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TUTORIAL:

MEDIUMVOLTAGEPOWERCABLES
ANDACCESSORIES

2011InternationalConferenceofDobleClients

Thursday,March31,2011
7:30AM12:00PM
WestinCopleyPlaceHotel
AmericaNorth,4thFloor

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Insulated Cable
Engineers Association
(ICEA)
Standards Review

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

I. Overview of ICEA
Energy Division Power Cable Section
II. Industry Wide Input & Standards Coordination
III. ICEA Cable, Test & Application Standards
That Apply To Power Cables
IV. Navigating The ICEA Website

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Overview of ICEA
Composed strictly of engineers who are employed by
cable manufacturing companies.
These companies are sponsors of the association.
Members cannot be involved in sales, pricing or order placement.
IPCEA was formed in 1925 by a group of power cable engineers.
Evolved into 3 separate sections Control & Instrumentation
Cables, Power Cables & Portable Power Cables.
In 1979 Communication Cables were added and the name was changed
to Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA).

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Overview of ICEA
The organization was later reorganized into two Divisions
Energy Cables
Communications Cables
The Energy Cables Division retained
Control & Instrumentation (C&I)
Power
Portable
The Communication Cables Division was further subdivided into
Copper
Fiber

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Overview of ICEA
The association meets quarterly in March, June, September
and December.
The association maintains a website at ICEA.net
The association is a Not-For-Profit organization whos sole
support is from member dues & fees and standards sales.
Since 1925 the objective has been to ensure safe, economical
and efficient cable systems utilizing proven state-of-the-art
materials and concepts.

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Industry Wide Input & Standards Coordination


The Utility Power Cable Standards Technical Advisory Committee
UPCSTAC was formed in 1996.
Outgrowth of a long felt need for a comprehensive, national
standard for concentric neutral power cable.
UPCSTAC membership is comprised of
ICEA Power Cable Section members
AEIC Cable Engineering Committee members
The primary documents covered by UPCSTAC are for Medium and
High Voltage Utility Power Cables.
The documents are also reviewed by IEEE Insulated Conductors
Committee (ICC) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables

Test Standards

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables


Test Standards include:
ANSI/ICEA T-24-380 Standard for Partial-Discharge Test Procedure
ICEA T-25-425 Guide for Establishing Stability of Volume
Resistivity for Conducting Polymeric Compounds of Power Cables
ANSI/ICEA T-26-465 Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded
Dielectric Cables
ANSI/ICEA T-28-562 Test Method for Measurement of Hot Creep
of Polymeric Insulation
ANSI/ICEA T-27-581 Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Cables

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables


Test Standards include: (continued)
ANSI/ICEA T-31-610 Test Method for Conducting Longitudinal
Water Penetration Resistance Tests on Blocked Conductors
ICEA T32-645 Guide for Establishing Compatibility of Sealed
Conductors with Conductor Stress Control Materials
ICEA T-33-655 Low Smoke, Halogen-Free Polymeric Jackets
ANSI/ICEA T-34-664 Test Method for Conducting Longitudinal Water
Penetration Resistance Tests on Longitudinal Blocked Cables

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables

Application Standards

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Applications Standards for Power Cables


Application Oriented Standards include:
ANSI/ICEA P-32-382 Short-Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable
ICEA P-54-440 Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Trays
ANSI/ICEA P-45-482 Short-Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields
& Sheaths
ANSI/ICEA P-79-561 Guide for Selecting Aerial Cable Messengers
& Lashing Wires

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables

Non-shielded Cable Standards

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables


Non-shielded Cable Standards include:
ANSI/ICEA S-76-474 Neutral Supported Power Cable Assemblies
with Weather-Resistant Extruded Insulation Rated 600 Volts
ANSI/ICEA S-70-547 Weather Resistant Polyethylene Covered
Conductors
ANSI/ICEA S-81-570 600 Volt Rated Cables of Ruggedized Design
for Direct Burial Installations as Single Conductors or Assemblies
of Single Conductors

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables


Non-shielded Cable Standards include: (continued)
ANSI/ICEA S-95-658 Non-Shielded Power Cables Rated 2000 V
or Less
ICEA S-96-659 Non-Shielded Power Cables Rated 2001 5000 V
ANSI/ICEA S-105-692 600 Volt Single Layer Thermoset Insulated
Utility Underground Distribution Cables

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables

Shielded Cable Standards

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Cable, Test & Application Standards for Power Cables


Shielded Cable Standards include:
ANSI/ICEA S-93-639 Shielded Power Cables 5,000 46,000 V
ANSI/ICEA S-94-649 Concentric Neutral Cables Rated 5 Through
46 kV
ANSI/ICEA S-97-682 Utility Shielded Power Cables Rated 5
Through 46 kV
ANSI/ICEA S-109-720 Extruded Insulation Power Cables Rated
Above 46 kV Through 345 kV

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Working Groups for New Standards


WG 684 Performance Based Utility 5 46 kV
WG 726 Pellet Inspection Systems
WG 728 Non-Metallic Shielded Mining Cables
WG 733 Tree Wire and Spacer Cable
WG 734 New Electric Distribution Ampacity Tables

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Navigating The ICEA Website

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

We reorganized the ICEA Web site at http://www.icea.net


to make it easier to find the Standard you need.
Added a New & Recently Added Documents Direct Link
Separated Energy & Communication Documents
Divided Energy Documents into:
Power Cable
Portable Cable
Control & Instrumentation (C&I) Cable
Added a Preview & Purchase Link for Each Document
Cover, Table of Contents, Scope

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION, Inc.

About ICEA
The Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) is a professional
organization dedicated to developing cable standards for the
electric power, control, and telecommunications industries. Since
1925, the objective has been to ensure safe, economical, and
efficient cable systems utilizing proven state-of-the-art materials
and concepts. Now with the proliferation of new materials and
cable designs, this mission has gained in importance. ICEA
documents are of interest to industry participants worldwide, i.e.
cable manufacturers, architects and engineers, utility and
manufacturing plant personnel, telecommunication engineers,
consultants, and OEM'S.
ICEA is a "Not-For-Profit" association whose members are
sponsored by over thirty of North America's leading cable
manufacturers. The technical development work is performed in
four semi-autonomous Sections; namely, the Power, Control &
Instrumentation, Portable, and Communications Cable Sections. In
addition there are currently two very active major Technical
Advisory Committees, one for Telecommunications Wire and Cable
Standards (TWCS TAC) and another Utility Power Cable Standards
(UPCS TAC).

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION, Inc.

ICEA Engineering Documents


It is ICEA's mission to keep these standards up-to-date on a
continuing basis. These Documents may be purchased through
IHS.
ICEA Standards fall into four categories:

Refer to our Ordering Info page for purchasing details.

Back

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION, Inc.

New & Recently Added Documents


These standards were developed by the Insulated Cable
Engineers Association, Inc. (ICEA), within the past 3 years. These
Documents may be purchased through IHS.
You may view the first pages including the Table of Contents for
some documents by clicking on the Preview Documents link
and/or purchase them by clicking on the Purchase Now link. Not
all documents have previews available.

Energy Cable Standards


ANSI/ICEA
T-24-380-2007
Guide For Partial-Discharge Test Procedure
$60.00
Preview Document
Purchase Now

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION, Inc.

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION, Inc.

Energy Documents

Back

Doble Client Conference: ICEA Standards Review

March 31, 2011

Thanks For Including ICEA


In Your Conference
&
Any Additional Questions

AEIC Cable Engineering


Committee Specifications,
and Guides
by Mike Smalley We Energies, Chair,
AEIC Cable Engineering Committee

Doble Conference March 31, 2011


1

Association of Edison Illuminating


Companies (AEIC)

Established in 1885 by Thomas Edison


Members are electric utilities, generation
companies, transmission companies, and
distribution companies internationally.
Through a committee structure, the Association
addresses technological problems associated
with planning, building and operating an electric
utility system.

AEIC (Cont)
Includes investor-owned, federal, state,
cooperative, and municipal systems
Associate members include organizations
responsible for technical research and for
promoting, coordinating, and ensuring the
reliability and efficient operation of the bulk
power supply system (e.g. EPRI).

AEIC Committees

The AEIC's six committees are staffed with


experts from management of member
companies and meet regularly during the year to
explore issues in their particular areas:
Load

Research
and Service
Power Apparatus
Power Delivery
Power Generation
Cable Engineering
Meter

Cable Engineering Committee (CEC)

28 Members and 2 Technical Advisors


Cable

Engineers from Electric Utilities


from Research Labs and
Organizations

Engineers

CEC Purpose

The purpose of the


CEC is to develop
and maintain
specifications and
guides for electric
utility cable system
design, maintenance,
and operations.
7 Specifications
11 Guidelines
6

CEC Procedures

Goals:
Reaffirm,

Revise, or Withdraw specifications every 5


years
Reaffirm, Revise, or Withdraw guides every 7 years

A Task Group chair, Vice Chair, and TG


members are assigned to each document
Once complete, documents are balloted within
the task group. After TG approval, the whole
CEC is balloted
7

Outline for All Cable Specs


Conductor
Conductor Shield
Insulation
Insulation Shield
Metallic Shielding
Moisture Barrier
Jacket

Outline for All Cable Specs (Cont)


Cable Identification
Production Test Procedures
Shipment and Reels
Guarantee
Tests During and After Installation

CEC Paper (Laminar) Cable Specs

These Specifications are considered to be the


industry standard (there is no NEMA, ANSI or
ICEA cable standard associated with them):
CS1-90

PILC
High Pressure Pipe Type
CS3-90 Low Pressure Gas-Filled Type
CS4-93 Low and Medium Pressure Self-Contained
Liquid Filled Cable
CS31-95 Pipe Filling Liquids
CS2-97

