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Problem 1.

0 (Geothermal Power Plant)


(source: Geothermal power plants by R.DiPippo page 236)
One of the earliest power plants at Larderello employed binary-like units in which
geothermal steam (saturated vapour) was used to heat and evaporate pure water
which circulated in a close, simple Rankine cycle shown in the sketch. The
following data are hypothetical.

Consider the following data:


Pa = Pb = Pc = 1.0 Mpa

Tc = 130oC (sub cooled liquid)

Turbine efficiency = 0.77

T1 = 160oC (saturated vapour)

Feed Pump efficiency = 1.00

T3 = 50oC (saturated liquid)

Determine in KJ/kg the turbine work, feed pump work, net cycle work of the pure
water and the net cycle thermal efficiency.
Solution:

From steam table:


(using double interpolation find h5)
@ 130 oC and 0 Mpa
h = 546.23 KJ/kg
@ 130 oC and 2.5 Mpa
h = 547.925 KJ/kg
@ 130 oC and 1 Mpa
h5 = 546.908 KJ/kg

h1 = hg @ 160 oC = 2758.1 KJ/kg


S1 = Sg @ 160 oC = 6.7502 KJ/kg-k
h3 = hf @ 50 oC = 209.33 KJ/kg

S2 = Sf + X1 Sfg
Sf @ 50 oC = 0.7038 KJ/kg-k
Sfg @ 50 oC = 7.3725 KJ/kg-k

6.7502 KJ/kg-k = 0.7038KJ/kg-k + X1 (7.3725KJ/kg-k)


X1 = 0.8201288572
h2 = hf + X1 hfg
hf @ 50 oC = 209.33 KJ/kg
hfg @ 50 oC = 2382.7 KJ/kg
h2 = 209.33KJ/kg + 0.8201288572 (2382.7KJ/kg)
h2 = 2163.451028KJ/kg
Turbine work, Wt

Wt = h1 h2
Wt = 2758.1 KJ/kg 2163.451028KJ/kg
Wt = 594.64 KJ/kg

h4 = V3 (P4 P3 ) + h3
V3 = Vf @ 50 oC = 1.0121/ 103 m3/kg
P3 = 0.012349Mpa
P4 = 1 Mpa
h4 = (1.0121)(1 0.012349) + 209.33
h4 = 210.2171158 KJ/kg

Feed pump work, Wp


Wp = h4 h3
Wp = 210.2171158 KJ/kg - 209.33 KJ/kg
Wp = 0.887115771 KJ/kg

net cycle work of the pure water, Wnet


Wnet = Wt Wp
Wnet = 594.64 KJ/kg - 0.887115771 KJ/kg
Wnet = 593.7618562 KJ/kg

net cycle thermal efficiency, t


t = (Wnet / (h1 h4)) 100%
t = (593.7618562 KJ/kg) / (2758.1 KJ/kg - 210.2171158 KJ/kg)
t = 23.30 %

Problem 2.0 (Geothermal Power Plant)


(source: Alcorcon)
A flashed steam geothermal power plant is located where underground hot
water is available as saturated liquid at 700 Kpa. The well head pressure is 600
Kpa. The flashed steam enters a turbine at 500 Kpa and expands to 15 Kpa,
when it is condensed. The flow rate from the well is 29.6 kg/sec. Determine the
power produced in KW.
Solution:

h1 = hf at 0.70 Mpa
h1= 697.22 KJ/kg

h1 = h2 = 697.22 KJ/kg
At 500 Kpa:
hf= 640.23
hfg =2108.5
h3 = hg at 0.5 Mpa
h3 = 2748.7 kJ/kg
S3 = Sg @ 0.5Mpa = 6.8213 KJ/kg-k
S4 = S3 = 6.8213 KJ/kg-k
S4 = Sf + X2 Sfg
Sf @ 15 Kpa = 0.7549 KJ/kg-k
Sfg @ 15 Kpa = 7.2536 Kj/kg-k
6.8213 KJ/kg-k = (0.7549 KJ/kg-k) + X2 (7.2536 Kj/kg-k)
X2 = 0.8363295467
h4 = hf + X2 (hfg)
hf @ 15 Kpa = 225.94KJ/kg
hfg @ 15 Kpa = 2373.1KJ/kg
h4 = 225.94KJ/kg + 0.8363295467(2373.1KJ/kg)
h4 = 2210.633647 KJ/kg
h1 = h2 = 697.22 KJ/kg
h2 = hf + x1 hfg
697.22 kJ/kg = 640 kJ/kg + x2(2108.5 kJ/kg)
X1 = 0.0271377756
ms= x1 mg
ms = 0.0271377756(29.6 kg/s)
ms = 0.8032781598 kg/s

Power produced = ms (h3-h4)


Power produced = 0.8032781598kg/s (2748.7 2211) kJ/kg
Power produced = 431.9226665 KW

Problem 3.0 (Geothermal Power Plant)


(source: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc pdf 10-69)
A single-flash geothermal power plant uses hot geothermal water at 230 0C as
the heat source. The power output from the turbine and the thermal efficiency of
the plant.

Given:
T1 =
P2 = 500 KPa
mg = 230 kg/s
P4 = 10KPa
5% moisture of steam leaving the turbine
T0 = 250C
At state point 1:
T1 = 2300C (saturated liquid)
from Table 1
h1 = 990.12 KJ/kg
s1 = 2.6099 KJ/kg
At state point 2:
P2 = 500 KPa; h2 = h1 = 990.12 KJ/kg
h2 = hf2 + X2hfg
990.12 KJ/kg = 640.23 KJ/kg + X2(2108.5)
X2 = 0.1659426132
S2 = 1.8607 + 0.1659426132 (4.9606)

2300C

S2 = 2.683874931 KJ/ kg-K


Mass flowrate of the steam:
ms = X2mg= 0.1659426132 (230kg/s)
ms = m3 = 38.16680104 kg/s
At state point 3:
P3 = 500KPa ; h3 = hg @ 500KPa
h3 = 2748.7 KJ/kg
S3 = Sg@ 500KPa
S3 = 6.8213 KJ/kg-k
At state point 4:
95% steam quality; X4 = 95%
h4 = hf4 + X4hfg
= 191.83KJ/kg + 0.95(2392.8 KJ/kg)
h4 = 2464.99 KJ/kg
S4 = Sf4 + X4Sfg
= 0.6493 + 0.95 (7.5009)
S4 = 7.775155 KJ/kg-K
At state point 5:
P5 = 500kPa
h6 = hf@ 500KPa
S6 = Sf@ 500KPa = 1.8607 KJ/kg-K
m6 = mg ms
=(230 38.1668) kg/s
m6 = 191.833199 kg/s
The power output from the turbine:

Wt=ms(h3 h4) = 38.1668(2748.7 - 2464.99)


Wt= 10828.30312KW
Using the standard temperature for dead state properties:
To = 250C
h0 = hf @ 250C = 104.89 KJ/kg
So = Sf@ 250C = 0.3674 KJ/kg-K
Solving for QA
QA= mg (h1 ho)
= 230kg/s ( 990.12 104.89)KJ/kg
QA = 203602.9KW
Solving for Thermal Efficiency:
nTH=WT / Q = 10828.30312/ 203602.9 = 5.318344248%