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TUTORIAL

MATCH-AT 5.5

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Copyright 2006, 2012 Trimble Germany
All rights reserved.
MATCH-AT Tutorial for Version 5.5 and higher
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and the software described herein at any time and without notice.
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Table of Contents
1.

Sample Block P65-H56

1.1. Starting the ApplicationsMaster ................................................................. 4


1.2. Open Project ................................................................................................ 4
1.3. New Project / Project Editor ......................................................................... 4
1.3.1. Basics ................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2. Camera Editor ....................................................................................... 6
1.3.2.1. Import Existing Camera Definitions .............................................................. 6
1.3.2.2. Add A New Camera Definition ...................................................................... 7
1.3.3. Photo Definition ..................................................................................... 9
1.3.4. GNSS/IMU .......................................................................................... 11
1.3.5. Strip Definition ..................................................................................... 14
1.3.6. Points .................................................................................................. 15
1.3.7. Block Definition ................................................................................... 17
1.3.8. Project definition completed ................................................................ 17
1.4. Image Pyramid ........................................................................................... 18
1.5. Interior Orientation...................................................................................... 19
1.6. Point Measurement .................................................................................... 20
1.6.1. Description of point measurement options .......................................... 24
1.7. Triangulation............................................................................................... 25
1.8. Checking the LOG File ............................................................................... 26
1.9. Checking Results with the Photo Measurement Program (Analyze) .......... 27
1.10.
Graphical Analyzer ................................................................................. 28
1.11.
Statistic Viewer ....................................................................................... 28
1.12.
Block Revision ........................................................................................ 29
1.13.
Post-processing (Final Triangulation) ..................................................... 30

2.

Point Outline (Block TAC_P65)

31

3.

Good Success

31

4.

End User License Agreement

32

MATCH-AT Tutorial

Sample Block TAC_P65

1. Sample Block P65-H56


For this manual a block with 57 images was selected. The block is a crossflight situation that is also suited for camera calibration. The illustration on the
next page shows the block structure with the projection centers of the
images.
The project file distributed with the sample block is only an example. It
contains two sub-blocks. To work with sub-blocks in this case is however not
necessary.
In general, this tutorial only reflects a standard workflow in "MATCH-AT". It
does not explain all the functions in detail, so for more explanation please
see the reference manual.
The block is characterized as follows:
Ground pixel size: 0.1 m ( 0.32 ft )
number of images: 57
number of longitudinal strips: 4
number of cross strips: 3
average overlap: 60 / 60
average terrain height: 500 m
control points / check points
(absolute accuracy: x,y = 0.03m z = 0.07m)
type of terrain: undulating, urban
camera data: TAC P65+
focal length: 51.839 mm
sensor size
width 8984 [pix]

height 6732 [pix]

pixel size 6.0 micron


principal point

PPS/PPA

x=0,097

y=0,018

flight
radial distortion coefficients referring ASPRS standards (K2 quadratic,
K3 cubic)
K0 = 0
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Sample Block TAC_P65

K1 = -1.4124e-05
K2 = +3.693e-09

For the entire block GNSS antenna coordinates are available with an
accuracy of a relative kinematic solution (0.20 m).

The input files which are necessary for "MATCH-AT"


<TAC_P65_H56.prj>
(project file: example )
<GroundControl.txt>
(control point and check point file)
<GPS_IMU.txt> (file containing coordinates of the projection
centers obtained from GNSS observations and
orientation angles from IMU)
<CAMERA-data.prj >
(file containing camera data of the camera
OFFINGEN)
< Kalib-Protokoll_Harrier68-019.pdf> (camera calibration report)
<..*.tif>
(jpeg compressed digital images)

can be found on the data carrier containing the sample data. For Windows
operating systems, the tutorial CD contains a self extracting archive. Double
click the executable and in the appearing dialog select the drive and directory
where the tutorial project should be stored to. Press the Unzip button to
extract the files.
You need at least 600 Mb of free disk space to store the images and project
files.
The following sub-directory structure is created:
[drive]:\...\InphoSampleData\P65-H56-Example\images\*.tif
[drive]:\...\ InphoSampleData\P65-H56-Example \project\*.*
[drive]:\...\ InphoSampleData\P65-H56-Example \input\*.*
The project file, is installed as an example, however if you work through the
tutorial step by step this file is newly created. The required input data to
define a new project can be found in the input folder.
Illustration: flight layout map of the entire block

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Sample Block TAC_P65

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Sample Block TAC_P65

1.1. Starting the ApplicationsMaster


Start the "ApplicationsMaster" by clicking the icon generated in your
installation folder. For a more detailed explanation see reference manual.

1.2. Open Project


If a project file is already existing, press the button labeled Open to enter the
file selection box and to load an existing project file. For a more detailed
explanation see reference manual. If the project was newly created, it is
automatically loaded.
If you dont want to generate your own project, you may select the supplied
project file < TAC_P65_H56.prj > using the Open box of the "Project Menu"
.

1.3. New Project / Project Editor


Press the New button in the Project submenu from the main window
"ApplicationsMaster". The editor itself can also be started by pressing the
Edit button, if a project is already existing and loaded into the
ApplicationsMaster. For a more detailed explanation see reference
manual.
Steps to work through
When selecting New, the
Project Editor will be
launched with the Basics
dialogue already opened.
Open the dialogues one after
another from top to bottom in
order to enter all the necessary
data.
Double click to any of the
element icons of the tree view to access
an editor dialog or select them from the
Edit menu.
Finally, save the project under any name e.g. <offingen.prj>

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1.3.1. Basics
Enter the name of the Log file, e.g. <... \P65-H56-Example \project /
P65-H56-Example.log >.
Specify the Units as follows: Object m, Image mm, Angular deg.
Activate all corrections to be applied: Earth's Curvature, Refraction

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If not already defined, in the


Description text field you
have to enter a string which
will be used further on to
derive default file names for
newly created files during
processing time (e.g. P65Example).
The Operator text field
gives you the opportunity to
register the name of the
user/operator (e.g. your
name). Otherwise this field
will be left blank.
A Coordinate System is
not necessary to be
defined, as this is only a
small project, so select
Local.
Confirm with OK.

