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Solutions for Problem Set # 1

MMAE: 501
Engineering Analysis I

Kevin W. Cassel
Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 32nd Street
Chicago, IL 60616
cassel@iit.edu

Problem
Problem # 1:
Problem # 2:
Problem # 3:
Problem # 4:
Problem # 5:
Problem # 6:
Problem # 7:

Reference
Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 10
Hilderbrand, Chapter 1, Problem 21
Jeffrey, Section 1.7, Problem 9
Jeffrey, Section 1.7, Problem 10
Jeffrey, Section 3.3, Problem 16
Jeffrey, Section 3.7, Problem 8
Jeffrey, Section 3.8, Problem 9

c 2014 Kevin W. Cassel


Problem # 1
Problem:
Prove that
|AB| = |A||B|
when A and B are general square 2 2 matrices.
Solution:
Let us consider two matrices A and B where



a
a12
b
A = 11
and B = 11
a21 a22
b21


b12
.
b22

We have
|A| = (a11 a22 a12 a21 ),

(1)

|B| = (b11 b22 b12 b21 ).

(2)

Taking product of A and B




a11 a12 b11
AB =
a21 a22 b21

 
b12
a b + a12 b21
= 11 11
b22
a21 b11 + a22 b21


a11 b12 + a12 b22
.
a21 b12 + a22 b22

Taking determinant of AB
|AB| = a11 b11 a21 b12 + a11 b11 a22 b22 + a12 b21 a21 b12
+a12 b21 a22 b22 a11 b12 a21 b11 a11 b12 a22 b21
a12 b22 a21 b11 a12 b22 a22 b21 .
Canceling the like terms we get
|AB| = a11 b11 a22 b22 a11 b12 a22 b21
+a12 b21 a21 b12 a12 b22 a21 b11
= a11 a22 (b11 b22 b12 b21 ) a12 a21 (b11 b22 b12 b21 )
= (a11 a22 a12 a21 )(b11 b22 b12 b21 ).
Substituting from (1) and (2)
|AB| = |A||B|.

Problem # 2
Problem:
Determine the elements of AT , Adj(A),

1
A= 2
1
2

and A1 when

2 1
1 0 .
0 1

Solution:
Transpose of A is obtained by interchanging the rows and columns. Hence

1 2 1
T
A = 2 1 0 .
1 0 1
To find Adj(A) we first find the co-factor matrix of A


+(1)
(2)
+(1)
1 2
+(2)
(2) = 2 2
C = (2)
+(1) (2) +(3)
1 2

1
Adj(A) = CT = 2
1

1
2 .
3

1
2 .
3

2
2
2

Inverse of A:
|A| = 1(1 0) 2(2 0) + 1(0 + 1) = 1 4 + 1 = 2.
|A| =
6 0

A is invertible.

A1

2
1

Adj(A) = 1
=
|A|
1

1
1
1

1
2
1
.
3
2

Problem # 3
Problem:
A matrix is said to be transposed if its first row is written as its first column,
its second row is written as its second column. . . , and its last row is written as
its last column. If the determinant is |A|, the determinant of AT , the transpose
of matrix A, is denoted by |AT |. For A 3 3, write out the cofactor expansion
of A using
|A| = a11 C11 + a12 C12 + a13 C13
and reorder the terms to show that
|A| = |AT |.
Solution:
Let

a11
A = a21
a31

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23 .
a33

|A| = a11 C11 + a12 C12 + a13 C13


= a11 (a22 a33 a23 a32 ) + a12 (a23 a31 a21 a33 ) + a13 (a21 a32 a22 a31 )
= a11 (a22 a33 a32 a23 ) + a12 a23 a31 a21 a12 a33 + a13 a21 a32 a13 a22 a31
= a11 (a22 a33 a32 a23 ) a21 (a12 a33 a13 a32 ) + a31 (a12 a23 a13 a22 )
= a11 C11 + a21 C21 + a31 C31


a11 a21 a31


= |AT | = a12 a22 a32 .
a13 a23 a33

Problem # 4
Problem:
Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2
for x1 and x2 , in which not both b1 and b2 are zero, and show that the solution
can be written in the form
x1 =

D1
|A|

and x2 =

D2
,
|A|

provided

|A| =
6 0,

where |A| is the determinant of the matrix of coefficients of the system








a11 a12
b1 a12
a11 b1





.
|A| =
, D1 =
, and D2 =
a21 a22
b2 a22
a21 b2
Notice that D1 is obtained from |A| by replacing its first column by b1 and b2 ,
whereas D2 is obtained from |A| by replacing its second column by b1 and b2 .
This is Cramers rule for a system of two simultaneous equations. Use this
method to find the solution of
x1 + 5x2
7x1 3x2

= 1

Solution:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,

(3)

a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2 .

