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Matrices (Hints and numerical answers)

1.

1 2 2

A + B = 9 7 8
2 1 3

5 0 2

A B = 3 3 6
0 1 1

2 2 5

A B = 28 6 19
2 0 2

1
3 2

B A = 19 16 27
1 4 3

2 1

8 1

(ii)

2

6

(iii) (8 2)

5 0 2

B A = 3 3 6
0 1 1

4 2
(iv)

3 1

2.

(i)

3.

1 0 1 2 1 2
1 0 1 2 7 4 14 2
(A) = 2
5
+ 3
= 2
5
+ 3
=

0 1 3 1 3 1
0 1 3 1 6 7 3 14

4.

Geometrical interpretation : rotation of a vector by an angle clockwisely and then

clockwisely is the same as rotation of an angle ( + )

an angle

clockwisely. (or rotation of system of axis

anti-closkwisely)

5.

1 n

Let P(n) be the proposition : A n = 0 1


0 0

For P(1),

1 1

A1 = 0 1
0 0

1(1 1)
2

1 =
1

n (n 1)
2

1 1 0

0 1 1
0 0 1

Assume P(k) is true for some k N ,

P(1) is true.

1 k

Ak = 0 1
0 0

k (k 1)
2

For P(k +1) ,

1 k

k +1
k
A = A A = 0 1
0 0

1
1


k (k 1) 1 1 0 1 k + 1 k + k (k 1) 1 k
2
2


k
k +1
1
0 1 1 = 0
= 0 1

0 0 1 0
0 0
0
1
1

1
(k + 1)(k )
2

P(k+1) is true.
By the Principle of Mathematical Induction , P(n) is true n N .
8.

The given simultaneous equations is an inconsistent system.

9.

a b
,
Put X =
c d

3 0 1 0 3 0 1 0
,
,
,

X =
0 3 0 1 0 1 0 3

q(1 p )
2+p
X=
,
(1 m p ) / q 2 p

where p , q R, q 0.

7 4 9

A = 6 3 7
3 2 4

10.

1 1/ 2 0

1
0
A = 0
1 1/ 4 1

12.

4.5
3.5 2

(A + A) = 3 1.5 3.5
1.5
1
2

13.

Consider (B-1A-1) (AB) = (AB) (B-1A-1) = I

14.

Write the infinite series for sin and cos :

14 8 18

6 14
A + A = 12
6
4 8

-1

sin = x
15.

11.

x3
3!

x5
5!

x7
7!

x9
9!

-1

-1

....

-1

2 0
SPS =

0 4

cos = 1

(i)

(I A)2 = I 2A + A2 = I 2A + A = I .

(ii)

A is non-singular A-1 exists

x2
2!

x4
4!

x6
6!

x8
8!

....

I A = A A-1 A = A2 A-1 A (since A is idempotent)


= A (A A-1 ) A = AI A = A A = 0 .

16.

a 2 + bc ab + bd
X2 =

2
ca + dc cd + d

a 2 + bc + pa + q = 0 (1)
(a + d + p ) b = 0
( 2)

We get the equations :

c(a + d + p ) = 0
(3)
d + bc + pd + q = 0 ( 4)
2

(i)

If

a + d + p = 0, then

(ii)

If

a + d + p 0, then b = c = 0. From (1) and (4),


a2 + pa + q = 0

and

Tr(A) = a + d = p

1 1
x = 3 , B =
,
2 1

19.

= 0 , 1, 2 .

20.

= 2r ,

21.

(I A) (I + A) = I A2 = (I + A) (I A) .

3 0
B-1AB =

0 3

, An =

1 3n + 2( 3) n
3n ( 3) n
n
.
3 2[3 ( 3) n ] 2(3n ) + ( 3) n

x = ( t 0 t ) , where t R .

= r2 s2 ,

= 3

|X| = q .

d2 + pd + q = 0. Result follows.

17.

and from (1) + (4),

A2 = A I = 2rA (r2 s2) I .

3 0

1 0

0
1

24.

25.

13
4 1

1
A =
16 19 7
60
2
4 14

26.

(i)

x1 = 5/4

x2 = 3/4

(ii)

x1 = a

x2 = 14 3(a + b)

-1

x 1 = (1 60 )[4h 1 + h 2 + 13h 3 ]
x 2 = (1 60 )[16h 1 19h 2 7 h 3 ]
x 3 = (1 60 )[2h 1 + 7 h 2 + h 3 ]
,
,

x3 = 7/2

x3 = 2(a + b) 10

x4 = b

a, b R .

(iii) inconsistent system .

27.

(i)

x1 = 13/4

x2 = 1/4

(ii)

x1 = 2/3

x2 = 1/3

(iii) x1 = 9/2

x2 = 1/2

x3 = 7/2

(iv) x1 = 1/2

x2 = 1/2

x3 = 3/2

( 3 1 )(a + 1 )( b + 1 )

( 2 1 )(a + 3 )( b + 3 )

(1 3 )(a + 2 )( b + 2 )
x3 =
( 2 1 )(a + 3 )( b + 3 )

28.

x1 =

29.

One solution :

a2 b2

Infinite many solutions :

(a = b c) or

No solution :

other cases.

30.

Non-zero solution if (a = b = c)
or

31.

(c = a = 1 and b 1) or

and

b2 c2 and

c2 a2 .

(b = c a) or

or (a = b = 1 and c 1)

(a = b 1 and c = 1) or

or

(c = a b) or (a = b = c)

(b = c = 1 and a 1)

(b = c 1 and a = 1)

(1)

b=0:

no solution

(2)

a = 1 and b = 1 :

infinite number of solutions

a = 1 and b 1 :

no solution

a = 2 and b = 2 :

infinite number of solutions

a = 2 and b 2 :

no solution

(4)

b0,a1,a2:

unique solution

(i)

x = 3 , y = 1, z = 2 .

(ii)

inconsistent system.

(3)

32.

x2 =

or

(c = a 1 and b = 1) .