1.3.2. Camera Editor


Double clicking the camera icon launches the Camera Editor. From here
you may define add a New camera or you may Import an existing one from
any other project file or from older inpho camera files. It is recommended to
store (Export) all cameras into one common inpho project file, located
somewhere in the companys network, accessible by any computer. This file
can serve as a database for all cameras associated with inpho software.

1.3.2.1. Import Existing Camera Definitions


To launch the import wizard, select
Import from the Camera Editor
main dialogue.
On the next wizard page, select the
input format, whether it is an old
Inpho Camera (version 4.0 or
earlier) file format or if it is an
Inpho Project File (version 5.x).
Select the < CAMERA-data.prj >
project file to be imported.
On the next page, select the
camera(s) to be imported. To avoid
ID conflicts with already defined
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cameras, check the Conflict icon. Only if conflicts


are resolved by changing the Save As name or
by deactivating the import of a certain camera, the
Next button activates. Select
only the <TAC_P65+> for the
import.
Press Finish to import the
camera definition.
Note, that if you import an old
inpho
camera file (version 4.0 or
earlier) it
might still be necessary to edit
the
imported camera, as the
platform
(Camera Mount Rotation and GNSS Antenna Eccentricity) is still
unknown.

1.3.2.2. Add A New Camera Definition


To create a new camera
press the Add button. Enter
the new camera name <
TAC_P65+> into the
Camera ID text field.
Specify CCD Frame for
Sensor Type and set the
Brand to Custom.

Go on by clicking the Edit button.


Set the defaults from the calibration protocol as given in paragraph
"Sample Block P65-H56" for the camera TAC_P65

On the Basic tab, the platform


needs to be defined.
Define the GNSS Antenna Offset
according to the sketch
X=0.0m
Y=0.0m
Z=0.0m
(the GNSS to be imported is
referring to the camera already
instead of antenna coordinates)

The
camera
mount
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rotation defines the angle between the image coordinate systems xachsis and the aircrafts flying achsis. Zeiss cameras usually are
mounted with x-achsis IN flight direction, while Leica cameras are
mounted 180deg rotated. Digital frame cameras might have any
rotation!
For the TAC_P65+ camera, enter 90.0deg.
On the Calibration tab,
define the Focal length
f = 51.839 mm, the
sensor size with
Width: 8984 pix
Height: 6732 pix
and the pixel size 6
micron. Be aware that
the sensor size has to meet the actual image dimensions if an
image is rotated on disk, the sensor parameters are swapped!

Enter the Principal


Points (PPA and PPS)
Depending on the
calibration report,
principal points are
given either in the image
coordinate system (x/y)
or in the pixel coordinate
system (row/column). If
the principal point is
given in row/column
format, then, you have
to be sure that the origin is the upper left pixel of the image.
Furthermore, you have to define the reference of the coordinate
(center of a pixel, corner of a pixel). In our example the principal
points are given in the Image Coordinate System (x/y). In this case it
is essential to define the correct orientation of the image coordinate
system with respect to the row/column system (see the sketch on the
right). Any mistake here leads to a wrong rotation of the images in the
multi photo measurement tool PMT. Also be aware that the rotation of
the image coordinate system has to go well not only with the principal
point offsets but also with IMU exterior orientation angles to be
imported. If necessary, you have to rotate the image coordinate
system (keeping an eye on necessary changes in the principal point
definitions!). As this matter is rather complex, refer to the reference
manual for more information. In our example select an image
coordinate system that has x to the right and key in the correct
PPA/PPS offset. x = 0.097 mm y = 0.018 mm.

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Click onto the Distortion tab


in order to be able to define
the cameras distortion
values. The distortion Type
to be used is Coefficients.
Alternatively you may
define distortions in a radial
distortion table or in a
distortion grid (a distortion
grid will e.g. be generated if
a camera is re-calibrated
with our software). Check if
the distortion coefficients
are referring to the ASPRS
standards (see formula! On
the GUI). If yes, then key in
the coefficients. If any
coefficients are not
available, leave them blank,
they will be initialized with 0. In our example we have the quadratic
coefficient K1 = -1.4124e-05 and the cubic coefficient K2 = 3.693e-09.
Decentering is not available.
Leave the editor dialogues with OK, to save the changes.

1.3.3. Photo Definition


Open the "Photo Definition" dialog
from the "Project Editor (Edit)". As
Match-AT only supports frame type
images, double click on the Frame
Type icon.

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Sample Block TAC_P65

Use the Import > Image Files function to load all the image files
located in one common directory. The Add function is only used to
manually add ONE more photo.
Select AddFrom Directory, to load
images into the Photo Importer
TAC-P65+ images can be found in
./images directory.

all Tiff
wizard. The
the delivered

Now select the Camera


(TAC_P65+) and set the
mean Terrain Height
(500m).
The checkbox Initialize With
Existing GNSS/IMU
Orientation may be left
unchecked, as GNSS is not
yet imported.