10

CEC Extruded Dielectric Cable Specs

CS5, Obsolete, replaced by CS8


CS6, Obsolete, replaced by CS8 and CS9
CS7, Obsolete, replaced by CS9
CS8-07 Extruded Dielectric 5-46 kV, supplements:

NEMA WC74/ICEA S-93-639 (Shielded Power Cables 5-46 kV)


ICEA S-94-649 (Medium Voltage CN cables)
ICEA S-97-682 (Utility Shielded Power Cables 5-46 kV)

CS9-06 Extruded Dielectric Cables and Their


Accessories Rated Above 46 kV through
345 kV AC, supplements:

ICEA S-108-720 (Extruded Power Cables 46-345 kV)

11

CEC Guides

CG1-96 Maximum Temperatures for PaperInsulated Cables, use with:

CG3-05 Installation of Pipe-Type Cable


Systems, use with:

CG4-97 Installation of Extruded Dielectric


Cables 69-138 kV, use with:

CG5-05 Extruded Power Cable Pulling, use with:

CS1

through CS4

CS2

CS9
CS8,

CS9, ICEA S-81-570, S-95-658, S-94-649,


S96-659, S108-720, T-33-655
12

CEC Guides (Cont)

CG6-05 Maximum Temperatures of


Extruded Dielectric Cables, use with:
CS8,

CS9, S-94-649, S-97-682, S-108-720,


S-93-639

CG7-05 Replacement and Life Extension


of Extruded Dielectric 5-35 kV Cables, use
with:
CS8,

S-94-649, S-97-682
13

CEC Guides (Cont)

CG8-03 Electric Utility Quality Assurance


Program for Extruded Dielectric Cables, use
with:

CG9-00 Installing, Operating, and Maintaining


Lead Covered Cables 5-46 kV, use with:

CG10-02 Developing Specs for Extruded Cables


5-46 kV, use with:

CS8,

CS1,

CS9, S-94-649, S-97-682, S-93-639, S-108-720

CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS8

CS8

14

CEC Guides (Cont)

CG11-02 Reduced Diameter Extruded


Dielectric Cables 5-46 kV, use with:
CS8,

S-94-649, S-97-682, S-XX-684 (future)

CG12-05 Minimizing the Cost of Extruded


Dielectric Cables 5-46 kV
CS8,

S-97-682, S-94-649, S-93-639

15

CS1-90 PILC Cable

Specification for
Impregnated PaperInsulated MetallicSheathed Cable,
Solid-Type
11th

Edition, October
1990
Revision in progress

16

CS1-90 Scope
This specification applies to impregnated
paper-insulated, metallic-sheathed cable
of the "solid" type which is to be used for
the transmission and distribution of
electrical energy on electric utility systems.
Cables Rated 1 kV to 69 kV

17

CS1-90 Scope

The term solid-type cable designates a


hermetically sealed type of massimpregnated cable having an essentially
solid cross-section impregnated with a
saturant of suitable viscosity, and
designed for operation without a pressure
medium.

18

CS2-97 High Pressure Pipe-Type


Cable

Specification for
Impregnated Paper
and Laminated Paper
Polypropylene Cable,
High Pressure PipeType
6th

Edition, March
1997
Revision in progress

19

CS3-90 Low Pressure Gas Filled


Cable

Specification for
Impregnated Paper
Insulated Metallic
Sheathed Cable, Low
Pressure Gas Filled-Type
3th

Edition, October 1990


in progress

Revision

20

CS4-93 Self Contained Liquid


Filled Cable

Specification for
Low and Medium
pressure SCLF
cable
8th

Edition,
January 1993
Revision in
progress

21

CS8-07 Extruded Cable 5-46 kV

Specification for Extruded Dielectric,


Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 Through
46 kV
3rd
34

Edition, February 2007


pages

22

CS8-07 Scope
Supplements ANSI/ICEA S-94-649 and
S-97-682
This specification covers cables rated 546 kV, which are used for the distribution
of electric energy on electric utility
systems.

23

CS8-07 Additional Items


Qualification Tests
Appendixes

Industry

Specifications, Standards, and


References
History of Cable Diameters
Procedure for Determining Diameters of
Cables
ANSI/ICEA Tables
24

CS8-07 Additional Items

Partially replaced CS5 and CS6 (covers both


EPR and XLPE/TRXLPE cables):
CS5

CS6

covered XLPE insulated cables from 5-46 kV

Originally published: 1969

covered EPR insulated cables from 5-69 kV

Originally published: 1972

ANSI/ICEA standards have provided a way to


greatly simplify the AEIC specifications.
The 2007 version largely adopted ICEA cable
diameters; which use lower minimum point
thicknesses... Example next page->
25

Insulation Thickness Comparisons


175-mil average (previous AEIC)
176

158

190
max

min

176

26

Insulation Thickness Comparisons


min-max (ANSI/ICEA)

165
min

205
max

27

Example
Install two joints and a short piece of new
cable into section of failed old cable
Both cables 1000 kcmil 260 mil 25 kV
Old cable manufactured in 1979 to AEIC
CS5-79 Specification
New cable manufactured to ANSI/ICEA
Standard

28

CS8-00 Ranges of 1000 kcmil 25


kV Cable and Three Joints
1710

AEIC

1645

ANSI/ICEA

95

X 1515

265

1665

120

1660

Z
1500

60

1550

1600

160

1650

1700

1750

1800

1850

Diameter in mils
29

CS8-07 Some Differences from 649


Includes Guarantee section
Includes Field Strippability Test
Shipment and Reels
Tree Count Test

30

10

CS9-06 Extruded Cables and


Accessories rated 46-345 kV

Specification for Extruded Insulation


Power Cables and their Accessories rated
above 46 kV Through 345 kV AC
1st
64

Edition, December 2006


pages

31

CS9-06 Background Info.

Partially replaced CS6 and CS7:

CS6 Covered EPR insulated cables from 5-69 kV

CS7 covered XLPE insulated cables from 69-138 kV

Originally published: 1972


Originally published: 1982

The first AEIC specification covering a complete cable


system including joints/terminations
Covers both EPR and XLPE/TRXLPE cable systems
A system specification, not just a cable standard
Some differences from S-108-720 in conductor shield
material and in the number and size of voids in the
insulation
32

CS9-06 Contents

General
Cables
Terminations
Joints
Sheath Bonding/Grounding Systems, Link Boxes, and
SVLs
Qualification Tests on System
Prequalification Tests on System
Electrical System Test After Installation
Quality Assurance
Shipping
Appendices (informative)
33

11

CEC Guidelines
In the early days of the cable industry, no
other guidelines were available within the
industry concerning cable operations,
installation, and maintenance.
CEC decided to begin developing some
guidelines for utilities to use.

34

Temperature Guides CG1 and CG6


CG1 PILC Cables
CG6 Extruded Dielectric Cables
Emergency Operations and Temperature
Limits
Principles and Basic Background Factors
Limiting Factors
Determination of Ampacity

35

CG1-07 PILC Temperatures

Guide for Establishing the Maximum


Operating Temperatures of ImpregnatedPaper- and Laminated-PaperPolypropylene-Insulated Cable
4th

Edition, June 2007

Scope: Operating temperature limits for


transmission and distribution paper and
paper-polypropylene insulated cable.
36

12

CG6-05 Extruded Cable


Temperatures

Guide for Establishing the Maximum


Operating Temperatures of Extruded
Dielectric Insulated Shielded Power
Cables
2nd

Edition, November 2005

37

CG6-05 Scope
This guide primarily covers temperatures
limits for extruded dielectric cable in
underground installations.
Some guidance is provided for other
applications such as aerial installations
and riser pole applications.

38

CG5-05 Extruded Cable Pulling

Underground Extruded Power Cable


Pulling Guide
2nd

Edition, June 2005

39

13

CG5-05 Scope
Outlines the pulling parameters that need
to be considered when installing
underground power cable in duct.
Based on EPRI Project EL-3333
Maximum Safe Pulling Lengths for Solid
Dielectric Insulated Cables
Some sidewall pressure and tension
recommendations differ from those of
cable manufacturers

40

CG5-05 Scope (Cont)


Pulling guides and computer software are
available from many cable manufacturers
and lubricant manufacturers.
Several of these guides provide a basic
introduction to cable pulling criteria.
Some of these manufacturers guides are
listed in the bibliography.
CG5 is intended to complement these
publications.

41

CG5-05 Scope (Cont)

The major points covered in the guide


include:
Factors

that influence pulling tensions such as


cable type, conduit type and size, lubricants,
and installation practices
Calculation of maximum pulling lengths
allowable without damaging the cable
Limits on cable tension and sidewall bearing
pressure
42

14

CG5-05 Contents
Cable Removal
Economic Considerations
Design Criteria and Pulling Limits
Pulling Tension Formulae
Sidewall Bearing Pressure Formulae
Sample Calculations
References

43

CG7-05 Extruded Cable


Replacement 5-35 kV

Guide for Replacement and Life Extension


of Extruded Dielectric 5-35 KV
Underground Distribution Cables
2nd

Edition, November 2005

44

CG7-05 Scope
Covers extruded dielectric utility
distribution system cables rated 5-46 kV
Includes options for cable replacement
and cable life extension based upon
current options within the industry today.

45

15

CG7-05 Contents
Identifying Problem Cable Systems
Decision Making Tools
Selection and Implementation of Solution
or Corrective Action
Reliability and System Enhancements to
Reduce Cable Failures

46

CG8-10 Quality Assurance


Extruded Cables 5-46 kV

Guide for Electric Utility Quality Assurance


Program for Extruded Dielectric Power
Cables
3rd

Edition, August 2010

47

CG8-10 Scope
Techniques and procedures that an
electric utility may use to establish a
quality assurance program for extruded
dielectric power cable
Helps to ensure that the utility consistently
receives cable with the characteristics it
desires

48

16

CG8-10 Contents
The Utility Cable Specification
Manufacturing Plant Audits
Cable Inspection and Testing
Keeping Records of Installation and
Operating Experiences
Outline of a Cable Specification
Manufacturer Questionnaire
Inspection List

49

CG9-00 Installing and Operating


Lead Covered Cable 5-46 kV

Guide for Installing, Operating, and


Maintaining Lead Covered Cable Systems
Rated 5 kV Through 46 kV
1st

Edition, May 2000


Reaffirmed in 2008

50

CG9-00 Scope
Lead-covered cables have been in use for
over 80 years and have demonstrated
exceptional service reliability.
Two of the most common constructions in
use are paper-insulated lead-covered cable
(PILC) and lead-covered extruded-dielectric
cable.

