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# 6.

## Lecture 12 - Sub-threshold MOSFET Operation - Outline

Announcement
Hour exam two: in 2 weeks, Thursday, Nov. 5, 7:30-9:30 pm

Review

## MOSFET model: gradual channel approximation

iD

(Example: n-MOS)
0
for (vGS VT)/ 0 vDS (cutoff)
K(vGS VT)2 /2
for 0 (vGS VT)/ vDS (saturation)
K(vGS VT vDS/2)vDS for 0 vDS (vGS VT)/ (linear)

## with K (W/L)eCox*, VT = VFB 2p-Si + [2Si qNA(|2p-Si| vBS)]1/2/Cox*

and = 1 + [(Si qNA/2(|2p-Si| vBS)]1/2 /Cox (frequently 1)
The factor : what it means physically

## Sub-threshold operation - qualitative explanation

Looking back at Lecture 10 (Sub-threshold electron charge)

## Quantitative sub-threshold modeling

iD,sub-threshold((0)), then iD,s-t(vGS, vDS)
[with vBS = 0]

## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Lecture 12 - Slide 1

Final comments on

The Gradual Channel result ignoring and valid for v BS " 0, and v DS # 0 is:
iG (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0, iB (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0, and
0
iD (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) =

K
2
[vGS " VT (v BS )]
2
#
v &
K $vGS " VT (v BS ) " DS ' v DS % 2 ( for ! for ## [vGS " VT (v BS )] < 0 <v DS 0 < [vGS " VT (v BS )] <v DS for ## 0 <v DS < [vGS " VT (v BS )] with K ) W * * e Cox and Cox ) *ox t ox L We noted last lecture that these simple expressions without are easy to ## remember, and refining them to include involves easy to remember substitutions: v DS " # v DS L "#L K "K # ! What we haven't done yet is to look at itself, and ask what it means. What is it physically? 1/xDT(VBS) G ! * Cox +$Si qN A 2$Si 2% p&Si & v BS ox 1$SiqN A
ox/tox
" # 1+ *
=
*
Cox 2 2% p&Si & v BS
Cox
Si
Si/xDT
*
*
"Si x DT
"Si t ox
CDT
CDT
B
= 1+
= 1+
= 1+ * = *
"ox t ox
"ox x DT
Cox CGB
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09
Lecture 12 - Slide 2

## MOS Capacitors: the gate charge as vGB is varied

qG* [coul/cm2]
"2
2Cox
vGB $VFB ) ( #SiqN A %' ( " qG = 1+$1**
"
'
Cox &
#SiqN A
)

"
qG" = Cox
(vGB # VT )

Inversion
Layer
Charge

+ qN AP X DT

qNAPXDT

Depletion
Region
Charge

VFB
"
qG" = Cox
(vGB # VFB )

## The charge expressions:

"
, Cox
(vGB # VFB )
.
"2
. %SiqN A &
2Cox
vGB # VFB ) )
(
"
( 1+
qG (vGB ) = #1++
"
(
%SiqN A
. Cox '
*
. C " (v # V ) + qN X
/ ox GB
T
A DT
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

vGB [V]

VT

Accumulation
Layer Charge

"
Cox
#

for

vGB $VFB for VFB$ vGB $VT ! VT$ vGB

for

## This version is only valid, however, when |(x)| -p.

When |(x)| > -p we have accumulation and inversion layers,
and we assume them to be infinitely thin sheets of charge,
i.e. we model them as delta functions.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Lecture 12 - Slide 4

## Poisson's Equation calculation of gate charge

Calculation compared with depletion approximation
model for tox = 3 nm and NA = 1018 cm-3:

tox,eff 3.2 nm

tox,eff 3.3 nm

## We'll look in this

vicinity today.
We've ignored
sub-threshold
charge in our
MOSFET i-v
modelling thus
far.