Changing to the Next page,


the Identifier Extraction
page is started. This dialogue
is needed to extract an image
ID from the file names, which
corresponds to the image IDs
of the photo centers to be
loaded.
Several extraction methods
are available, leading zeros
can be skipped and blanks
can be erased. For the
TAC_P65+ data set, select
Use digits only.

Finish the wizard by changing to the Next page and clicking Finish.
Exterior orientations for each photo will be initialized, when loading the
projection centers. If, however, EO parameters have to be reinitialized, open the Edit dialogue select Initialize EO from
GNSS/Strip or from GNSS/IMU, if IMU data is available. The Edit
dialogue can also be used to change the camera, image path or mean
terrain height for a selection of images

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To save the parameter settings, quit the window on pressing the OK


button.

1.3.4. GNSS/IMU
The dialog is used to define projection center coordinates and/or rotations, no
matter if they are coming from GNSS/IMU or if they are just digitized
coordinates. In case there is a mixture of good and bad GNSS/IMU
observations, and later GNSS/IMU mode is activated (used as constraints in
the adjustment) the bad observations may be de-activated by changing the
activation column.
Import the GNSS
coordinates from the
<GPS_IMU.txt> file. Follow
the steps of the wizard
pages.
Define the Import begins at
row 17. Everything before
that line is treated as a
comment header.
Grouping separators can
be activated, considering an
indicator (e.g. # ) sign. If the
file uses separation marks
between the strips, those separators are used, to automatically create
the strip layout from this information. So between each strip, there
should be a separator. The example file, however does not use those
separators. Also comments can be marked with any character to be
ignored.
Next takes you to the
delimiter specification. For
this dataset simply define
blank as a delimiter.

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The page that follows is the Column Specification. Click into the
tables column header to select a column. Then click the button that
shows the data type that this column should be assigned to. The
columns here have the sequence: ID, East, North, Height, Omega,
Phi, Kappa

Also for the GNSS import, the


Identification Extraction is
necessary in order to synchronize the
photo center IDs with the photo IDs.
Use digits only.

Specify the coordinate system and


the units, the coordinates are defined
in. If different from the project
coordinate system and from the
project units, the observations
automatically will be transformed.
Select a Local coordinate system,
and m for object units.
The page that
follows is mainly
addressing the
IMU data. Often,
the required
information is not
available, but a
definition is
important, as the
rotations (type,
sequence,
direction) may
vary from file to
file. In most cases
the standard is a rotation sequence omega(1st), phi (2nd), kappa (3rd),
from image to world with rotated axes. Do not mix up the rotation
sequence with the column sequence in the file. The rotation sequence
here is the mathematical sequence when using a rotation system with
rotated achses (so each rotation has an influence on the next angle).
The direction Image-> World or World->Image is defining the negative
or positive sign for each angle. In rare cases IMU data is directly
delivered as aeronautical angles (not referring to the object coordinate
system East/North/Height like omega phi kappa, but referring to the
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aircraft axes). Aeronautical angles are transformed into omega phi


kappa, considering the camera definition, during the import. For
GNSS, if necessary it would be possible to directly add the GNSS
antenna offset to the observations to have the camera coordinates
instead of antenna coordinates. In that case of course the GNSS
antenna offset needs to be removed from the camera platform
definition in the Camera Editor. In most cases, however, GNSS
observations are already delivered as camera coordinates so an
offset definition will not be necessary. Same is valid for offsets of IMU
data (boresight). Shift values (e.g. datum shifts) may also be entered.
If shifts need to be taken into account, be sure to select the correct
Type as different companies use different definitions e.g. for negative
or positive signs. For the example data set, no offsets need to be
entered.
Next brings you to the
strip generation and
exterior orientation
page. From here, it is
possible to
automatically generate
the strip layout and to
initialize the exterior
orientation of all
images according to
the loaded GNSS /
IMU data.
Activate Initialize exterior orientation from GNSS / IMU.
Do not activate Regenerate strips , as the file does not include strip
separators. If the separators would exist, typically use a Crab angle
(constant kappa) of 0.0deg. Consider only photos that are already
existing.
Click Finish to close and finish the import wizard.
All observations should be activated.

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The GNSS positions have an accuracy of 0.1m. Enter this value for X,
Y, Z into the Standard Deviations dialog. Typically for MATCH-AT
projects, it is suitable to use the Defaults.

1.3.5. Strip Definition


If not created during the GNSS/IMU import, strips can now be manually
defined or be automatically generated using the Strip Definition dialogue.
For editing procedures or manual strip definition proceed as follows:
To automatically generate strips, use the Generate button. By
defining to use increasing Photo IDs and a maximum Kappa change
of 5 deg, from model to model, automatically the project can be
divided into strips. Whenever the azimuth from one photo to another is
changing more than 5 deg, a new strip will be generated. Also with a
Distance Tolerance of 100%, a new strip will be started, when the
distance from one photo to another is more than double of the
previous two images.
If strips shall be defined manually, press the Add or Edit button. Enter
the Strip ID in the corresponding text field. It will automatically be
incremented.
Set the crab angle. Crab angle is the deviation of aircraft axis and
strip direction which is 0 grad here (e.g. drift angle when flying with
side wind).
Select all images that shall be grouped to a strip from the Photos In
Project list and move them with the < button to the Photos In Strip
list.
The Strip Azimuth will be computed automatically from the
coordinates of the first and last projection center as given in the
GNSS file.
Confirm with OK. Leaving the dialogue, the kappa angles associated
with the photographs (in our case coming from GNSS/INS) are
checked against computed kappa angles from the strip azimuth and
interior orientation ( camera definition ). If the kappa integrity check
fails, either the image EO has not yet been initialized (e.g. if IMU data
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is not existing, in this case answer with Yes, to change the exterior
orientation parameters) or there is a mismatch between camera
definition, strip definition and IMU angles. In this case check all of
your definitions for image coordinate system rotation, camera mount
rotation or strip direction. If necessary change the flight direction in the
Photos In Strip list (top to bottom) found in the Edit dialogue.
After completion of the input, the list of defined strips should look like this for
block Offingen.
Strip ID A [grad]