51

17

CG9-00 Scope (Cont)


Dealing with the lead on these types of
cables has become costly due to Federal
and State safety regulations.
Consequently, the use of lead covered
cables has declined and the expertise
needed to install and maintain them has
declined as well.

52

CG9-00 Scope (Cont)

This guide is intended to outline generally


accepted installation, operation, and
maintenance practices for lead covered
cables.

53

CG9-00 Contents
Manholes
Cable Handling
Cable Installation in Duct and Direct Buried
Cable Accessories (Joints and Terminations)
Grounding
Identification and Installation Records
Inspection and Maintenance

54

18

CG10-10 Developing Specs for


Extruded Power Cables 5-46 kV

Guide for Developing Specifications for


Extruded Power Cables Rated 5 through
46 kV
2nd

Edition, December 2010

55

CG10-10 Scope
This guide describes the various choices
that an engineer must consider when
developing a medium voltage (5-46 kV)
cable specification for utility use.
It is designed to acquaint the user with
those criteria necessary to ensure the
cable will perform as intended.

56

CG10-02 Contents

The contents of CG10 basically follows the


outline of CS8 (MV Cable Spec) and CS9
(HV Cable Spec)

57

19

CG11-02 Reduced Diameter


Extruded Dielectric Cables 5-46 kV

Guide for Reduced Diameter Extruded


Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5
Through 46 kV
1st

Edition, January 2002

58

CG11-02 Scope
Replacing smaller PILC cables in existing,
space-limited infrastructure.
Provides general information to be used
when specifying and using cables with
reduced diameters.

59

CG11-02 Contents

Design Variables

Insulation

Jacket

Metallic Shield
(Flat Strap or
Longitudinally
Corrugated Tape)

Insulation
Shield

Center Conductor

Conductor Shield
60

20

CG11-02 Contents (Cont)

Operating Conditions
Maximum

Conductor Temperatures
Operating Temperatures
Metallic Shield Short Circuit Rating
Ampacity Requirements
Emergency

61

CG11-02 Contents (Cont)

Field Considerations
Duct

Clearances
Configurations
Terminations and Joints
Pulling Methods
Cable Handling
Proof Testing
Duct

62

CG12-05 Minimizing the Cost of


Extruded Cables 5-46 kV

Guide for Minimizing the Cost of Extruded


Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5
through 46 kV
1st

Edition, June 2005

63

21

CG12-05 Scope
This guide provides general information
that can be used to minimize the initial
purchase cost of extruded dielectric cable
rated 5-46 kV.
The variables allow the user to be aware of
some options to consider when attempting
to reduce the initial purchase cost of their
cable.

64

CG12-05 Contents

Design Variables

Insulation

Jacket

Insulation
Metallic Shield
Shield
(Concentric Neutral or
(Semicon)
Tape Shield)

Center Conductor
(Strand-filled)
Conductor Shield

65

CG12-05 Contents (Cont)


Labeling
Packaging
Production Tests
Quality Assurance Documentation
Qualification Tests
Industry Specifications, Standards,
Guides, and Contact Information

66

22

Conclusions

Standards and Specifications affect every aspect of


how we design our cable systems.
Many Standards and Specifications are
interrelated.
Individual Company specifications should
coordinate with these industry standards for an
optimal cable system design.
Industry Guides may be used to gain greater insight
into the application of the cable system
67

Standards, Specs, and Codes


A technical standard is an established
norm or requirement. It is usually a formal
document that establishes uniform
engineering or technical criteria, methods,
processes, and practices.
A specification is an explicit set of
requirements to be satisfied by a material,
product, or service

Wikipedia.org

68

Standards, Specs, and Codes (Cont)


Codes are rules established or adopted by
a governmental agency, required to be
followed. Codes represent the minimum
acceptable requirements.
Governmental agencies usually obtain
adherence to codes by requiring permits.

69

23

Standards and Specifications


Affecting Cable Systems
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI)
ASTM International (ASTM)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE)

70

Standards and Specifications


Affecting Cables
International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC)
Insulated Cable Engineers Association
(ICEA)
Association of Edison Illuminating
Companies (AEIC)

71

Codes Affecting Cables and


Systems

National Electrical Code (NEC)


National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)

72

24

Codes Affecting Cables and


Systems

Code of Federal Regulations


Operating

requirements

73

American National Standards


Institute (ANSI)
Established in 1918 by 5 engineering
societies and 3 government organizations
Composed of volunteer member
companies

74

ANSI Scope
ANSI oversees the development of
voluntary consensus standards for
products, services, and processes in the
United States.
ANSI also coordinates U.S. standards with
international standards so that American
products can be used worldwide.

75

25

ANSI Scope (Cont)

Accreditation by ANSI signifies that the


procedures used by the standards body in
connection with the development of
American National Standards meet the
Institutes essential requirements for
openness, balance, consensus, and due
process.

76

ANSI Standards for Cable


ANSI/IEEE 386 IEEE Standard for
Separable Insulated Connector Systems for
Power Distribution Systems above 600 V
ANSI C119.4 Standard for Electric
Connectors

Connectors

Used Between Conductors

Aluminum-to-Aluminum or
Aluminum-to-Copper

77

ASTM International (ASTM)


Originally known as American Society for
Testing and Materials
Uses a Consensus Process

From

http://en.wikipedia.org/
Consensus Process A group decision
making process that not only seeks the
agreement of most participants, but also the
resolution or mitigation of minority objections.
78

26

ASTM Publication Types


Standard Specification, that defines the
requirements to be satisfied by the subject
of the standard.
Standard Test Method, that defines the
way a test is performed. The result of the
test may be used to assess compliance
with a Specification.

79

ASTM Publication Types (Cont)


Standard Practice, that defines a
sequence of operations that, unlike a test,
does not produce a result.
Standard Guide, that provides an
organized collection of information or
series of options that does not recommend
a specific course of action.

80

ASTM Standards for Cable


ASTM B 230 Standard Specification for
Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire for Electrical
Purposes
ASTM B 8 Standard Specification for
Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper
Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft
Others for plastic and other materials

81

27

Institute of Electrical and Electronic


Engineers (IEEE)
The IEEE is an international non-profit,
professional organization for the
advancement of technology related to
electricity.
It has the most members of any technical
professional organization in the world, with
more than 365,000 members in around
150 countries.

82

IEEE Background
IEEE was formed in 1963
Power and Energy Society (PES)
(Formerly Power Engineering Society)
Main group of the IEEE PES that develops
standards for cables and accessories is
the Insulated Conductors Committee (ICC)

83

IEEE Standards and Guides (ICC)

Develops and Maintains Standards and


Guides for Cables Systems and
Accessories:
IEEE

Std 386 Separable Connectors


Std 404 Cable Joints
IEEE Std 48 Cable Terminations
IEEE Std 400 (and associated point
documents) Diagnostic Testing in the Field
Many others
IEEE

84

28

National Electrical Code (NEC)


NEC 2008, NFPA 70
90.2 Scope (B) Not Covered (5)
Installations under the exclusive control of
an electric utility where such installations

b.

Are located in legally established easements


or rights-of-way designated by or recognized by
public service commissions, utility
commissions, or other regulatory agencies
having jurisdiction for such installations....
85

NEC (Cont)

The NEC does not have jurisdiction over


utilities.

However, the NESC does have jurisdiction


over utilities.

86

National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)

Work began on the


NESC in 1913 at the
National Bureau of
Standards (NBS)
As NBS Handbooks
The 4th edition (1927)
is shown here.
ANSI gets approval
by sending out to
interested
committees.

87

29

NESC (Cont)

IEEE C2 (IEEE is the


secretariat)
Recognized by ANSI
Adopted as law by
most states within the
US as the binding
code for electrical
power systems.
88

NESC (Cont)
Applicable to the systems operated by
utilities, or similar systems and equipment of
an industrial establishment or complex
under the control of qualified persons.
NESC Abstract, 2007 Edition
Part 3 Safety Rules for the Installation and
Maintenance of Underground Electric
Supply and Communication Lines

Section
Section

33 Supply Cable
35 Direct-buried Cable
89

International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC)
The IEC is a not-for-profit, nongovernmental international standards
organization that prepares and publishes
international standards for all electrical,
electronic, and related technologies
Instrumental in developing the International
System of Units (SI) (metric system)

90

30

IEC (Cont)
ANSI is represented on the IEC through
the US National Committee
IEC Technical Committee 20 is
responsible for Electric Cables

91

IEC Cable Standards


IEC 60502 Power cables with extruded
insulation and their accessories for rated
voltages from 1 kV up to 30 kV
IEC 60840 Power cables with extruded
insulation and their accessories for rated
voltages above 30 kV up to 150 kV - Test
methods and requirements

92

IEC Cable Standards (Cont)


IEC 62067 Power cables with extruded
insulation and their accessories for rated
voltages above 150 kV up to 500 kV
IEC 60287 Calculation of the continuous
current rating of cables
IEC 60228 Conductors of insulated
cables

93

31

Insulated Cable Engineers


Association (ICEA)
The ICEA is an organization that develops
standards for electric power, control,
telecommunications, and portable cables
Established in 1925
Not-For-Profit association
Members are sponsored by about thirty
North American cable manufacturers
Works with cables only not accessories.

