You are on page 1of 2

Art 103 Exam #3

STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM #3:


LATE ROMAN, EARLY CHRISTIAN, AND BYZANTINE ART
General Information about this exam: There is no take home essay for this exam. There will
be an in-class portion only. Please bring a 100 point scantron and a pencil to the exam. In
preparation, refer to the Peter Murray article, Study Guide, short videos and in-class digital
presentation for review, all posted on the moodle course site.
IDENTIFICATION BY TITLE, DATE, AND STYLE PERIOD.
Late Roman Empire, The Four Tetrarchs c. 300
Late Roman Empire Colossal Portrait of Constantine head, hand, foot details. c. 315
Late Roman Empire, Triumphal Arch of Constantine c. 315
Early Christian. The Good Shepherd catacomb painting 4th century(Rome) with story of Jonah
Byzantine. Hagia Sophia, Contantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) c. 535 (interior and exterior views)
Architects: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus
Byzantine. San Vitale, Ravenna, c. 550 (interior and exterior view note octagonal shape from
exterior
Justinian and Theodora mosaic details from San Vitale in Ravenna c. 550
Byzantine, San Marco, Venice, begun 1063
Russian Byzantine. Vladimir Virgin, icon from 12th century
Terms:
Prepare to label a basilica plan (ex. Old St. Peters) with these terms: nave, aisle, apse, transept,
narthex, and atrium. Note changes made to the Roman basilica (court of law) plan as this type
was converted to a Christian church.
Pantokrator
Mosaic tesserae
sarcophagus icon iconoclasm axial non-axial
Ambulatory Iconoclasm Icon Pendentive Nike Figure cubiculum loculi monasticism
Monastery Central Plan
Clerestory Theotokos (mother of God)
Identify by type only:
Orant Pose
Christ as Good Shepherd type
Christ as philosopher type
Christ as Pantokrator type
Central plan type of church (mausoleum or baptistery with dome)
Longitudinal plan (basilica)
Combination of both longitudinal and central plans such as San Vitale, Ravenna or Hagia Sophia
Hand of God (representing God the Father)
Chi-rho-iota = monogram of Christ, Greek letters P and X superimposed
Icon as image leading to spiritual focus (large eyes, small mouth)
Theotokos (mother of God type)

Concepts
Themes of Rescue and Deliverance in Early Christian Art preference for this subject matter in
catacombs and before Christianity was a recognized religion in 315.
Examples of Rescue and Deliverance include the following Bible stories:
Abraham and Issac (sacrifice) Jonah Story Three Hebrews in Fiery furnace
Conditions and purpose for Early Christian catacombs
Early Christian borrowing of rustic Roman shepherd type Christ as young herder
Review Peter Murray article: note the urban infrastructure necessary for mosaic work, the
technique of making a mosaic, the borrowed art form from Roman culture, note the ethereal
effect of mosaic interior and limitations in representing movement and naturalism
Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom) is strong example of fusion of central and longitudinal
plan. Patron Holy Roman Emperor Justinian.
Regarding borrowing and adaptation of Roman art and architectural forms:
Compare procession of martyrs from Sant Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna to
Roman Ara Pacis, procession of Senators and family of Augustus
Nike figures Angels
Toga wearing Romans Christs disciples
Large interior spaces
Decorated surfaces, marble incrustation and mosaic
Development of monasticism in 3rd and 4th century Egypt away from urban environments,
dedication to prayer, anti-materialist.
Iconoclasm 726-843
Note 3 centers of Byzantine Art and Architecture: 1. Rome 2. Constantinople

3. Moscow