Num

C [grad]

Image IDs

179.27

0.0

00003, 00004, 00005,


00006, 00007, 00008,
00009, 00010, 00011

-1.26

0.0

00012, 00013, 00014,


00015, 00016, 00017,
00018, 00019, 00020

178.67

0.0

0002100028

-89.78

0.0

0003900046

89.97

0.0

0004700054

-89.73

0.0

0005500062

90.26

0.0

0006300069

1.3.6. Points
Open the "Point Editor" by selecting Points from the Edit sub-menu of the
"Project Editor" dialog.
Press the Import button and follow the steps of the wizard. The wizard
is working similar to the GNSS/IMU import wizard.
Since a ground control file is provided with the test block you may
import this file. Select the file <GroundControl.grd> located in the
<../input/> directory.
To split the data stored on each line of the ASCII file into columns,
one or several Delimiters have to be defined (here 'blank').
To assign the columns to point IDs, coordinate values and rotation
values, click into any header of the Import Data Preview table and
press the corresponding element button. From left to right this is point
identifier, easting, northing, height, type. In most cases the type
column will not exist, so you would have to specify the point type
manually later. Possible point types are (1=z, 2=xy, 3=xyz, -1/-2/-3
check point)

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Check
2_2014 (HV)
the
point
2_21017 (HV)
Type
2_22009 (HV)
for
every
2_24023 (HV)
point
2_6029 (HV)
ID.
Select
Standa The remaining points will be set to XYZ check points (chv).
rd for the standard deviations entered under SDS X, Y and SDS Z.

Enter the standard deviations in the "Standard Deviation" dialog. If


you did not define any classified points besides standard, you will
only have to enter the global standard deviations. For a first try we
suggest to let the software calculate default values with the wizard
buttons. Assuming a measuring accuracy of about 1/3 of a pixel, the
wizard will calculate standard deviations of xy = 0.03 m and y =
0.08m. Other standard deviation classes may be defined if points are
used with very different accuracies (not the case in this example).
Standard deviations in the image system will usually be defined
according to the manual measurement accuracy (1/3 pixel) for control
point measurements and the accuracy of automatic measurements for
tie points of app. 1/5 pixel. For high resolution cameras like the TAC
with 6micron pixel size it is recommended to enter 0,002mm for
control points and 0,002mm for automatic tie points, otherwise the
weights get too tight.
Confirm with OK.

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1.3.7. Block Definition


(Sub-) Blocks normally only have to be defined for special analysis purpose
or to split a huge complete block into smaller computation units because of
disk space or performance reasons. When working with sub-blocks, be sure
to define them with overlap in order to be able to automatically connect them.
To define sub-blocks:
open the "Blocks" dialog and press Add to add a new block or select
Edit to edit an already existing definition.
Enter the sub-block Identifier.
Select all images that shall be
grouped to a sub-block from the
Photos In Project list and move
them with the < button to the
Photos In Block list.
Alternatively, use the Digitize function to
drag a rectangular area over a graphical
block overview with the left mouse
button pressed.
For this data set, define two sub-blocks:
East-West-Only: images 00039-00069
North-South-Only: images 00003-00028
Be aware that the complete block does
not need to be defined it is existing automatically.

1.3.8. Project definition completed


The project definition should be completed without any remaining errors. The
validator might still show some warnings like timestamp differences etc. .

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1.4. Image Pyramid


Create an image pyramid for every image defined in the project. Image
pyramids are used for magnification and especially for iterative workflow of
the matching and block adjustment process. The Image Commander can
be launched from the Basics menu of the ApplicationsMaster. For further
explanations also on the additional tools of the Image Commander see
reference manual.
The list of images in the table of the "Image Commander" should show 9
overviews on each image.

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In general the default settings are


recommended - tiled Tiff format, no
compression. The number of overviews is
automatically defined.
It is possible to store the image pyramid in
separate files instead of creating internal
pyramids.
More details on the possible options can be
found in the reference manual.

The images extracted from CD already


contain image pyramids, so it is not
necessary to do that again.

Note: RDX files are not yet there, because we did not do any color/intensity
editing to the photos. For more information on that, see reference manual.

1.5. Interior Orientation


Through interior orientation the relation between the analogue photo and the
digital image is established. Every image defined in the project must be
oriented.
For images derived with a digital camera, the interior orientation is defined by
the camera calibration parameters. It is therefore the same for all images. As
the TAC used in this example is a digital frame camera a further interior
orientation measurement is not necessary.
For analogue images, fiducial marks have to be measured to find the
transformation parameters from measured pixel coordinates into the image
coordinate system defined by the fiducial mark coordinates.
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The interior orientation can be done automatically, semi-automatically or in a


fully automatic process. How to work through this process please refer to
reference manual. The "Interior Orientation" dialogs can be launched from
the "Match-B" sub-menu of the "ApplicationsMaster".
Before starting the automatic process, the camera template has to be
defined, i.e. the description of the shape of fiducial marks has to be set, using
the "Template Editor" in the "Interior Orientation" dialog.
After the template is defined, all images may be selected and the automatic
process may be started.
To check the results, compare the results in the table, e.g. sigma 0 better
than 10 micron, minimum 8 measured fiducial marks.
To edit measurements, use the "Manual Interior Orientation" dialog.