Lecture 12 - Slide 5

## MOS Capacitors: Sub-threshold charge

Assessing how much we are neglecting
Sheet density of electrons below threshold in weak inversion
In the depletion approximation for the MOS we say that the
charge due to the electrons is negligible before we reach
threshold and the strong inversion layer builds up:
*
qN (inversion ) (vGB ) = "Cox
(vGB " VT )

dx x= 0
&Si

## With this linear approximation to (x) we can do the integral

and find

qN (sub"threshold ) (vGB ) # q

kT n(0)
kT
= "q
q a
q

$ox This has been done and is plotted along with the strong inversion layer charge above threshold on the following foil. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 7 ## Foil 12 from Lecture 10 ## Sub-threshold electron charge, cont. 6 mV ## Neglecting this charge in the electrostatics calculation resulted in only a 6 mV error in our estimate of the threshold voltage value. Today we will look at its impact on the sub-threshold drain current. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 8 ## MOSFETs: Conventional strong inversion operation, VGS > VT vGS > V T +G S n+ vDS > 0 D i D n+ p-Si vBS + B High concentration of electrons in a strong inversion layer drifting to the drain because of field due to v DS . ## n-type surface channel; drift flux from source to drain In our gradual channel approximation modeling we have assume a high conductivity n-type channel has been induced under the gate. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 9 ## MOSFETs: Sub-threshold operation, VGS <~ VT vGS ~ < V T +G S n+ vDS > 0 D i D n+ p-Si A small number of electrons surmount the barrier and diffuse to drain. vBS + B ## The electrons diffuse and do not feel v DS until they get to the edge of the depletion region. No surface channel; diffusion flux from source to drain when vDS > 0 For any vGB > VFB some electrons in the source can surmount the barrier and diffuse to the drain. Though always small, this flux can become consequential as vGS approaches VT. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 10 ## MOSFETs: Sub-threshold operation, VGS <~ VT What do we mean by "consequential"? When is this current big enough to matter? There are at least three places where it matters: ## 1. It can limit the gain of a MOSFET linear amplifier. In Lecture 21 we will learn that we achieve maximum gain from MOSFETs operating in strong inversion when we bias as close to threshold as possible. This current limits how close we can get. ## 2. It is a major source of power dissipation and heating in modern VLSI digital ICs. When you have millions of MOSFETs on an IC chip, even a little bit of current through the half that are supposed to be "off" can add up to a lot of power dissipation. We'll see this in Lecture 16. ## 3. It can be used to make very low voltage, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In Lecture 25 we'll talk about MIT/TI research on sub-threshold circuits with 0.3 V supplies and using W's of power. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 11 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs: finding iD ## Begin by considering the device illustrated below: G -tox 0 n+ n+ tn+ 0 ## - Set vGS = VFB, and vDS = vBS = 0. - The potential profile vs. y, (y) at any x between 0 and tn+ is then: -tox 0 vGS = VFB n+ vDS = 0 n+ tn+ x (y) n+ vBS = 0 ## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 B L 0 p Lecture 12 - Slide 12 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - Now consider (y) when vGS = VFB, vBS = 0. and vDS > 0: -tox S 0 vGS = VFB vDS > 0 (y) n++ vDS n+ n+ vDS n+ tn+ x vBS = 0 0 B L ## - So far this is standard MOSFET operating procedure. We could apply a positive voltage to the gate and when it was larger than VT we would see the normal drain current that we modeled earlier. Rather than do this, however, consider forward biasing the substrate-source diode junction, I.e, vBS > 0 Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 13 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - Apply vBS > 0, keep the same vDS > 0, and adjust vGS such that ## the potential at the oxide-Si interface, (0,y), equals p + vBS. - Now consider (x,y): ## vGS s.t. (0,y) = p + vBS -tox S Electron Injection and Diffusion n+ (y) vDS > 0 n+ n+ tn+ x n++ vDS vBS > 0 0 B L vBS p',n' ## - With this biasing the structure is ## being operated as a lateral BJT! ## The drain/collector current is: De iD /C " W t n +qn i2 e qv BS / kT #1 N Ap Leff Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 p+ vBS p n'(0+) = npo(eqvBS/kT-1) ## - This is not sub-threshold operation yet. y Lecture 12 - Slide 14 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - Now again make vBS = 0, but keep the same vDS and vGS so that the potential at the oxide-Si interface, (0,y), is still > p. ## - Now (x,y) is different for 0 < x < xD, (0,y) and xD < x < tn+: n++ vDS vGS s.t. (0,y) > p G vDS > 0 D -tox S -p n+ 0 (x) xD Injection n+ n+ tn+ x (x)-p p vBS = 0 0 B L ## - Now there is lateral BJT action only along the interface. - The drain current that flows in this case is the sub-threshold drain current. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 (y) n++ vDS n+ 0 ## - This is sub-threshold operation! Lecture 12 - Slide 15 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. ## - The barrier at the n+-p junction is lowered near the oxide-Si interface for any vGS > VFB. - The barrier is lowered by (x) - p for 0 < x < xD. Plot vs y at xed x, 0 < x < xD. (This is the effective vBE on the lateral BJT between x and x + dx.) -tox S ## VFB < vGS < VT G vDS > 0 (0,y) D n++ vDS Injection xD n+ -p (x) n+ tn+ x vBS = 0 0 (x) B L - The barrier lowering vGS (effective forward bias) (1) is controlled by vGS, and (2) decreases quickly with x. vBE,eff(x) = [(x) p] Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 n+ y (x)-p L p Plot vs x at xed y, 0 < y < L. - p (0) -tox xd p Injection occurs over this range. Lecture 12 - Slide 16 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - To calculate iD, we first find the current in each dx thick slab: G ## VFB < vGS < VT vDS > 0 -tox 0 x x+dx n+ n+ xD vBS = 0 vDS > 0 y ## n' ( x,0) = n i (e q" (x,vGS )/ kT #1)$ n ie q" (x,vGS )/ kT