94

ICEA Document Types

Publications or Guides
ICEA

P-32-382-2007 Short-Circuit
Characteristics of Insulated Cable

Test Methods
ANSI/ICEA

T-31-610-2007 Test Method for


Conducting a Longitudinal Water Penetration
Resistance Test on Blocked Conductors

Standards
ANSI/ICEA

S-94-649-2004 Concentric Neutral


Cables Rated 5 Through 46 kV
95

ICEA MV Cable Standards for


Utilities
ANSI/ICEA S-94-649-2004 Concentric
Neutral Cables Rated 5 Through 46 kV
ANSI/ICEA S-97-682-2007 Utility Shielded
Power Cables Rated 5 Through 46 kV
ANSI/ICEA S-108-720-2004 Extruded
Insulation Power Cables Rated Above 46
Through 345 kV

96

32

Medium Voltage Cable


Overview
Manufacturing, Testing, Cable
Prep and Installation
Doble Tutorial, Boston

Background
Joe Zimnoch Jr
Sr Applications Engineer- Okonite
27 years
8 Years in HV Lab
Remainder in Application Engineering

March 31, 2011

Cable Design - Components

Conductors -Purpose

Conductor
Semiconducting Strand Screen
Insulation
Semiconducting Insulation Screen
Metallic Shield
Protective Covering
Jacket / Armor

In other words, why do we


have different conductor sizes?

Conductor Terminology

Conductors

Conductivity
100%
Copper
61%
Aluminum
16.6%
Steel
15%
Tin
8%
Lead
108%
Silver
Shapes Class B
Concentric Compressed - Compact
Other Classes C,D,H, ..

To provide a low resistance path for the flow of


current such that the
(1) cables temperature ratings are not
exceeded
(2) voltage regulation (drop) is within
acceptable limits

What are MCM and kcmil ?

Answer: Thousands of circular mils


M and k: M = Roman Numeral; MKS abbreviation for thousand
1 mil = 0.001 ( = 0.25 = 250 mils; 1 = 1000 mils)
CM and cmil = circular mil (area of a circle w/o )

If Area (sq in.) = r2

Then 1 circular mil = D2 (diameter of wire in mils squared)

Example
Thus for a solid #10 awg wire
Diameter = 0.1019 or 101.9 mils
CM area = (101.9)2 = 10,380 circular mils
AWG- American Wire Gauge

CMA Calculation for 500 MCM Conductor


For a 500 mcm (class B 37 x 0.1162)
Diameter of = 0.1162 or 116.2 mils
area of 1X = (116.2 mils)2 = 13,502 circular mils
(13,502 circular mils) x (37) = ~500,000 circular mils
500,000 circular mils = 500 mcm (or kcmil)
For a 500 mcm (class I 1225 x 0.0201)
Diameter of = 0.0201 or 20.1 mils
area of 1X = (20.1 mils)2 = 404 circular mils

Conductors - Classes
500 mcm
Class B 37 wires (116.2 mils/wire)
Class C 61 wires (90.5 mils/wire)
Class H 427 wires (34.2 mils/wire)
Class I 1225 wires (20.1 mils/wire)

(404 circular mils) x (1225) = ~500,000 circular mils


500,000 circular mils = 500 mcm (or kcmil)

EHB Excerpt, P. 1, Table 1.1


Conductor Size
#1

Circular Mil Area


(circular mils)
83,690

1/0

105,600

4/0

211,600

250 mcm

250,000

500 mcm

500,000

Conductors: Stranding Class B

Conductors Class B

1
1+6=7
1 + 6 + 12 = 19
1x, 7x, 19x, 37x, 61x, 91x, 127x, etc

Class B Conductor Stranding Types


All three have the SAME cross sectional area
i.e. all are 500 kcmil.

7 wires

19 wires

37 wires

#24-#2

#1 4/0

250-500 mcm

61 wires
750-1000 mcm
500 mcm (37 strand) Diameters Differences
0.813
0.788
(-3%)

0.736
(-10%)

Class B Conductor Stranding


Types
All three have the SAME cross sectional area i.e. all are 500 kcmil.
The main difference is that the concentric has a large amount of
space between the individual strands that is not accounted for in the
cross section area calculation. Conversely the compact round
conductor has very little trapped area between the strand
Trapped air

Compressed, Compact & Flex

NO Trapped
air

Cross sectional area of each conductor


500 kcmil
500 kcmil
500 kcmil

Rope Strand

350 kcmil
37 Ropes
24 wires/rope
37x34=888 wires total
1 wire OD=20 mils
202= 400 cm/wire
400 x 888=355 kcmil

500 mcm connector:


1 compressed conductor in one side
1 compact round conductor in the other side.

Flex

Compressed

Compact
Round, C/R

Compact vs. Compressed


in a Connector
When compressed into the same size
connector, both the compact conductor
AND compressed look almost identical
since they both have the same cross
sectional area (the area is based on the area
of EACH individual strand times the
number of strands.
The cross sectional area is NOT based on
the overall diameter of the conductor.

They were then crimped using 500 mcm


die and then cut across the crimps

Conductor A - crimped in 500


mcm connector

Conductor B - crimped in 500


mcm connector

Which is compact? A or B?

Which is compact? A or B?

A=Compact Conductor

400 mcm vs. 500 Connector

A=Compact Conductor
(notice SQUARED strands
on left side of picture)

B=Compressed Conductor
(notice ROUNDED strands
on left side of picture)

B=Compressed Conductor

500
mcm

400
mcm

Diff

Length

3.53

3.00

-0.53

OD

1.06

0.965

-0.095

ID 0.841

0.767

-0.074

Wall 0.110

0.100

-0.010

500 mcm c/r OD = 0.736

Why?
Connectors are designed based on compression
ratio.
The compression ratio is the area of the
conductor (not counting the air gaps between
the strands) and the area of the connector
before and after the crimp.
The area of the conductor (again not counting
the air gaps between the strands) is the same
for both the compressed and compact
conductor.

Connectors for
Pre-Molded Accessories
( Elbows, Tee-Bodies, Splices, etc)
Shorter crimp length
Heavy wall of rubber

Use connector/lug per


manufacturers recommendation.

Wire Drawing - Mechanical forming


by tension through a die.

TUNGSTAN CARBIDE DIE


5/16"ROD

SLIGHTLY SMALLER WIRE

PULL DIRECTION

American Wire Gauge (AWG)


In order to make a # 10 awg wire from
a 5/16 Cu or Al rod, the rod must be
drawn through - 10 die.
Likewise, a #24 awg must go through 24 die.

American Wire Gauge (AWG)

Industry standard for electrical wire.


Based on 40 sizes between #36 and 4/0.
OD of a 4/0 = 0.46 (~ 0.50)
OD of a #36 = 0.0050
Using geometric progression, the ratio OD
diameters is:
OR

Therefore an increase in AWG size increases OD by 12.3%

The End Result


A #10 awg has:

OD = 0.10
Area = 10, 380 circular mils
DC Resistance = 1 ohm/mft (copper)
Weight = 10 (or 31.4 lbs/mft)

Increasing or decreasing 10 awg sizes changes the


area, resistance and weight by a factor of 10.
#10 to #20
10, 380 to 1,020 cm
0.999 to 10.1 ohms/mft
31.4 to 3.1 lbs/mft

Not
Not - Function: adverb Etymology: Middle
English, alteration of nought, from nought,
1 used as a function word to make negative
a group of words or a word
2 used as a function word to stand for the
negative of a preceding group of words <is
sometimes hard to see and sometimes not>

5000 lbs coils (bales) of 5/16 copper rod in Paterson.

The Nots
You can determine the OD of 40 different sizes from
a #36 up to a 4/0. Using:
To determine the the OD of a #24, substitute 24 for n;
likewise for a #1, n = 1.
In order to determine the next larger size above #1
(remember there are 40 sizes) n = 0 (Or 1 zero aka
1/0).
Now for a 2/0 substitute n = -1, for 3/0 n = -2 and for
4/0 n = -3.
Calling the sizes -1,-2 and -3 does not play well, so
they are are called 1/0, 2/0, etc..

AWG Trivia
An increase of 1 AWG size
12.3% OD increase
26.1% Area increase

# 2 to #1 (solid)
257.6 mils * 1.123 = 289.3
66,360 cm * 1.261 = 83,680

An increase of 2 AWG sizes #14 to #12 (solid)


64.1 mils * 1.261 = 80.8
26.1% OD increase
4110 cm * 1.59 = 6,535
59 % Area increase
An increase in 2 AWG sized yields ~60% weight increase.
For example a #12 weighs 20.1 lbs/mft versus 12.66 for a #14.
Romex, 250 ft - 14/2 w/g $55
Romex, 250 ft - 12/2 w/g $84

5000 lbs bales of 5/16 copper rod in Santa Maria, CA

5000 lbs coils (bales) of 1/4 aluminum rod in Santa Maris, C

5/16 copper rod being paid off.

Copper rod thru die. Larger OD on Left; smaller on Right.

Multiple die w/Copper rod.

Multiple die w/Copper rod in action.


Oil and water mixture for cooling and lubrication

Empty shop reel (bobbin) being loaded w/drawn wire.

A #14 wires exits the drawing process at approx 4000 ft/minute.

Bobbins loaded w/drawn wire. Approx 600 lbs of wire per bobbin.

One wire fed into front of strander


6 wires spun around 1
12 wires spun around 7
etc..

Bobbin
loaded
onto head.

One wire fed into front of strander.

Wires being spun around center wire(s).

Close up of 6 wires being spun around center wire at closing die.

Close up of 18 wires being spun around center 19 wires.

Corona or Partial Discharge


In Air
A partial arc or
discharge to moisture,
dust, or grounded areas.
In a Cable
Discharge that can occur
off the conductor (sharp
points), between layers,
at a void or contaminate
and at the shield.
Finished conductor now ready to be insulated.