1.6. Point Measurement


The Point Measurement Tool is first of all used to check the project
definition. Before going on with any measurements or tie point matching, you
have to assure that all images have the correct rotation. If images still need
to be rotated, check the camera definition (mount rotation / image coordinate
system rotation), IMU kappa angles and strip definition.
Also you may check how good the initial (approximate) exterior orientations
are. When using GNSS/INS that per definition is already free of any offsets
(GPS shift/drift, IMU boresight misalignment), then all ground control point
projections have to be close to a couple of cm to the location where the point
is to be measured. If this is not the case, either check your camera definition
(distortion maybe the camera needs to be re-calibrated, principal point
offsets) or you know that you will have to activate a GPS shift/drift correction
and IMU boresight correction in the adjustment.
Next step would be to measure all control points. You have to start the
program "Photo Measurement" from the "Match-AT" sub-menu of the main
window "ApplicationsMaster".
Generally, there are two possible workflows in "Match-AT": Either doing all
control point measurements before starting the automatic tie point extraction
or doing the automatic tie point extraction before measuring any ground
control.
Control points should be measured in beforehand whenever it is needed to
stabilize the tie point matching because difficulties are expected (forest
regions, water).
In other cases the control point measurement can be done after the tie point
extraction. This has the advantage that bad control point measurements will
not influence the automatic tie point matching and typically after a relative
orientation ( tie point extraction without using ground control) the projection of
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ground control points is much closes to the position to be measured in the


photograph. Therefore the measurement is much easier. In fact, a suitable
workflow could be to do
1. an automatic tie point extraction without ground control
2. measurement of a few ground control points in the block corners
3. post-processing (adjustment only) -> better absolute orientation / better
projection of ground control points
4. measurement of the remaining control points
5. final post-processing.
When starting the first
time select Options
Preferences to
define viewing
properties and
shortcuts for a
convenient use of the
tool. E.g. you should
have activated Display Aerial Images In Main View.
Change into the
Measurement Mode for
measuring ground control
points or tie points.

In case you would like to


measure points in stereo, Activate View Displays Multi-Stereo Viewer.
Select a point in the Point List or add a new point ID in the menu bar.
Measure the point with the different "Measure Modes" either with the
Multi-Aerial Viewer or the Multi-Stereo Viewer. A single click into an
image (in Block, Topo, Aerial, Stereo Views) results in a point
measurement if the Measuring Mode
is active and measuring Mode in
the options menu is set to Manual.
A single click into an image results in a Semi-Automatic point
measurement if the Measuring Mode
is active and measuring Mode in
the options menu is set to Semi-Automatic.
A single click into an image results in a Full-Automatic point measurement
if the Measuring Mode
is active and measuring Mode in the options
menu is set to Full-Automatic.
The mode might be changed from a context menu activated with a click of
the right mouse button.
Continue with the next point.
Deleting measurements of a point is done as the follows:
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Sample Block TAC_P65

Select a point in the point list, press the right mouse


button and select Remove in order to delete the complete
point.
Select a point in the point list, press the right mouse
button and select Edit Image Points. Edit allows then to
remove measurements in selectable windows.
To delete a selected point or its measurement directly
from the views, press the right mouse button and select
either Remove Image Coordinate or Clear Image
Coordinates or Remove Selected.
Remove Image Coordinate works only in the Topo or
Multi-Aerial View and removes the measurement in the
image the point is selected.
Clear Image Coordinates works in all mentioned views
and removes all measurements of the selected point in all
images
To do a graphical selection of points, do the following:
o
Activate the point selection mode
o Check the Option menu and select the options
On-Focus or Rectangle or Polygon. The
option On-Focus automatically selects the point
nearest your cursor position. The other two options
allow to select points by dragging a rectangle or
measuring a polygon with the left mouse button.
o Point to a tie point or control/check point in the
Block, Topo or Multi-Aerial View or select points
by rectangle or polygon.

Measuring a new tie point with the Manual Mode


o Select the Measuring Mode
with View View Measure.
o Open the Multi-Stereo View if you would like to measure tie
points stereoscopically, later on (View Displays MultiStereo).
o Check the point measurement options and set the Mode to
Manual.
o Enter a new point ID into the Point
ID input field
or use the Create New Point ID function.
o Click with the left mouse button in the Block or Topo View
to a position where you would like to have the point
measured.
Alternatively you may either have the Multi-Aerial and MultiStereo views already opened to measure the point into these
opened images. Or you may select any number of images
from the images list and click the Open in Aerial Viewer to
launch the Multi-Aerial View with the selected imagery.
Hint: when the full automatic measure mode is selected from
the tool options window, clicking into the Block View or Topo

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Sample Block TAC_P65

o
o
o
o

View will try to automatically place the measurement into all


required images.
PMT will now open in the Multi-Aerial and Multi-Stereo views
all images into which the selected position can be projected.
Use the Zoom function to get a good view on the designated
point position.
Refine the position in the Multi-Aerial or Multi-Stereo
Views
If desired and point position allows, use the Refine SemiAutomatic or Refine Full-Automatic to refine the measured
position with a least squared measurement function (LSM).
Check the refined point measurement. If not ok, use manual
mode measurements to correct and repeat the refine
measurement if possible.
Continue with next new point.

