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Alternate Key = It is a table of candidate keys which are not


being currently selected by primary keys.
2. Candidate Key = It is a column or a set of columns which are
able to define certain database records without referring to
other data. It is an attribute which can uniquely identify each
instance of an entity type
3. Cardinality= It is the specific number of instances of an entity
which relates to another one instance of a related entity.
4. Cascading integrity
5. Character = the most basic aspect of data
6. Completeness constraints = describes that an instance of a
super type must be at least an instance of a subtype.
7. Composite attributes = a composite attribute is an attribute
which can be further divided into simple attributes.
8. Composite Entity = A composite entity is an entity type that
associated the instances of one or more entity types
9. Concurrency handling
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Connectivity = the way in which the relationships are
defined in between entities e.g. 1:M, M:N, 1:1
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Data = data consists of facts which describe events,
people, situations and ideas.
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Database = A database is a collection of data which is
stored for a long period of time. It contains metadata and end
user data. The database is usually managed by DBMS.
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DBMS = is a management system which focuses on
the storage and retrieval of information and data.
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Derived Attribute = it is an attribute which can be
calculated by an algorithm
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Disjointness constraints = whether an instance of a
super type maybe simultaneously a member of two or more
subtypes
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Domain Integrity = is the definition of a valid set of
values for an attribute.
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Entity = An entity is any singular, identifiable and
separate object.
18.
ER Modeling = It is a graphical method of representing
logical relationships between entities.
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File Systems = this system of information management
entails storing and managing files. These systems are
extremely ineffective due to data redundancy and lack of
security.
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Field= A field contains characters
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Foreign Key = an entity which may contain a data item
which is a primary key in another entity.
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Generalisation = This is when two lower level entities
combine to form a higher level entity. This higher level entity

can later form with another lower level entity to form a higher
level entity.
23.
Hierarchical database = this type of DBMS has a tree
like structure, where the data is stored in records which are
connected by links.
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Information = information is data that has been
processed and translated into a language which is
understandable by humans.
25.
Instances = It is a single occurrence of something. In
terms of databases, an entity instance, is a single occurrence
of that entity
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Internal Schema = represents a specific representation
of the internal database model
27.
Key Attribute = it is an unique attribute which allows the
user to identify the entity
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Logical independence
29.
Meta data = Meta data is data about other data
30.
Multi valued attributes = an attribute which has many
values
31.
Normalisation = It is a method of reorganizing the data
to satisfy two conditions; 1. Eliminating data redundancy, 2.
Ensuring all data dependency is logical.
32.
Primary Key = The candidate key which has been used
to identify the entity type
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Record = a record contains a set of related fields
34.
Recursive Relationship
35.
Referential integrity = this means that any foreign key
value must not conflict with the PK value
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Relation= a relation represents data from the relational
model in a 2-d table
37.
Schemata
38.
Simple Attribute = an attribute that is atomic
39.
Single valued Attribute = an attribute which only has
one value either single or composite.
40.
Specialisation = this is the opposite of generalisation,
which is a higher level entity can be broken down into lower
level entities.
41.
Subtype = Sub type entities have a parent to child
relationship to super types. The attributes of super type is
common in its respective sub type. The PK is the same
between subtypes and super types.
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Subtype discrimination
43.
Super type = Super type entities have a parent to child
relationship to subtypes. The attributes of super type is
common in its respective sub type. The PK is the same
between subtypes and super types.
44.
Tuples= tuples are the rows of the relation table
45.
Weak entity = Weak entities are entities which relies on
the existence of another entity. The primary key of the weak

entity is either partially or totally derived from the parent


entity