Corona Likes Sharp Points


800 kV AC
Transformer
Connected
to 230 kV
Pipe Cable
in 500 kV
Lab
Potheads.

Corona discharge off sharp points at 500 kV-AC. Used to


draw voltage upwards away from grounded base of pothead.

Insulation and Screens

Conductor Screen

EPR or XLPE
Insulation
Insulation Screen

Conductor, Conductor Screen, Insulation,


Insulation Screen, Shield/Neutral, Jacket

Equal Terms

Discharge-Free vs. Discharge Resistant


Discharge-Free

Discharge Resistant

Okonite

Company X

Company A
Company B

Vulcanizing
Curing
Cross-linking (XL)

Company C
Company D
Company J

All are equal terms:

Company F
Company G
Company H

to convert a rubber or plastic compound into a

Company M
Company J

Thermoset state

Thermoplastic
Can be melted back to liquid
Fair deformation resistance (memory)
Limited temperature rating (75C)
Thermoset
Cannot be melted back to liquid
Excellent deformation resistance (memory)
Higher temperature rating (90C to 105C)

Over Cooked Spaghetti Analogy

Thermoplastic
Melts back to its
original liquid form

Thermoset burns
but never reverts
back to its
original liquid form

Thermoset
Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)
Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE)
Tree Retardant Crosslinked Polyethylene (TR-XLPE)
Thermoplastic
Polyethylene (PE)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PVC/Nylon

Insulation Thicknesses
Voltage
Rating

Insulation Typical Materials

Insulation Thicknesses

100 %

133%

5 kV
(shielded)
15 kV

90 mils

115 mils

175 mils

220 mils

25 kV

260 mils

345 mils

35 kV

345 mils

420 mils

0.001= 1 mil, alternately


1 inch = 1000 mils

100 %

133 %

Relay Clears Relay Clears


< 1min.
< 1hour
For 3 phase
systems

For 3 phase
systems

173%

Indefinite

For delta systems


where one phase
may be indefinitely
grounded.

133% and 173% Insul Level


Protects Un-faulted Cables
when One Fails
When one cable fails, the voltage on the two
un-faulted cables may increase from 133 to
173% of the phase-to-ground voltage.
Depends if Wye or Delta and how balanced
the loads are.

Fault

Extrusion
Deformation process.
Shaping by pushing material through a die.
CYLINDER
DIE

RAM

EXTRUDED ROD, BAR, ANGLE, ETC..

LIQUID METAL, RUBBER, ETC..

Four Types of CV Tubes

ORANGEBURG
MANUFACTURING

CV Equipment

CV Curing Tube

CV Extrusion equipment located in peak of roof


CV curing tube runs length of building

Continuous Vulcanization (CV) Extrusion

CV Extrusion equipment located in peak of roof

CV Curing Tube
Curved

CV Curing Tube
Support Beam
Straight

CV curing tube runs length of building

Finished Cable Core:

Conductor
Conductor Screen
Insulation
Insulation Screen

CV Curing Tube
Curved to Accommodate
Catenary Shape of Cable

Why is a Shield Needed?


Controls stresses within the insulation
Permits thinner insulation
Confines field within shield
No potential on surface of cable
Controls discharge to ground
Above 2000 volts is when the above
becomes apparent.

Greater than 2000 VOLTS

5 kV NS at 4160 volts

Discharge from phase-to-phase

The 2005 NEC reduced rating from 5 to 2.4 kV for NS


Also completely eliminated 8 kV NS cables

5 kV NS at 4160 volts
Discharge
from
phase-tophase
and
phase-toground

Shielding

Confines the electrical field within the insulation.


Reduces the chance of electrical shock
Provides a symmetrical distribution of stress
Prevents surface discharge
Reduces electrical interference
Monitor voltage
Provides a path for fault currents
Can be used as a neutral
Can affect ampacity rating (circulating current)

Effect of Fault Current in


Shield on Jacket

Factors to Consider for Shield Design

Fault current capability


Use as neutral (single phase or 3 phase)
Shield voltage (single point grounding)
Shield circulating current (multi-point grdg)
and its effect on ampacity
Flexibility and minimum bending radius
Ease of making ground connections

Fault current returning to ground on the


shield will produce higher than normal heat.
Excessive heat can melt the overlying jacket.
A lower the resistance shield, produces less
heat.
Adding more copper (wires, tape, armor)
lowers the shield resistance.

Copper Tape Shield

Copper Tape and Wires

Flat Copper Straps


(PILC Replacement Cable)

Wire Shield or Concentric Neutral

Longitudinally Copper Shield (LCS)

Lead Sheath

Shield Fault Current Capability


Shield Design

Circular Mil Area


(CM)

Fault Capability
-10 cycles (kA)

5 Cu Tape, 12.5% lap

18,974

3.22

5 Cu Tape, 25% lap

20,494

3.48

5 Cu Tape, 50% lap

25,100

4.26

5 Cu LCS, overlap

31,000

5.26

6 x 20 x 175 Cu Straps

26,738

4.54

16 x 35 x 200 CS (90% Coverage)

32,870

5.58

11 x #14 wires (1/3rd N for 2/0 Cu)

45,197

7.67

18 x #14 wires (1/3rd N for 350 Al)

73,959

12.55

5 Cu Tape, 12.5% lap/Al Armor

103,423

17.55

0.095 Lead Sheath

511,100

86.74

1.25 core OD, thermoplastic jacket (constant=0.288)


Per Okonite EHB, Page 15

Single Conductor w/Armor

Shielding Types, Listed from


High Resistance to Low
Flat copper tape (High Resistance)
Longitudinally corrugated tape
(LCS) copper or bronze tape
Concentric Cu wires & Flat Straps
1/C Al. Armor-CLX
Lead sheath (Low Resistance)

GRAPHIC OF SINGLE POINT GROUND


Leakage I thru Insul is shunted to grd via shield. Current
thru shield resistance produces voltage.
MAGNETIC FIELD

SHIELD

CONDUCTOR

CURRENT FLOW

SHIELD
VOLTS
25 to 100 V

DISTANCE

a.k.a open circuited shield

Shielding Resistance dictates amt of circulating current

GRAPHIC OF MULTI-POINT
GROUND

TRANSFORMER EFFECT OF
MULTI-POINT GROUND

SHIELD

CONDUCTOR

CONDUCTOR

SHIELD

SHIELD
VOLTS

CONDUCTOR

SHIELD

0V
DISTANCE

a.k.a short circuited shield

a.k.a short circuited shield

Shield Circulating Current

Concentric Neutral (Shield)

When multi-point grounded acts like a


transformer.
The lower the shield R, the closer we approach
1:1.
If the shield R is of the conductor
resistance, theoretically as much as 50% of the
load current may circulate on the shield.

Acts as both a neutral and a shield.


Concentric wires return phase current
Full neutral for single phase (2/C
Cable)
1/3rd neutral for three phase

Scenario D (grounded at ONE point)

Concentric Neutral (Shield)

Acts as both a neutral and a shield.


Concentric wires return phase current
Full neutral for single phase (2/C Cable)
1/3rd neutral for three phase (return current
120 out of phase).
SINGLE PHASE
1/0 ALUM

1-1/C 500 kcmil Cu, 220 Okoguard, 1/3rd Neutral Cables per 3
duct, 3 ducts 7.5 on center

Ampacity = 583 amps


Losses = 29.16 watts/ft total

Scenario E (grounded multiple points)


1-1/C 500 kcmil Cu, 220 Okoguard, 1/3rd Neutral
Cables per 3 duct, 3 ducts 7.5 OC,

Ampacity = 424 amps


Losses = 31.19 watts/ft total

THREE PHASE
4/0 ALUM

ANY VOLTAGE

ANY VOLTAGE

1/0 AWG AL

Ampacity Comparison
Single Point
vs.
Multi-point
Grounding

1/0 AWG AL
4/0

16 x #14 WIRES EQUAL TO 1/0 AL

11 x #14 WIRES
- EQUAL TO 1/3RD
OF A 4/0 AL

Scenario A (3-1/Cs per Duct)

Comparison Triangular & Flat Spaced Configuration

3-1/C 500 kcmil Cu, 220 Okoguard, 1/3rd Neutral Cables

Ampacity = 449 amps


Losses = 25.47 watts/ft total

Scenario E (1/C per Duct)


1-1/C 500 kcmil Cu, 220 Okoguard, 1/3rd Neutral Cables
per 3 duct, 3 ducts 7.5 OC

Ampacity = 424 amps


Losses = 31.19 watts/ft total

Ampacity Comparison
1/C per Duct
vs.
3-1/Cs per Duct
(Both Multi-point grounded)

Source : NRECA

15 kV, Aluminum Condr, URD, Direct Buried, 1 Ckt,


Conductor Triangular Config
Flat Spcd Config
Size
75% LF 100% LF 75% LF 100% LF
1/0 (1/3)

207

187

231

206

4/0 (1/3)

308

276

340

301

350 (1/3)

405

362

430

376

500 (1/3)

488

432

499

431

750 (1/3)

593

521

578

494

1000 (1/6)

698

609

666

570

Soil=90 RHO, 90C Condr, 25C Soil


Use Flat Spacing for Small Conductor Installations

Shield/Neutral Summary
Controls voltage stress in the insulation.
Some shields can also be used as a neutral.
Multi-point grounding recommended to
reduce shield voltage and for safety.
Shield must also be designed to carry the
available phase-to-ground fault current
The more copper in the shield, the greater
the circulating current depending on the
physical arrangement and load current.