Measuring a ground control, check point or re-measuring tie points


o Select the Measuring Mode
with View View Measure.
o Open the Multi-Stereo View if you would like to measure
points stereoscopically, later on (View Displays MultiStereo).
o Check the point measurement options and set the Mode to
Manual.
o Enter a point ID into the Point ID
input field
or click on a point ID in the point list.
o PMT will now open in the Multi-Aerial and Multi-Stereo
views all images into which the selected point can be
projected.
o Use the Zoom function to get a good view on the designated
point position.
o Measure the position in the Multi-Aerial or Multi-Stereo
Views
o If desired and point position allows, use the Refine SemiAutomatic or Refine Full-Automatic to refine the measured
position with a least squared measurement function (LSM).
o Check the refined point measurement. If not ok, use manual
mode measurements to correct and repeat the refine
measurement if possible.
o Continue with next new point.
Deleting existing measurements
o Select one or more points in the point list, press the right
mouse button and select Remove.
o Select a point in the point list, press the right mouse button
and select Edit Image Points. Edit allows then to remove
measurements in selectable windows.
o Select one or more points from the list and press the delete
button from the lists toolbar.
o In order to select points, select them from the list itself or
- Activate the point selection mode to select them
graphically in the views.
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Sample Block TAC_P65

- Point to a tie point or control/check point in the Block, Topo


or Multi-Aerial View.
- Depending on the settings in the tool-options window, you
might select only one point or you might select groups of
points in a rectangular shape or fence.
o In the views themselves you might use the context menu
(press the right mouse button) and select either Remove
Image Coordinate or Clear Image Coordinates (to delete
the complete point).
o Remove Image Coordinate works only in the Topo or MultiAerial View and removes the measurement in the image the
point is selected.
o Clear Image Coordinates works in all mentioned views and
removes all measurements of the selected point in all
images.

1.6.1.

Description of point measurement options

Manual: This switch activates the manual measurement mode. A click


with the left mouse button into an image will place a measurement to the
desired position.
Semi-Automatic: This allows least squares matching assisted
measurement of points. This mode requires that the points have to be
measured in each image. But with each now measured position the
software is transferring the measured point into the images already
measured and activated automatically the least squares fine
measurement. Successful matching will be displayed by a green square.
The size of the square represents the size of the matching template. If you
have problems, e.g. shadow, set the template smaller.
Note: The Semi-Automatic will most probably fail, if your point position is
not on a ground (e.g. Corner of Buildings, pole points). Points not on the
ground have to be measured in most cases stereoscopically.
Hint: for semi-automatic measurement it is recommended to deactivate the
Pyramid Tracking.
Full-Automatic: This allows least squares matching assisted
measurement of ground control, check and tie points by defining the
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Sample Block TAC_P65

position of a point in just one image. When activated click with the left
mouse button in one of the images at the exact position you would like to
have the point measured. PMT will then project the measured position into
all other images in the Multi-Aerial or Multi-Stereo View and will do a least
squared matching of the point.
Note: The Full-Automatic mode will most probably fail, if the projection of a
point into other images cant be made good enough and if your point
position is not on the ground (e.g. Corner of Buildings, pole points). Points
not on the ground have to be measured in most cases stereoscopically.
Hint: for full-automatic measurement it is recommended to activate the
Pyramid Tracking.
To be successful in full automatic point measurements, it is essential to
have good orientations (e.g. to do a relative orientation automatic tie
point matching first) and to have a mean terrain height definition as good
as possible.

1.7. Triangulation
Clicking the item Triangulation in the program commander
"ApplicationsMaster" takes you to the "Triangulation" dialog window. With
the dialog all the control parameters necessary for complete processing of a
project have to be defined. From this window you might start the automatic
aerial triangulation process, delete all automatic tie points or start a postprocessing (adjustment only).

Steps to work through


Press the Change Settings button to open the AT parameter
"Settings" dialog.
In the "Block Adjustment" dialog
o Activate Use GNSS mode. The projection centers imported into
the "Project Editor's GNSS/IMU" dialog are kinematic GNSS
observations, usable as constraints in the adjustment to reduce
ground control data.
o As it is only a GNSS with relative accuracy (shifts and drifts are
not yet corrected), activate Drift Correction, to automatically
correct the coordinates for systematic effects.
o As also IMU data is available, activate INS mode.
o Do not activate Self Calibration to correct the image coordinates
for systematic effects.
o Do not activate not to eliminate manual measurements to have full
blunder detection capability.

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Sample Block TAC_P65

Make the following specifications in the "Strategy" and "Matching"


dialogs (leave the default settings).
Work with standard (default) settings and have GPS Mode and INS
Mode activated.
To start the triangulation, close the parameter definition and press the
Run button.
Initialization
This process creates the tie point areas where the system searches for
homologous tie points in. The initialization process is automatically started
from within the "Triangulation" dialog, whenever the Automatic Tie Point
Extraction With Adjustment is started.
The tie point extraction process may be stopped after initialization to check
the location of tie point areas.
The Initialization uses the current exterior orientation parameters saved with
each photo.
An Initialization with DEM option is not necessary for the test block. For
further details refer to reference manual.

