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Structures

Module 1

Introduction, Prestressing Systems

and Material Properties

Prepared by:

Amlan K Sengupta

Devdas Menon

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Prestressing Steel

Introduction

Forms

Types

Properties of Prestressing Steel

Strength and Stiffness

Stress-Strain Curves

Relaxation of Steel

Fatigue

Durability

Material Properties

Introduction

The development of prestressed concrete was

influenced by the invention of high strength steel. It is

an alloy of iron, carbon, manganese and optional

materials. The following material describes the types

and properties of prestressing steel.

The properties

Th

ti off steel

t l for

f non-prestressed

t

d

reinforcement is not covered.

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Wires

steel. The nominal diameters of the wires are

2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 mm.

1) Plain wire: No indentations on the surface.

2) Indented wire: There are circular or elliptical

indentations on the surface.

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Pitch

Elliptical indentations

Circular indentations

Examples of indented wires

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Strands

to form a prestressing strand. The different

types of strands are as follows.

1) Two-wire strand:

2) Three-wire

Three wire strand:

3) Seven-wire strand: The central wire

is larger than the six wires which are spun

around it.

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Tendons

together to form a prestressing tendon.

Grout

Duct

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Cables

cable.

Bars

bar. The diameter of a bar is much larger

than that of a wire.

wire Bars are available in the

following sizes: 10, 12, 16, 20, 22, 25, 28 and

32 mm.

Reinforcing bars

Prestressing wire,

strands and bar

Indented wire

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

The steel is treated to achieve the desired properties.

The following are the treatment processes.

Cold working (cold drawing)

This p

process is done by

y rolling

g the bars through

g a

series of dyes. It re-aligns the crystals and increases

the strength.

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

Stress relieving

This process is done by heating the strand to about

350 C and cooling slowly.

Strain tempering for low relaxation

This process is done by heating the strand to about

350 C while it is under tension.

The last two processes improve the stress-strain

behaviour of the steel.

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

IS 1343: 2012 specifies

p

the material properties

p p

in

Section 5.6. The following types of steel are allowed.

Plain cold drawn stress relieved wire conforming to

IS:1785, Part 1

Indented cold drawn wire conforming to IS:6003

High tensile steel bar conforming to IS:2090

Uncoated stress relieved strand conforming to IS:6006

Uncoated stress relieved low-relaxation strand

conforming to IS:14268.

Material Properties

Properties of Prestressing Steel

The prestressing steel requires the following properties

properties.

High strength and high elastic range

Adequate ductility

Bendability, required at harping points and at ends

High bond

bond, required for pre-tensioned members

Low relaxation to reduce losses

Minimum corrosion

Good resistance to fatigue.

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

The tensile strength of prestressing steel is given in

terms of the characteristic tensile strength ( fpk ).

The characteristic strength is defined as the ultimate

tensile strength of the coupon specimens below which

not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall.

The ultimate tensile strength of a coupon specimen is

determined by a testing machine according to IS:1608.

The following figure shows a test setup.

Wedge grips

Coupon specimen

Extensometer

(Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

(Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

10

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

Nominal

2.50

Diameter (mm)

Minimum

2010

Tensile Strength

fpk (N/mm2)

3.00

4.00

5.00

7.00

8.00

1865

1715

1570

1470

1375

85% of the specified tensile strength.

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

Table 1g-2 Indented wire (IS: 6003)

Nominal Diameter

(mm)

Minimum Tensile

Strength fpk

(N/mm2)

3.00

4.00

5.00

1865

1715

1570

specified tensile strength.

11

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

High Tensile Steel Bars (IS: 2090)

The minimum tensile strength is 980 N/mm2. The proof

stress should not be less than 80% of the specified

tensile strength.

Material Properties

Stiffness of Prestressing Steel

The stiffness of prestressing steel is given by the initial

modulus of elasticity. The modulus of elasticity

depends on the form of prestressing steel (wires or

strands or bars).

fp

fp

p

Ep

p

12

Material Properties

Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel

As per Clause 18.5.1, the maximum tensile stress

during prestressing (fpi) shall not exceed 76% of the

characteristic strength.

fpi 0.76fpk

(1g-1)

short term losses) or for the effective prestress (after

long term losses).

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The stress versus strain behaviour of prestressing

steel under uniaxial tension is initially linear (stress is

proportional to strain) and elastic (strain is recovered

at unloading).

Beyond about 70% of the ultimate strength the

behaviour becomes nonlinear and inelastic. There is

no defined yield point.

13

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The yield point is defined in terms of the proof stress or a

specified yield strain. IS 1343:2012 recommends the yield

point at 0.2% proof stress. This stress corresponds to an

inelastic strain of 0.002.

fp

Proof

stress

0.002

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The characteristic stress-strain curve is given in Figure 5

of IS 1343:2012. The stress corresponding to a strain can

be found out by using this curve

curve.

fp

0.95fpk

0.9fpk

Stress relieved

strands and bars

0.002

0.005

14

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The stress-strain curves are influenced by the treatment

processes. The following figure shows the variation in

the 0.2% proof stress for wires under different treatment

processes.

Low relaxation

fp

Stress relieved

As-drawn

(untreated)

p

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The design stress

stress-strain

strain curves are calculated by

dividing the stress beyond 0.8fpk by a material safety

factor m = 1.15.

fp

Characteristic curve

0.8fpkk

Design curve

15

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

A generalised equation uses the RambergOsgood

function.