Jackets
Cable Jacket Nonmetallic Outer Covering
of a Cable
Two Broad Categories: Thermoset and
Thermoplastic
For each application, the operating
temperature and environment must be
considered

Types of Cable Jackets

Jacket Desired Characteristics

PHYSICAL
CHEMICAL
TEMPERATURE
MOISTURE
AGING
FLAME
SMOKE

Thermoplastic
PE (Polyethylene HD, MD, LD, LLD)
PP (Polypropylene aka living hinge)
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)
TP-CPE (Thermoplastic-Chlorinated Polyethylene)
TPPO (Thermoplastic Polyolefin - low smoke zero halogentransit industry)
Thermoset
Neoprene (PCP - Polychhloroprene)
Hypalon (CSPE Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene)
(discontinued)
TS-CPE (Thermoset-Chlorinated Polyethylene)
XLPO (Cross Linked Polyolefin - low smoke zero halogentransit industry)

Factory Tests

Factory Electrical Tests

DC Conductor Resistance
Insulation Resistance (Megger)
Shield Continuity
Corona (4 times operating; <5 pico Coulombs)
AC Withstand (200 v/mil, 5 minutes)

AC Withstand 5 Minutes
200 v/mil
Nominal
AC Test
Wall
Voltage
Thickness
(kV)
(mils)
5 kV-100%
90
18
5 kV-133%
115
23
5/8 kV-133/100%
140
28
15 kV-133%
175
35
15 kV-133%
220
44
25 kV-100%
260
52
28 kV-100%
280
56
25 kV-133%
320
64
28/35 kV-133/100%
345
69
35 kV-133%
420
84
200 v/mil x 220 mils = 44,000 v or 44 kV
Nominal Voltage
Rating

AEIC PARTIAL DISCHARGE REQUIREMENTS


Maximum Permissible Discharge
______________________________________________________________________
Stress as a Percent of Rated Voltage to Ground

150%

200%

250%

30

55

80

1975

20

35

50

1982

20

35

50

1973

300%

400%
80

1983 Okonite established internal flat line requirement


1987

10

1996

Cable
Prep

80%

80%

Knife Cuts = Termination Failures


High Voltage but Low Stress

High Stress Area/Near Ground

Wide SC Strips = Higher Stripping Tension

Outer Semicon Thickness-URD


Concentric Neutral Wires
Insul OD
(inches)
0-1.000

Min/Max
(mils)
30/60

1.001-1.5

40/75

1.501-2.0

55/99

Cable Sizes
(conductor/insul thickness)
#2 to 3/0,220
#1 to 2/0, 260
4/0 to 750, 220
3/0 to 500, 260
1/0 to 350, 345
1000, 220
750 to 1000, 260
500 to 1000, 345

Outer Semicon Thickness- Non-URD


Cu Tape, LCS, fine wires
Insul OD
(inches)
0-1.000

Min/Max
(mils)
24/60

1.001-1.5

32/60

1.501-2.0

40/75

Cable Sizes
(conductor/insul thickness)
#2 to 3/0,220
#1 to 2/0, 260
4/0 to 750, 220
3/0 to 500, 260
1/0 to 350, 345
1000, 220
750 to 1000, 260
500 to 1000, 345

Ripley Banana Peeler


(Semicon Scoring Tool)

Outer Semicon Thickness- Non-URD


Insul OD Min/
(inches) Max
(mils)
0-1.000 24/60
1.0011.5

32/60

1.5012.0

40/75

Cable Sizes
(conductor/insul
thickness)
#2 to 3/0,220
ICEA
#1 to 2/0, 260
now allows
4/0 to 750, 220
3/0 to 500, 260 24 mils
1/0 to 350, 345ALL SIZES
1000, 220
750 to 1000, 260
500 to 1000, 345

Olfa 300 Cutter

Speed Systems Spiral Semicon


Scoring Tool

Question?
A

Pull Direction ?
A to B ?
B to A ?

Triplexed (twisted) Cable on Reel

Paralleled (side-by-side) Cable on


One Reel

Cradled

Triplexed or Triangular

Cradled When cables are pulled in parallel.


Triplexed When cables are twisted together at factory.
Triangular When cables pulled in parallel, but with a
percent fill that is greater than 40%.

If the maximum pulling tension is


exceeded, the strands next to the
pulling eye can elongate and break.
It is possible to exceed the max
pulling tension and not damage the

Maximum Pulling Tension Calculation


Tmax = 0.008 x n x CMA

Maximum Pulling Tension Limits

{For 1/C or Triangular}

and

Tension, Lbs
Conductor Size

Tmax = 0.008 x (n-1)x CMA {For Cradled}


where,

No. of Conductors

AWG

Cir. Mils

n=1

n=2

n=3

66,360

530

1060

1595

83,690

670

1340

2010

0.008 is the maximum force per circular mil area that can be
exerted on the conductor without exceeding the tensile strength of
the conductor.

1/0

105,600

845

1690

2535

2/0

133,100

1065

2130

3195

3/0

167,800

1342

2684

4026

Examples

4/0

211,600

1693

3386

5079

250 mcm

250,000

2000

4000

6000

350 mcm

350,000

2800

5600

8400

500 mcm

500,000

4000

8000

10000

For 3-1/C 350 mcm - Triangular


Tmax = 0.008 x 3 x 350,000
Tmax = 8400 lbs
For 3-1/C 350 mcm - Cradled
Tmax = 0.008 x (3-1) x 350,000
Tmax = 5600 lbs

EXAMPLES
OF
COMPRESSION TYPE
PULLING EYES AND BOLTS

Pulling eye.
Pulling bolt.

750 mcm

750,000

6000

10,000

10000

1000 mcm

1,000,000

6000

10,000

10000

1250 mcm

1,250,000

6000

10,000

10000

1500 mcm

1,500,000

6000

10,000

10000

2000 mcm

2,000,000

6000

10,000

10000

Pipe Cable
Pull

Max Tension Limits


1 conductors = 6000 lbs
2 or more conductors = 10,000 lbs

3-1/C Pulling Bolts in Yoke

3/C Common Pulling Eye

Maximum Pulling Tension


Limit Pulling Grips
to
1000 lbs per Grip
Not just pulling on conductor
Pulling on jacket, shield and
insulation also.
Damage can occur to these
other layers.
Where the damage starts or
stops cannot be determined.

3/C Common
Pulling Eye

Condux
Re-useable Pulling Eye

Re-Usable Pulling Eye Graphic

Completed

Tapping in Wedge

3 and 4 Conductor Sling

3 and 4 Conductor Sling


Attached to Common Head

Dynamometer set-up on pull. Complicated:


Most measure angles and distances then input into
formula.

Line
Tensiometer

Sidewall Pressure
Simplified
For Single Conductor:

SWP = Tout/rbend
Expressed in Lbs/foot of radius

SWP on Rope
1000 LBS/1 ft=
1000 lbs/ft of radius

Kirk

Smaller Radius = Higher SWP


Larger Radius = Lower SWP

1000 LBS

SWP on Rope
1000 LBS/10 ft=
100 lbs/ft of radius
George

1000 LBS

Shield Damage from


Over-bending
Copper Tape Shield
Damage from excessive sidewall
pressure.
Shield can cut into insulation and
cause failure.

Simple Min Bend Radii Gauge

NEC fill limits were designed to prevent fire hazards. They did not
want an electrician installing 20 - #12 wires in a conduit and
creating a fire.

Percent Fill Calc

3-1/C 500 mcm, 15 kV in 5 Duct


Cable OD = 1.49
Duct ID = 5.047
A = R2 -or- D2
4

Area Cable = ((1.49)2/4) x 3 = 5.23 sq inch


Area Duct = (5.047)2 = 20 sq inch, EHB p39, T 7-1
Fill = 5.23/20 x 100 = 26.15 %

Percent Fill Calc

3-1/C 500 mcm, 15 kV in 4 Duct


Cable OD = 1.49
Duct ID = 4.026
A = R2 -or- D2
4

Area Cable = ((1.49)2/4) x 3 = 5.23 sq inch


Area Duct = (4.026)2 =12.72sq inch, EHB p39, T 7-1
Fill = 5.23/12.72 x 100 = 41.16 %

Effects of Duct Size


3-1/C 500 mcm Cu, 90C in 4 PVC,
36 to Top of Duct

Insulation
Thkns
175 mils
220 mils
580 mils

508 amps
509 amps
510 amps

Cable Clearance (min )

Utilities are not bound by NEC % Fill Limits. They


use cable clearance.

Jam Ratio in Round Duct

JR=2.8

JR=3.2

In Round Duct it does not make sense:


at 2.8 there is not enough room for them to jam
at 3.2 there is enough room for the three of them
So why ????

JAM RATIO (ELONGATED DUCT)


Conduit Manufacturers are permitted, per industry
standards, to make sweeps as much as 10% out of
round or Elongated.

JR=2.8

JR=3.2

In Elongated Sweeps:
at 2.8 there is enough room for them to jam in the vertical direction
at 3.2 there is enough room for them to jam in the horizontal direction

Jamming
If the jam ratio falls between 2.8 and 3.2, it does
not mean the cables will automatically jam; it just
means there is a possibility of jamming.
The tendency to jam increases with pull length and
the number of bends. Both of these increase
tension.
Remember, each bend increases tension
significantly.
It is always better to set up a pull with the majority
of the bends closest to the feed location (reel).

Preventing Cable Jamming


There are two ways of preventing cable
jamming:

Change cable or conduit


size to avoid 2.8 3.2 Ratio
Install Triplexed cable.

Triplexed
Cable

Jam Ratio
and

Typical Pull Orientations

% Fill
and
Weight
Correction
Factor, c

Coincidentally, percent
fill values between 29
and about 40% usually
land up in the 2.8 to 3.2
Jam Ratio range.