diD (x) = q De
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

W
W dx #
De q n ie q$(x,vGS )/ kT (1" e"qv DS )/ kT ) dx L L Lecture 12 - Slide 17 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - Then we add up all the contributions to get iD: ' W$0
q" (x,vGS )/ kT
iD =
De & # q n ie
dx)(1* e*qv DS / kT )
L &% x d
)(
- This is what we called qN(sub-threshold) in Lecture 9 and today on Foil 7.
Substituting the expression we found for this (see Foil 7), we have:

%
W
kT
iD(sub"threshold ) =
De 'q
L
'& q
!

(
#Si
n ie q $(0,vGS ) kT *(1" e"qv DS / kT ) 2qN A [$ (0,vGS ) " $p ] *) ## - Using the Einstein relation and replacing ni with NAeqp/kT, we obtain: 2 # & W kT 1 * iD(sub"th ) = e Cox % ( * L$ q ' 2Cox

2q)Si N A
q {* (0,vGS )"[ "* p ] }
e
[* (0,vGS ) " * p ]

kT

(1" e

"qv DS / kT

- To finish (we are almost done) we need to replace (0,vGS) with vGS
since we want the drain current's dependence on the terminal voltage.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Lecture 12 - Slide 18

vGS = VFB

1
*
d$(0) )* 2Cox + 2%SiqN A ) , "$ (0) . n "$(0) [$ (0) & $p ] )"n ## - In the current equation we have the quantity {(0,vGS) - [-p]}. - p is simply (0,VT), the potential at x = 0 when the gate voltage is VT, so {" (0,v GS ## ) # [#" p ]} = {" (0,vGS ) # " (0,VT )} = {vGS # VT } n ## - Using this and the definition for n, we arrive at: iD(sub"threshold ) # ## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 W * e Cox L$ kT ' 2
q { vGS "VT } n kT
n
"1
e
1" e"qv DS / kT )
)
(
& ) (
% q(
Lecture 12 - Slide 19