1 A

fp E p p A

C

1 B p

fpkk

1

C

(1g-2)

fp

AEp

1- A

1

)

Ep(

B

Governed by C

Ep

p

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

For low-relaxation

low relaxation strands

strands, A = 0.025,

0 025 B = 118,

118 C = 10

For stress-relieved strands, A = 0.03, B = 121, C = 6

Prestressed Concrete Structures

16

Relaxation of Steel

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

Relaxation of steel is defined as the decrease in stress

with time under constant strain. Due to the relaxation

of steel, the prestress in the tendon is reduced with

time. Hence, the study of relaxation is important in

prestressed concrete to calculate the loss in prestress.

The relaxation depends on the type of steel, initial

prestress and the temperature.

17

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

fp

Fast loading

Effect of relaxation

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following figure shows the variation of stress with

time for different levels of p

prestressing.

g

100

90

fp

f pi

80

f py

fpi

70

0.6

0.7

0.8

09

0.9

60

50

10

100

Time (hours)

18

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

It can be observed that there is significant relaxation

loss when the applied stress is more than 70% of the

characteristic tensile strength.

Specimen

Load cell

(Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

19

Specimen

(Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The upper limits of relaxation loss are specified as follows.

Table 1g-3 Relaxation losses at 1000 hours

(IS: 1785, IS: 6003, IS: 6006, IS: 2090)

Cold drawn stressrelieved wires

Indented wires

Stress-relieved

strand

Bars

5% of initial

prestress

5% of initial

prestress

5% of initial

prestress

49 N/mm2

20

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

In absence of test data, IS 1343:2012 recommends the

following estimates of relaxation losses

losses. For long-term

loss, the values are multiplied by 3.0.

Table 1g-4 Relaxation losses at 1000 hours at 202C

Initial

Stress

Regular strands

Low relaxation

strands

d

0.5fpk

0.6fpk

3.0

5.0

8.0

1.0

2.5

4.5

0.7fpk

0.8fpk

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following equation provides an estimate of the drop

in stress with time under normal temperature.

logt fpi

0.55

fp t fpi 1

K fpy

Type

Stress-relieved

Low-relaxation

K

7

30

(1g-3)

Reference:

AASHTO LRFD

Bridge Design Specifications

21

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following figure shows the effect of temperature

schematically

schematically.

1

0.9

fp

0.8

fpi

0.7

Temperature

0.6

0.5

Time

Fatigue

22

Material Properties

Fatigue

Under repeated dynamic loads the strength of a member

may reduce with the number of cycles of applied load.

The reduction in strength is referred to as fatigue.

Fatigue tests are conducted to develop the stress range

(S) versus number of cycles for failure (N) diagram.

Under a limiting value of stress range, the specimen can

withstand infinite number of cycles. This limit is known

as the endurance limit.

Material Properties

Fatigue

S-N Diagram for prestressing tendons

05

0.5

fp

fpu

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

103

Endurance

Limit

104 105

106

107

Number of cycles

(log scale)

23

Material Properties

Fatigue

S-N Relationship for prestressing tendons

fp

fpu

(1g-4)

Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design

Material Properties

Fatigue

In prestressed applications, the fatigue is negligible in

members that do not crack under service loads. If a

member cracks, fatigue may be a concern due to the

following reasons.

1) High stress in the steel at the location of cracks

2) Effect of fretting (wearing due to contact of strands

under motion)

3) Stress corrosion.

24

Material Properties

Fatigue

The prestressed member is designed such that the

fluctuating stress range in the steel under service loads

remain under the specified endurance limit.

Specimens are tested under 2 x 106 cycles of load to

observe any effect of fatigue.

fatigue

(Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

25

Durability

Material Properties

Durability

Corrosion of bars in concrete structures occurs due to

the breakdown of the passive alkaline film, in presence

of moisture and oxygen, under the effect of the

following.

1) Diffusion of chloride ions

2) Carbonation of concrete

Pitting corrosion is more severe in prestressed strands

because of the smaller diameter.

26

Material Properties

Durability

In addition, prestressing steel is susceptible to the

following in aggressive environments.

1) Stress corrosion

2) Hydrogen embrittlement

Hence, prestressing strands needs to be adequately

protected.

Material Properties

Durability

For bonded post-tensioned tendons, the alkaline

environment of the grout provides adequate protection.

However, if the grout has voids or develops void with

time, then the strands are susceptible to corrosion.

27

Material Properties

Durability

For unbonded tendons, corrosion protection is provided

by one or more of the following methods (Cl. 12.1.5.1).

1) Epoxy coating of strands

2) Mastic wrap (grease impregnated tape) around strands

3) G

Galvanized

l

i d strands

d

4) Non-corroding sheathing duct (HDPE or FRP duct)

5) Anchorages covered by casing

6) Encasing of strands in tubes (for external prestressing).

Material Properties

Codal Provisions

The following topics are covered in IS 1343:2012 under the

respective sections. These provisions are not duplicated

here.

Assembly of prestressing and reinforcing steel: Section 12

Prestressing:

S

Section

13

28

Summary

Prestressing Steel

Introduction

Forms

Types

Properties of Prestressing Steel

Strength and Stiffness

Stress-Strain Curves

Relaxation of Steel

Fatigue

Durability

29

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