Straight Section

T=LxWxCxf
T = Tension at pulling eye (lbs)
L = Length of run (ft)
W = Weight of cable (lbs/ft)
C = Weight correction factor
f = Coefficient of friction

Straight Pull
Bends (Sweeps)
Incline
Vertical

Coefficient of Friction (f)


The friction that exists between the
cable jacket and the duct surface
f = 0.50 for dry cable
f = 0.35 for well lubricated cable
f = Ff/Fn (Ff = force to move object/Fn = weight of object)

Weight Correction Factor (C)


Adjusts the cables weight to account for the
number of cables in contact with the duct
Also adjusts for the force exerted by the
cable to the adjacent cables
Typical Values

Cradled = 1.44
Triangular = 1.22

Weight Correction Factor adjusts


the equation to account for number
of cables in contact with duct

C=1

C = 1.44

C = 1.22

Weight Correction Factor


d
c = 1 + 4/3

D-d
1
Triangular: c =
d 2
1-

D-d
d=Cable OD
D=Conduit ID

Cradled:

Bends (Sweeps)
Friction between cable and duct increases as
cable traverses bend
Act as tension multipliers
Tension increases exponentially due to
change in direction
Analogy: Tension in household extension
cord increases as it is pulled around edge of
doorway

Bends and Sweeps

Tension Out of a Bend

cfa
e
Tout = Tin
Tout = Tension out of the bend (lbs)
Tin = Tension into bend (lbs)
e = Naperian Log Base (2.7180)
f = Coefficient of friction
a = angle of bend (radians)

cfa
Values of e
For Conduit Bends
cf
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.85

30
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.30
1.37
1.48

45
1.27
1.33
1.37
1.48
1.60
1.80

60
1.37
1.45
1.52
1.69
1.88
2.20

90
1.60
1.74
1.88
2.20
2.57
3.25

Bend Multiplier Effect


.

Hi f
Hi C

90 Bend

Question?
A

Pull Direction ?
A to B ?
B to A ?

Each bend, approximately,


doubles the amount of
tension, thus if the cable is
pulled trough the bends
early in the pull, the
tension that is multiplied is
much smaller.

Answer - A to B

1000 lbs IN

3250 lbs OUT

cfa
Tout = Tin e
Tout =1000 lbs x (3.25
)
Tout = 3250 lbs
200

Quadrant block
Roller assemblies are
designed to fit
through the chimney
of the manhole.

Multi-wheel Sheaves
Larger Radii, can fit thru
MH openings

HIS Quad Block Rollers

Model No.
HQB18R
HQB24R
HQB30R
HQB36R
HQB48R
HQB60R

Radius
18''
24''
30''
36''
48''
60''

Sheaves
5-6x5
6-6x5
5-12x7
5-12x7
6-12x7
7-12x7

1 Wheel Sheaves Sizes and Radii


One wheel sheaves
are categorized by
DIAMETER, not
RADIUS. Thus a 1
ft DIAMETER
sheave will have a
true RADIUS of only
4 inches.
Wheel Diameter

Actual Radius

1 ft

4 inches

1.5 ft

7 inches

2 ft

10 inches

A well lubricated (triplexed) cable.

Lubricating cable with a pump.

Power driven lube pump.

Creative Cable Lubing


Homemade Mop & Coco Mat

Hand type lube pump.

Swivels

Swivel Photo

Always use a swivel


Swivels on basket grips (socks) do not
rotate under load
Ball bearing types are recommended
The working load should be greater than the
maximum allowable pulling tension
Swivels that do not spin are NOT
recommended-some pulling line suppliers
supply these to prevent twisting of their
wire rope or line.
Install with short end toward pulling line.

Basket Grip with Ball Bearing Swivel attached

Back-Out or Z-ing
Swivels that are part of the
Basket Grip do not spin
when tension is applied.

Ball Bearing Swivel

Cable Backing Out of the Reel

Cable that backs out of test hole on reel is


referred to as Back-Out.
Caused by allowing loose winds to develop
on reel. Slight back-tension should be used.
If cable is restricted at test hole, cable will
bunch up on drum in a Z pattern, a.k.a. Zing.
Also influenced by jacket type, drum
type/smoothness and cable stiffness.

Eliminate the loose turns and reduce cable loss

Z-ing

Roll This Way See Arrow


If rolled in this direction, cable gets tight,
wrong way loosens cable.

Z-ing
Z-ing

Z-ing

Z-ing
(knuckles)

No Loose Winds

Paying Off Bottom -Zero Backout

Equipment
Elaborate
Reel Brake
Using
Disc Brake
Simple Reel Brake/Tensioner
18

Tree Cable
Tree Cable

Summary
Pull thru max number of bends as early as possible
(when possible).
Use sweeps with larger radius on difficult pulls to
minimize SWP .
Use plenty of lube.
Use BB Swivels.
Dispose of a few feet of cable adjacent to basket
grip.
If unsure of pull, perform a pulling tension calc in
both directions.

Available
as a binder
or CD

A Program for Cable Pulling Tension Calculation


and Conduit System Design
DESCRIPTION
Pull-Planner 3000 for Windows calculates cable pulling tension and
sidewall pressure around bends using the pulling equations. Tension
estimates are useful in designing conduit systems and planning cable
pulls.

USE YOUR HEAD WISELY WHEN INSTALLING CABLE

Pull-Planner

Cable Pulling
Software

Reel Trouble
Oops!!!

Conductor
The conductor is really a
resistor. If you put amps
thru it, heat will be
produced, but how much?
Conductor
Size
#10
1/0
1000

Aluminum
DC Resistance
@ 25C
(ohms/1000)
1.7
0.168
0.0177

Okonite EHB Table 1-3

Copper
DC Resistance
@ 25C
(ohms/1000)
1.04
0.102
0.0108

Watts Generated by Conductor


#1 Al, at 90 C with 100 amps

Rdc(ac) = 0.211 ohms/1000 at 25C


adjust to 90C (EHB Table 1-4)
0.211 x 1.258 = 0.265
W = I2 x R
= 1002 x 0.265
= 5,300 watts/1000
or
5.3 watts/ft (approx 5 100w light bulbs/1000)

Dielectric Losses (N-M Eq 36)


WD = 0.00276 x E2 x SIC x Pwr Factor
Log10 Di/Dc
= 0.00276 x (15/3)2 x 2.9 x 0.0024
Log10 0.460/0.90

Chart of Ohmic Losses


#1 Al@90C w/Full Neutral
Conductor Losses
Neutral Losses
Total Losses

D-Loss is negligible compared to Ohmic Losses

Watts/1000 ft
5660
5379
1104

Equal to 11 100 watt light bulbs every 1000 ft.

Chart of Losses w/Values


TR-XLPE

Okoguard (EPR)

Dielectric Losses

0.00007

0.00514

Conductor Losses

5.66

5.66

Neutral Losses

5.379

5.379

Total Losses

11.03907

11.04414

Difference
% Difference

E = 0.0051 w/ft

Watts/ft
5.66
5.379
11.04

0.00507 watts/1000
--

+ 0.046/1000

#1 Al, 220, Full Neutral, @13.8 kV, 90C


Therefore the difference is less than 5 thousandths of a watt
(or 5 hundredths of one percent) per 1000 installed feet per year.
Or a 0.0051 watt light bulb per 1000

3M Company

Medium Voltage Accessories Design, Standards, and Installation

Sandy Cox
EMD Technical Service

1
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Agenda
Termination Theory & Design Considerations
Splice Theory & Design Considerations
Installation What is critical?

2
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Good cable prep is critical to the reliable


operation of any medium voltage accessory
regardless of the manufacturer of the
cable OR the accessory.

3
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

SHIELDED POWER CABLE


COMPONENTS
1. Conductor
2. Strand Shield
3. Insulation
Insulation Shield
4. Semi-conducting Layer
5. Metallic Shield
6. Jacket

4
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Corona (Partial Discharge)

5
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6
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Strand Shield: The semi-conducting layer that


acts as a Faraday Cage to shield the insulation
from air surrounding the conductor strands

7
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Insulation: Intended to contain the voltage

8
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9
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Semi-Con: Intended to shield the insulation from


the air that is between the insulation and metallic
shield

10
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Metallic Shielding: Connected to ground and in


direct contact with semi-con

11
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Jacket: Intended to provide physical protection


and keep moisture out of the cable

12
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

SPLICING & TERMINATING


What Cable Info Do I Need?

Voltage Class (and insulation level)? _____________


Conductor Size (and Copper or Aluminum)? ________________
Cable Type (type of shield, armor, 3/C, etc.)?_______
Location (indoor, outdoor, manhole, pole, etc.)? ____
Other? ______________________________________

13
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Definition of a Termination
To terminate a shielded power cable
means to discontinue, or end, its
insulation shield.
Cable Shield Terminus

Semi-Conducting Shield Layer


14
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Functions of a Class 1 Termination


(per IEEE-48 Standard)
To provide Electrical Stress Control for the
cable shield terminus.
To provide External Leakage Insulation
between the high voltage conductor and ground.
(Tracking protection.)
To provide a Seal against the environment, as
well as to help maintain the pressure, if any,
within the cable system.
15
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

I. Electric Stress Control for


Cable Shield Terminus

Stress Concentration
Near Cable Shield End
16
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Electrical Stress
ELECTRICAL STRESS is the
concentration of electrical
potential (voltage) over a
defined distance.
TYPICAL UNITS: V/mil or kV/cm

When splicing or terminating, the


stress must be controlled and
minimized
17
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Geometrical Stress-Control
A stress-cone is used to reduce the stress at the shield
discontinuity by extending the shield and gradually increasing
the thickness of insulation under the shield.

18
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Dielectric (High-K) Stress Control


A device made with High-K (dielectric constant)
material is used to reduce stress at shield
discontinuity by field refraction due to the
difference in K values of two neighboring
dielectric layers.