(4)

Multiply (3) by a21 and (4) by a11 and subtract


a12 a21 x2 a11 a22 x2 = b1 a21 b2 a11 ,

x2 =

b1 a21 b2 a11
b2 a11 b1 a21
=
.
a12 a21 a11 a22
a11 a22 a12 a21

Multiply (3) by a22 and (4) by a12 and subtract


a11 a22 x1 a21 a12 x1 = b1 a22 b2 a12 ,
x1 =
A=


a11
a21


a12
,
a22

b1 a22 b2 a12
.
a11 a22 a21 a12

|A| = a11 a22 a12 a21 ,

and given that |A| =


6 0.

Also,


b1 a12

= b1 a22 b2 a12 ,
D1 =
b2 a22


a
b
D2 = 11 1 = b2 a11 b1 a21 .
a21 b2
Substituting |A|, D1 , and D2 in solution of x1 and x2 by elimination
x1 =

D1
,
|A|

D2
.
|A|

x2 =

Let us use Cramers rule to find the solution of


x1 + 5x2
7x1 3x2
A=


1
7


5
,
3

= 1

b2 = 1,

b1 = 3,

1
D2 =
7



3
5

= 9 + 5 = 4,
D1 =
1 3


3
= 1 21 = 22,
1

|A| = 3 35 = 38,
4
2
=
,
38
19

x2 =

22
11
=
.
38
19


4

P () = 1
1


1
1 ,
2

x1 =

Problem # 5
Problem:
Let P () be given by

where is a parameter. Expand the determinant to find the form of the polynomial P () and use the result to find for what values of the determinant
vanishes.
Solution:

4

P () = 1
1


1
1
2

= (4 )[(2 ) + 2] 0 + (2 )
= (4 )(2 + 2 + 2) 2
= 8 + 42 + 8 + 22 3 2 2
= 3 + 62 11 + 6.
Equating to zero
P () = 0

3 + 62 11 + 6 = 0.

( 1)[2 + 5 6] = 0,
( 1)[2 + 2 + 3 6] = 0,
( 1)[( 2) + 3( 2)] = 0,
( 1)( 2)( 3) = 0,
= 1, 2, 3.

Problem # 6
Problem:
Use the given form of the matrix A to find the solution set of the associated
homogeneous linear system of equations Ax = 0.

1 4 1 0
2 1 3 1

A=
5 6 7 2 .
2 1 0 1
Solution:

1
2
A=
5
2

4
1
6
1

Ax = 0,


1 0
x1
x2
3 1
, x = .
x3
7 2
0 1
x4
6

Writing the augmented matrix

1
2

5
2

4
1
6
1

1
3
7
0

0
0
.
0
0

0
1
2
1

Multiply Row 1 by 2 and subtract from Row 2,


multiply Row 1 by 5 and subtract from Row 3,
multiply Row 1 by 2 and subtract from Row 4

1
4
1 0 0
0 7
1
1 0

0 14 2 2 0
0 7 2 1 0
Multiply Row 2 by 2 and add to Row 3,
multiply Row 2 by 1 and add to Row 4

1 4
1
0 7 1

0 0
0
0 0 3

0
1
0
0

0
0
.
0
0

From the above matrix we find that the rank is 3 and r < n. This indicates
that the given set of equations has infinite solutions, i.e. x4 can take on any
value, let us say k:
x4 = k,
x3 = 0,
7x2 + x3 + x4 = 0

7x2 + k = 0

x1 + 4x2 + x3 = 0

4k
x1 = .
7

x2 =

k
,
7

Problem # 7
Problem:
Write down a system of equations with an appropriate number of unknowns
x1 , x2 , . . . corresponding to the augmented matrix. Find the solution set if the
equations are consistent, or state if the equations are inconsistent.

1 2 1 4
1 1 2 0

2 1 1 4 .
0 3 5 1

Solution:

1
1

2
0

2
1
1
3

1
2
1
5

Multiply Row 1 by 1 and add to Row 2,


multiply Row 1 by 2 and add to Row 3

1 2
1
0 1 1

0 3 1
0 3
5

4
0
.
4
1

4
4
.
4
1

Multiply Row 2 by 3 and add to Row 3,


multiply Row 2 by 3 and add to Row 4

1 2
1
4
0 1 1
4

0 0 4
8
0 0
8 11

11
The above matrix gives two solutions for x3 , i.e. x3 =
and x3 = 2, which
8
is not possible. Hence, the equations are inconsistent.