1.8. Checking the LOG File


For a complete description of the <LOG file> see reference manual. Take a
special look at the standard deviations and the sigma naught in the last
pyramid level. The LOG file is named <aat.log >. It is located in the specified
working directory <.../project>. Either load the file into any editor you are
familiar with or use the Check LOG File button from the main window
"ApplicationsMaster".
Without using any corrections for GPS/INS you will see that there is some
tension in the block. Make tests (post-processing with blunder detection)
applying a global or strip-wise drift correction and see how the values (e.g.
for GPS RMS, drift, residuals and for control and check points) change.
Do another try with activated boresight misalignment correction and see how
this affects the results.
If necessary apply a 44 parameter self-calibration and see how the results
change.
Be sure, that no eliminated points / image measurements / GNSS
observations are left in the block. First check the coordinates and
measurements, if they are ok. Often the results get better when using
GNSS/IMU corrections or self-calibration. Another influence might have the
weightings (standard deviation settings). Setting standard deviations higher,
lets the adjustment accept larger tensions -> observations will not be
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Sample Block TAC_P65

eliminated that quickly. Often e.g. image measurements are weighted too
high (too small standard deviations). Loosening the weight lets the block
react more flexible.
If all parameter changes fail, or standard deviations cannot be changed
reasonably any more, Either de-activate the flagged problems in the project
definition or photo measurement tool or delete the observations.

The reference manual gives you a detailed explanation on how to analyse


the projects with the various tools and values available in Match-AT.

1.9. Checking Results with the Photo Measurement


Program (Analyze)
You may also check the triangulation results especially the point distribution
and density as well as the planimetric alignment of photos using the "Photo
Measurement" program. There the extracted tie points can be seen as
yellow crosses distributed throughout the images. See reference manual for
further reference.
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Sample Block TAC_P65

1.10. Graphical Analyzer


The most effective way to analyze your block with respect to standard
deviations, point density and block stability is to use the " Photo
Measurement ". Check connectivity or error ellipses and residual vectors to
check point accuracy. If you discover areas with an insufficient point density
or points with large residuals resp. error ellipses, you might have to add tie
points manually, using the "Photo Measurement" tool and post-process the
adjustment. The strip display and the footprint analysis help, to find
suspicious orientations.
Note: Incorrect orientations might result from insufficient tie point density, but
also from lack of control information or bad control points. Incorrect interior
orientations or incorrect approximations of photo centers might result in
mismatches of tie points or even a total lack of tie points in the corresponding
image. The graphics lead a user to check areas. There are often several
possibilities for reasons.
See reference manual for further reference.

There is a manifold of analysis functions in the photo measurement tool


(properties along with the statistics table which is directly linked to the points
and photos tables). They are not described in detail in this tutorial. For
detailed explanations see the corresponding chapters in the reference
manual.

1.11. Statistic Viewer


An additional checking tool with editing capability is the Statistic Viewer
launched from within the Triangulation dialogue.
The viewer loads the statistic information from the binary statistics file
(<*.sta>). It shows little more information on image measurements than the
log file, e.g. it shows residuals on each individual measurement and it also
shows all eliminated automatic and manual measurements.

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Sample Block TAC_P65

The main advantage of the viewer is, that it is possible to filter and select
groups of image measurements to be deleted from the project file. Note, that
the statistics file becomes invalid when deleting points from the project,
therefore it will be deleted!
Points can be flagged for deletion by defining a threshold for the maximum
acceptable residual. For more information, refer to the reference manual.

1.12. Block Revision


If the results dont meet your requirements, you might want to re-measure the
control points or add new manually measured tie points to the block. To edit
the block start the program "Photo Measurement".
Often it is necessary to measure interactively additional tie points in images
located at edges or corners. In the case of poorly connected images - the
reason being the extremely displaced final position of the tie point areas or
the lack of homologous image points (due to bad texture, e.g. forest area in
large-scale photographs) - it is generally recommended to measure at least
three additional points in the poorly filled areas, especially in the von-Gruber
positions.
Example of a well connected image:

Example of
poor connections:

Furthermore there may also be incorrect matches for "homologous" image


points. If you detect such mismatches, or wrong measurements of control or
check points you should correct them (recommended measuring method:
Least Squares Matching) or delete them completely, if necessary.
More information concerning measuring methods and the correction of wrong
measurements can be found in the section "Photo Measurement" of the
reference manual.

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Sample Block TAC_P65

1.13. Post-processing (Final Triangulation)


Post-processing, i.e. the re-computation of the previous run, is only
necessary if re-measurements were performed in the block or if adjustment
parameters were changed. The results of the previous run will be treated as
a good approximation and used, together with the new measurements, as a
basis for a new block adjustment. The computation will just be appended to
the LOG file.
In order to start the post-processing program select Post-processing as
processing step in the "Triangulation" dialog. You can select among the
following methods:
no blunder detection

blunders in measurements will not be


eliminated.

blunder detection

blunders will be detected and eliminated.

absolute orientation

an absolute orientation will be performed


model-by-model, considering the total
number of measured points. This mode is
only used in cases when self-calibration
was used and the computed exterior
orientation parameters have to be exported
to systems that cannot handle a distortion
grid (which is normally generated when
using self calibration). In those cases a
post-processing with absolute orientation
always is the final run.

For further reference see "MATCH-AT" reference manual.

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Sample Block TAC_P65

2. Point Outline (Block TAC_P65)


The initial EO parameters from GPS/IMU are good enough to show the
projection of the control and check points to be measured very close to the
actual location.
Nevertheless you find control point sketches in the <../input/GCP_Plots>
directory.
For an explanation on suitable control point layouts, see the reference
manual.

3. Good Success
We hope that the tutorial could help to learn about the general use of
MATCH-AT. Feel free to process the sub-blocks of this data set individually
and compare the results. Or use your own data sets and try to finish them
with the tutorial workflow successfully.
Of course the tutorial is only a brief explanation of steps to be done for an
aerial triangulation of a digital frame camera project in MATCH-AT. It caters
for standard projects, but usually, projects are not always standard. The
software offers a variety of functions and possibility that provide all the
necessary flexibility to run through all kinds of difficult project environments.
This brief explanation here cannot explain all details, so it is recommended to
read through the Reference Documentation as well in order to learn about
MATCH-ATs flexibility.
In addition, as aerial triangulation is a rather complex task, we would like to
encourage everyone that seriously is interested in getting the full advantage
of the software, to apply for a personal training.
Benefit from years of experience of our support staff either in on-line trainings
or in face-to-face trainings. We offer trainings for all different knowledge
levels, pre-sales, beginners or advanced users.
For details and questions contact: support@inpho.de

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4.