19
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20
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Example: Snells Law of Refraction

21
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Electric Flux Refraction at Dielectric


Interface
Insulation
K2

Insulation
K1

K 2 > K1

Tan

Tan

K2
K1

22
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Hi-K Stress Control

23
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80%

80%

24
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Void Filling at Semicon Step


Important for partial
discharge values
With right void filling
material can greatly reduce
surface stress on
termination
Hi K mastic and tube both
refract the stress, but both
are also electrical insulation
Stress control tube
25

Stress control mastic


3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

II. External Leakage Insulation between H.V.


Conductor and Ground (Tracking Protection)
TRACKING: The irreversible degradation
of surface material due to formation of
conductive carbonized paths
SURFACE TRACKING: The progressive
formulation of conducting Carbon Paths
from decomposition of electrical insulation
and Organic Contaminants caused by
Electrical Surface Discharges.
26
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Tracking
Three conditions must exist in order for tracking to take place:
CONTAMINATION

MOISTURE

- Dust

- Humidity

- Chemicals
- Salt
- Other Airborne Particles

VOLTAGE

Fog
Condensation
Mist
Snow
Rain

- Surface Stress (V/mil)


27
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Factors In Surface Degradation


(Loss in Surface Resistivity)
Sunshine

Dew, or
Light Rain

Frost

UV
Cosmic Rays
Surface
Degradation

Rapid Changes
In Temperature
Differential
Thermal
Expansion

Temperature
Rise: Chemical
Degradation
Acceleated
Increased

Rapid Changes
In Temperature
Differential
Thermal
Expansion

Crazing and Cracking


Greater Absorption of Contamination

Chemical Degradation

Surface Contamination
Hydophobicity Affected

Dust

Carbon Particles

Abrasion
Electric
Stress

Soluble Matter
SO 2, NH3, NO 2
Salt Spray
Surfacing Conduction
Heating & Evaporation
Dry Band Formation

Electron & Ion


Bombardment

Erosion
Surface Wets Hydrofillic

Heavy Rain
May Clean
Surfaces

Fog

High
Relative
Humidity
May
Reduce
Flashover
Voltage
Across
Insulators
Surface
Wets

Stress
Concentration
Surface Discharges
Hydrofillic

Flashover

Chemical Degradation
To Carbon

TRACKING

28
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Methods of Protecting Against Tracking Damage


1. Increase Distance from HV to Ground
2. Rain Shed (Insulator Skirts)
3. Track Resistant Materials
Porcelain
Inorganic Fillers in Rubber
Inorganic Fillers in EVA (Heat Shrink)
Silicone Rubber
4. Use Hydrophobic Materials
29
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30
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10

Silicone is Hydrophobic

31
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Water Also Beads-Up on Silicone When


Aged & Contaminated

Coated with ASTM D-2132


Contaminant

32
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Material Benefits Silicone Rubber


1.

Silicone is Hydrophobic. Inherently Track-resistant.

2.

Silicone can recover its Hydrophobicity.

3.

Silicone is inherently UV-Stable.

4.

Silicone is mostly Inorganic No conducting


carbon path.

5.

Silicone has a smooth surface.

33
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11

III. A Seal to the External Environment


Must seal at the top and the bottom of the
termination
IEEE-48 standard new requirement for sealing
Termination placed underwater and current cycled
on for 8 hours and off for 16 hours each cycle for ten
cycles. Then termination removed from water and
electrically tested with partial discharge and AC
withstand test

34
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

External Environmental Seal


QT-II Silicone
Tape Seal

QT-III Top Seal


Mastic

35
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Benefits of Cold Shrink


No tools needed for installation
Low installation force
Good interfacial pressure
Live seal
Broad application range
Environmentally stable materials

36
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12

Factors Affecting Termination Performance


As seen, many things can affect the
performance of terminations
We try to balance those issues to provide a
high performing long life termination

37
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Splice Theory
Splice design is totally different than termination
design
A splice moves the stress from cable to splice and
back to cable instead of trying to control the stress
as it enters the air
A splice basically rebuilds the cable layers
Considerations for the three main areas of a splice
electrode, insulation, and semi-con

38
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Splicing
A splice can be defined as two or more conductors
joined with a suitable connector and reinsulated,
reshielded, and rejacketed with compatible materials
applied to a properly prepared surface.

Or simply, Rebuilding the cable!

39
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

13

SHIELDED POWER CABLE


COMPONENTS
1. Conductor
2. Strand Shield
3. Insulation
Insulation Shield
4. Semi-conducting Layer
5. Metallic Shield
6. Jacket

40
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Connector -- Connector Shield (Electrode)


Forms a faraday cage around the connector and portions of
the cable beyond the connector.
Eliminates Dielectric Stresses in Region Around Connector
Provides Favorable Geometry for Electric Field Control Around
Connector

41
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42
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

14

Insulation
z

Provides dielectric integrity in areas of intense


electric stress associated with the disruption and
compression of the electric field.
Good dielectric insulating properties
Good thermal conductivity properties
Provides and maintains the integrity of all interfaces
4 Bonded internal interfaces
4 Cable insulation interface
4 Additional internal splice interfaces
-- Adapters
-- Multiple layers
Excellent long-term physical properties

43
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Electrical Stress Design Criteria


The maximum stress in the splice should be no
greater than the maximum stress in the cable
The maximum interfacial stress should be no greater
than half the maximum stress over the
connector shield
The maximum stress over the connector shield
should be approximately equal to two-thirds the
maximum cable stress

44
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Geometric Splice Field Plot

Special Electrode Design - Minimizes electrical stress


- Undercut electrode end - places higher stresses within
45
splice insulation, not along cable interface
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

15

Molded Rubber Splice


Interface Length
Too Long
- Excessive Splice Length
- High Installation Force
- Increased Factory Cost
Too Short
- Unacceptable Stress
- Low Reliability
46
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25 kV Splice Interfacial Stress

47
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

Insulation
Insulation thickness should be such that there will be
an average of about 30 to 40 volts/mil electrical
stress through the insulation
This will vary some with the dielectric constant of the
material and the cleanliness of the material

48
3M 2008. All Rights Reserved.

16

QSIII-5418 Connector
Temperature Profile
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116

Conductor
61

49

53

57

37

41

45

25

29

33

13

17

21

112

114

Conductor

Peak reading/day
61 days

Conductor
Connector
Connector

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Shield
Maintains continuity of the cable
shielding system
Electric field containment
Safety
Provides geometry for electric
field control
Ensures adequate ground path for
fault protection
Provides critical environmental seals
for the splice-cable interface
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Components of QS-III Cold Shrink Splice

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Why Cold Shrink for a medium voltage splice?


Constant pressure on cables/connector
Studies have shown that higher interface pressure
provides better electrical performance
Good seal between cable and splice
Lower interfacial electrical stress
Higher impulse Voltage levels
3M invented Cold Shrink 40+ years ago

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Why silicone rubber for a medium voltage


Cold Shrink splice?
Long Term Elasticity Properties - for Good Cold Shrink
Performance
Stability of Electrical Properties - for Maintaining Properties
From Stretched Storage to Final Installation
Flexible Splice Body moves with cable, even at low
temperatures (installed at -35 C)
High Temperature Rating - Class H (180 C)

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More Real-World Things to Consider


Length of the Electrode

Connector growth

Crimping tools

Length of the Insulation Interface

Manufacturing tolerances

Length of the Semi-conductive End-Seals

Bend in cable

Cable prep dimensions

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Separable Connectors (Elbows and Tee Bodies)

Separable connectors are


molded similar to premolded
splices
Electrode, Shell, Insulation
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History of Medium Voltage Accessories

First were tape joints and terminations over 50 years ago


Pre-molded push on joints developed in early 1970s
First cold shrink patent issued in 1970
First cold shrink termination in 1976
Cold shrink joint first released in 1993
Totally integrated termination released in 1996
QSIII splices released in 1997

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Common Elements
Critical Issues

Preparation of the cable

Conductor connections

Protection from the environment

Stress Control

Premolded splices and some cold shrink use geometric


stress control.
Heat shrink splices and some cold shrink ones use high
dielectric stress control

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Workmanship
Good cable preparation is the key to all accessories
performing properly
Dimensional tolerances are typically plus or minus
0.25 for most accessories.
Uniformity of shrinking is critical for electrical
performance.
Poor practices still persist even after many initiatives
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Electrical Tests on Accessories


Terminations IEEE-48

Tee bodies IEEE-386

Splices IEEE-404

Connectors ANSI C119.4

Factory tests are required

premolded splices, elbows and tee bodies

Factory tests are NOT required

tape splices, heat shrink splices, terminations are any field


assembled accessories.

Factory tests

Partial Discharge

1 min AC withstand.

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CABLE PREPARATION
Medium Voltage
Shielded Power Cables
Dimension A

Tape Marker
Clean

Cable
Semi-con

Metallic
Shield

Cable Jacket

Conductor
O.D.

Primary
Insulation

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Electrical Markets Division

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SPLICING & TERMINATING


What Cable Info Do I Need?

Voltage Class (and insulation level)? _____________


Conductor Size (and Copper or Aluminum)? ________________
Cable Type (type of shield, armor, 3/C, etc.)?_______
Location (indoor, outdoor, manhole, pole, etc.)? ____
Other? ______________________________________

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Thank you for your time!


Questions???

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3M is a trademark of 3M Company.
Important Notice
Before using this product, you must evaluate it and determine if it is suitable for your intended
application. You assume all risks and liability associated with such use.

Warranty; Limited Remedy; Limited Liability.


3Ms product warranty is stated in its Product Literature available upon request. All items
made by others and specified by such brand which are included in any of 3Ms products or
enclosed in a 3M package are warranted only to the extent specifically stated by the
manufacturer of such item(s). 3M MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If this product is defective within the warranty period
stated above, your exclusive remedy shall be, at 3Ms option, to replace or repair the 3M
product or refund the purchase price of the 3M product. Except where prohibited by law,
3M will not be liable for any indirect, special, incidental or consequential loss or
damage arising from this 3M product, regardless of the legal theory asserted.

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3M Company

3M Electrical Markets Division


6801 River Place Blvd.
Austin, TX 78726-9000
www.3m.com/electrical

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