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- To fully complete our modeling, we must add two more points:
1. The dependences on vBS and vDS:
vBS: The threshold voltage depends on vBS. (0,VT) does also,
i.e. (0,VT) = - p-vBS, and so do the junction barriers. Taking
this all into account we find that the only change we need to
make is to acknowledge that n and VT both depend on vBS.
vDS: The drain to source voltage introduced a factor (1 - e-qvDS/kT) 1.
This is discussed in the handout posted on Stellar.
The complete expression for iD is:

iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) #

W
*
e Cox
L

## ** Notice that this is exactly the same expression as that for !

Lecture 12 - Slide 20

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Comparing current levels above and below threshold:
The ranges of the two models do not overlap, but is it still
interesting to compare the largest possible value of the subthreshold drain current model (vGS - VT = 0 V),* with the strong
inversion model at vGS - VT = 0.06 V, 0.1 V, and 0.2 V:

iD(sub"threshold )
K

$kT ' 2 q v "V n kT # & ) ( n "1) e { GS T } % q( (0.025)2 iD(strong inversion ) ! " 1 2 v$
V
( GS T )
2#
0.4

0.25

(0.06)2
(0.1)2
(0.2)2

vBS = 0

= 1.56 x 10-4 V2

= 1.5 x 10-3 V2
= 4 x 10-3 V2
= 1.6 x 10-2 V2

## We see that the current in strong inversion drift current quickly

becomes much larger, although only grows quadratically.

## * This is pushing the model, particularly with regard to the

diffusion current model, beyond it's range of strict validity,
and is probably somewhat of an over-estimate.

Lecture 12 - Slide 21

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Plotting our models for the earlier device: NA = 1018 cm-3, tox = 3 nm:

vBS = 0

## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Lecture 12 - Slide 22

vBS = 0

## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Lecture 12 - Slide 23

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Repeating the plot with a log current scale: NA = 1018 cm-3, tox = 3 nm:

Slope = 60 x n mV/decade*

## * n = 1.25 here so 75 mV/decade

vBS = 0

Lecture 12 - Slide 24

## Sub-threshold Output Characteristic

- We plot a family of iD vs vDS curves with (vGS - VT) as the family

2

$qvCE / kT - The two biggest differences are (1) the magnitudes of the IS's, and (2) the factor of "n" in the MOSFET case. The totality of vBE reduces the barrier, whereas only a fraction 1/n of vGS does. ! - A third difference is that a BJT has a base current.* Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 26 * This is the price paid for having n = 1 in a BJT. ## Large Signal Model for MOSFET Operating Sub-threshold - The large signal model for a MOSFET operating in the weak inversion or sub-threshold region looks the same model as that for a device operating in strong inversion (vGS > VT) EXCEPT there is a different equation relating iD to vGS, vDS, and vBS: We will limit our model to ## vGS " VT , v DS > 3kT /q and v BS = 0. D ! iD iD (vGS , vDS ) G iG (= 0) iG,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0 S,B ## iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,0) # IS,s"t (1"$v DS ) e

!
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

Early effect

q { vGS "VTo } n kT

(1" e

"qv DS / kT

## 1 for vDS > 3 kT/q

Lecture 12 - Slide 27

## Sub-threshold operation - qualitative explanation

Look back at Lecture 10
(Sub-threshold electron charge)

the interface

Important in/for

## 1. power dissipation in normally-off logic gates

2. limiting the gain of strong inversion linear amplifiers
3. realizing ultra-low power, very low voltage electronics

## Quantitative sub-threshold modeling

This gives us a precise description of the voltage dependence
It also gives us the information on IS,s-t and n we need for
device design

## iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) # IS,s"t e

with:
IS,s"t
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09

2
$' W kT * # e Cox & ) [ n "1] L % q( q { vGS "VT (v BS )} n kT &( 1 and n " '1+ * () Cox "qv DS / kT 1" e ( ) *( #SiqN A + =2[$2% p \$ v BS ] (,

Lecture 12 - Slide 28

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## 6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

Fall 2009

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