End User License Agreement

End User License Agreement


IMPORTANT, READ CAREFULLY. THIS END USER LICENSE
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under this License Agreement in the courts located in the Judicial District
of York, Province of Ontario. If you acquired this product in the European
Union, this License Agreement is governed by the laws of The
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Netherlands, excluding its rules governing conflicts of laws and excluding


the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods. In such
case each of the parties to this Agreement irrevocably attorns to the
jurisdiction of the courts of The Netherlands and further agrees to
commence any litigation that may arise under this License Agreement in
the courts of The Hague, The Netherlands.
Trimble reserves all rights not expressly granted by this License
Agreement.

10. Country Unique Terms


If You purchased a license to the Software in any Territory specified below
(the Local Territory), this section sets forth specific provisions as well as
exceptions to the above terms and conditions that apply in such Local
Territory. To the extent any provision applicable to the Local Territory set
forth below (the Local Provision) is in conflict with any other term or
condition in this agreement, the Local Provision will supersede such other
term or condition with respect to any licenses purchased in the Local
Territory.

Belgium and France


(a) Limitation of Liability (Section 5): The following replaces the terms of
this section in its entirety:
Except as otherwise provided by mandatory law, Trimbles liability for any
damages and losses that may arise as a result of the performance of its
obligations in connection with this License Agreement is limited to the
compensation of only those damages and losses proved and actually
arising as an immediate and direct consequence of the non-fulfillment of
such obligations (if Trimble is at fault), for a maximum amount equal to the
charges You paid for the Software that has caused the damages. This
limitation shall not apply to damages for bodily injuries (including death)
and damages to real property and tangible personal property for which
Trimble is legally liable.
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES IS TRIMBLE, OR ANY OF ITS
LICESORS AND/OR SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS, LIABLE FOR ANY OF
THE FOLLOWING, EVEN IF INFORMED OF THEIR POSSIBILITY: (i)
LOSS OF, OR DAMAGE TO, DATA; (ii) INCIDENTAL OR INDIRECT
DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY ECONOMIC CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES;
(iii) LOST PROFITS, EVEN IF THEY ARISE AS AN IMMEDIATE
CONSEQUENCE OF THE EVENT THAT GENERATED THE DAMAGES;
OR (iv) LOSS OF BUSINESS, REVENUE, GOODWILL, OR
ANTICIPATED SAVINGS.

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The limitation and exclusion of liability herein agreed applies not only to
the activities performed by Trimble, but also to the activities performed by
its suppliers and Software developers, and represents the maximum
amount for which Trimble as well as its suppliers and Software developers,
are collectively responsible. This limitation shall not apply to damages for
bodily injuries (including death) and damages to real property and tangible
personal property for which Trimble is legally liable.

Germany and Austria


(a) Warranty (Section 4): The following replaces the terms of this section in
its entirety:
Trimble warrants that the Software provides the functionalities set forth in
the associated documentation (Documented Functionalities) for one (1)
year following delivery of the Software when used on the recommended
hardware configuration. Non-substantial variation from the Documented
Functionalities does not establish any warranty rights. THIS LIMITED
WARRANTY DOES NOT APPLY TO SOFTWARE PROVIDED TO YOU
FREE OF CHARGE (FOR EXAMPLE, UPDATES, OR ACADEMIC OR
EVALUATION LICENSES) OR SOFTWARE THAT HAS BEEN ALTERED
BY YOU, TO THE EXTENT SUCH ALTERATION CAUSED A DEFECT.
To make a warranty claim, you must return, at Trimbles expense, the
Software and proof of purchase to Trimble. If the functionalities of the
Software vary substantially from the agreed upon functionalities, Trimble is
entitled, by way of re-performance and at its own discretion, to repair or
replace the Software. If that fails, you are entitled to a reduction of the
license fee or to cancel this License Agreement.
(b) Limitation of Liability (Section 5): the following paragraph is added to
this Section:
The limitations and exclusions specified in this Section will not apply to
damages caused by Trimble intentionally or by gross negligence. In
addition, Trimble shall be responsible up to the amount of the typically
foreseeable damages from any damage which has been caused by
Trimble or its agents due to the slightly negligent breach of a material
contractual duty. This limitation of liability shall apply to all damage claims,
irrespective of the legal basis thereof and in particular, to any precontractual or auxiliary contractual claims. This limitation of liability shall
not, however, apply to any mandatory statutory liability under the product
liability act, or to any damage which is caused due to the breach of an
express warranty to the extent the express warranty was intended to
protect You from the specific damage incurred. This clause shall not be
intended to limit liability where the extent of liability is provided by
mandatory law.

Italy

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(a) Limitation of Liability (Section 5): the following replaces the terms of
this section in its entirety:
Apart from damages arising out of gross negligence or willful misconduct
for which Trimble may not limit its liability, Trimble liability for direct and
indirect damages related to the original or further defects of the Software,
or related to the use or the nonuse of the Software or related to any case
whatsoever for breach of the Agreement, shall be limited to the fees paid
by you to Trimble for the Software or for the part of the Software upon
which the damages were based.

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