have

|A| = (a11 a22 a12 a21 ),

(1)

(2)

a11 a12 b11

AB =

a21 a22 b21

b12

a b + a12 b21

= 11 11

b22

a21 b11 + a22 b21

a11 b12 + a12 b22

.

a21 b12 + a22 b22

Taking determinant of AB

|AB| = a11 b11 a21 b12 + a11 b11 a22 b22 + a12 b21 a21 b12

+a12 b21 a22 b22 a11 b12 a21 b11 a11 b12 a22 b21

a12 b22 a21 b11 a12 b22 a22 b21 .

Canceling the like terms we get

|AB| = a11 b11 a22 b22 a11 b12 a22 b21

+a12 b21 a21 b12 a12 b22 a21 b11

= a11 a22 (b11 b22 b12 b21 ) a12 a21 (b11 b22 b12 b21 )

= (a11 a22 a12 a21 )(b11 b22 b12 b21 ).

Substituting from (1) and (2)

|AB| = |A||B|.

Problem # 2

Problem:

Determine the elements of AT , Adj(A),

1

A= 2

1

2

and A1 when

2 1

1 0 .

0 1

Solution:

Transpose of A is obtained by interchanging the rows and columns. Hence

1 2 1

T

A = 2 1 0 .

1 0 1

To find Adj(A) we first find the co-factor matrix of A

+(1)

(2)

+(1)

1 2

+(2)

(2) = 2 2

C = (2)

+(1) (2) +(3)

1 2

1

Adj(A) = CT = 2

1

1

2 .

3

1

2 .

3

2

2

2

Inverse of A:

|A| = 1(1 0) 2(2 0) + 1(0 + 1) = 1 4 + 1 = 2.

|A| =

6 0

A is invertible.

A1

2

1

Adj(A) = 1

=

|A|

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

.

3

2

Problem # 3

Problem:

A matrix is said to be transposed if its first row is written as its first column,

its second row is written as its second column. . . , and its last row is written as

its last column. If the determinant is |A|, the determinant of AT , the transpose

of matrix A, is denoted by |AT |. For A 3 3, write out the cofactor expansion

of A using

|A| = a11 C11 + a12 C12 + a13 C13

and reorder the terms to show that

|A| = |AT |.

Solution:

Let

a11

A = a21

a31

a12

a22

a32

a13

a23 .

a33

= a11 (a22 a33 a23 a32 ) + a12 (a23 a31 a21 a33 ) + a13 (a21 a32 a22 a31 )

= a11 (a22 a33 a32 a23 ) + a12 a23 a31 a21 a12 a33 + a13 a21 a32 a13 a22 a31

= a11 (a22 a33 a32 a23 ) a21 (a12 a33 a13 a32 ) + a31 (a12 a23 a13 a22 )

= a11 C11 + a21 C21 + a31 C31

a11 a21 a31

= |AT | = a12 a22 a32 .

a13 a23 a33

Problem # 4

Problem:

Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations

a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2

for x1 and x2 , in which not both b1 and b2 are zero, and show that the solution

can be written in the form

x1 =

D1

|A|

and x2 =

D2

,

|A|

provided

|A| =

6 0,

a11 a12

b1 a12

a11 b1

.

|A| =

, D1 =

, and D2 =

a21 a22

b2 a22

a21 b2

Notice that D1 is obtained from |A| by replacing its first column by b1 and b2 ,

whereas D2 is obtained from |A| by replacing its second column by b1 and b2 .

This is Cramers rule for a system of two simultaneous equations. Use this

method to find the solution of

x1 + 5x2

7x1 3x2

= 1

Solution:

a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,

(3)

a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2 .

(4)

a12 a21 x2 a11 a22 x2 = b1 a21 b2 a11 ,

x2 =

b1 a21 b2 a11

b2 a11 b1 a21

=

.

a12 a21 a11 a22

a11 a22 a12 a21

a11 a22 x1 a21 a12 x1 = b1 a22 b2 a12 ,

x1 =

A=

a11

a21

a12

,

a22

b1 a22 b2 a12

.

a11 a22 a21 a12

6 0.

Also,

b1 a12

= b1 a22 b2 a12 ,

D1 =

b2 a22

a

b

D2 = 11 1 = b2 a11 b1 a21 .

a21 b2

Substituting |A|, D1 , and D2 in solution of x1 and x2 by elimination

x1 =

D1

,

|A|

D2

.

|A|

x2 =

x1 + 5x2

7x1 3x2

A=

1

7

5

,

3

= 1

b2 = 1,

b1 = 3,

1

D2 =

7

3

5

= 9 + 5 = 4,

D1 =

1 3

3

= 1 21 = 22,

1

|A| = 3 35 = 38,

4

2

=

,

38

19

x2 =

22

11

=

.

38

19

4

P () = 1

1

1

1 ,

2

x1 =

Problem # 5

Problem:

Let P () be given by

where is a parameter. Expand the determinant to find the form of the polynomial P () and use the result to find for what values of the determinant

vanishes.

Solution:

4

P () = 1

1

1

1

2

= (4 )[(2 ) + 2] 0 + (2 )

= (4 )(2 + 2 + 2) 2

= 8 + 42 + 8 + 22 3 2 2

= 3 + 62 11 + 6.

Equating to zero

P () = 0

3 + 62 11 + 6 = 0.

( 1)[2 + 5 6] = 0,

( 1)[2 + 2 + 3 6] = 0,

( 1)[( 2) + 3( 2)] = 0,

( 1)( 2)( 3) = 0,

= 1, 2, 3.

Problem # 6

Problem:

Use the given form of the matrix A to find the solution set of the associated

homogeneous linear system of equations Ax = 0.

1 4 1 0

2 1 3 1

A=

5 6 7 2 .

2 1 0 1

Solution:

1

2

A=

5

2

4

1

6

1

Ax = 0,

1 0

x1

x2

3 1

, x = .

x3

7 2

0 1

x4

6

1

2

5

2

4

1

6

1

1

3

7

0

0

0

.

0

0

0

1

2

1

multiply Row 1 by 5 and subtract from Row 3,

multiply Row 1 by 2 and subtract from Row 4

1

4

1 0 0

0 7

1

1 0

0 14 2 2 0

0 7 2 1 0

Multiply Row 2 by 2 and add to Row 3,

multiply Row 2 by 1 and add to Row 4

1 4

1

0 7 1

0 0

0

0 0 3

0

1

0

0

0

0

.

0

0

From the above matrix we find that the rank is 3 and r < n. This indicates

that the given set of equations has infinite solutions, i.e. x4 can take on any

value, let us say k:

x4 = k,

x3 = 0,

7x2 + x3 + x4 = 0

7x2 + k = 0

x1 + 4x2 + x3 = 0

4k

x1 = .

7

x2 =

k

,

7

Problem # 7

Problem:

Write down a system of equations with an appropriate number of unknowns

x1 , x2 , . . . corresponding to the augmented matrix. Find the solution set if the

equations are consistent, or state if the equations are inconsistent.

1 2 1 4

1 1 2 0

2 1 1 4 .

0 3 5 1

Solution:

1

1

2

0

2

1

1

3

1

2

1

5

multiply Row 1 by 2 and add to Row 3

1 2

1

0 1 1

0 3 1

0 3

5

4

0

.

4

1

4

4

.

4

1

multiply Row 2 by 3 and add to Row 4

1 2

1

4

0 1 1

4

0 0 4

8

0 0

8 11

11

The above matrix gives two solutions for x3 , i.e. x3 =

and x3 = 2, which

8

is not possible. Hence, the equations are inconsistent.

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