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Three phase fault analysis with auto reset technology on temporary fault or remain tripped

Pritesh Kumar1
Vijayendra Kumar2
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology
(Key words: Tripping, Timer, Transformer, Temporary Fault 555 Timer, Voltage regulator
(LM7805), Relays, Comparator, Transformer (230 V 12V AC))
Since power demand is increasing rapidly in

India there is need to ensure high reliability

& stability of power supply. So automated

transmission system is 60-65 % time.

analysis approach is much needed which can





subsequently perform the relay operation by

tripping the system is required in order to
safeguard the transmission system. There are
various method for calculating fault &
locating fault position but the researcher used



L-G fault occurrence of this fault in

L-L fault- occurrence of this fault in

transmission system is

3 line fault -occurrence of this fault in

transmission system is ----%

To overcome this problem a system is

required to be developed which can sense this
type of fault and can subsequently perform
relay operation ensuring no further damage.

method. The researcher has used SIMULINK

Concept of low voltage testing of fault

software( MATHLAB) to simulate different

condition is followed as it is not advisable to

operating & fault condition on high voltage

create on a mass line.

transmission line namely single phase to

ground fault, line to line fault, double line to
ground & three phase short circuit.
In India it is common to observe failure of in
supply due to fault that occur in transmission
or distribution. Fault might be the following:

Figure 1: different type of fault

Block Diagram

In the below shown block diagram six

number of transformer are used to step down
the voltage to 12V. The output of transformer
is rectified & filtered using capacitor &

MATLAB Simulation

diode. The output is given to 3 relay coil.


Auto tripping mechanism can reduce

the outage of time due to fault and can
provide continuous supply to the
consumer with less hindrance.

Figure 2: Block diagram

It helps to maintain system stability.

If system encounter fault it notifies by

glowing the LED or lamp.

Hardware component to be used

Proposed system is reliable and cost



Relay (3CO) & 555 Timer

reduce the injury or death caused due

Op-Amp LM358

to line to ground fault in transmission


line especially in short distance

Voltage Regulator (LM78L05)



The proposed system will help to

transmission line in urban area

making the system tripped.





automatically respond to transient

fault making the power system to run

The project uses 6numbers step-down


transformers for handling the entire circuit

under low voltage conditions of 12v only to
test the 3 phase fault analysis. The primaries

Proteus Simulation

of 3 transformers are connected to a 3 phase

supply in star configuration, while the
secondary of the same is also connected in
star configuration. The other set of 3
transformers with its primary connected in
star to 3 phase have their secondarys
connected in delta configuration.
The outputs of all the 6 transformers are
rectified and filtered individually and are
given to 6 relay coils. 6 push buttons, one
each connected across the relay coil is meant
to create a fault condition either at star i.e. LL

Figure 3: circuit diagram

Explanation of Circuit Diagram

Fault or 3L Fault. The NC contacts of all the

relays are made parallel while all the
common points are grounded. The parallel

Suppose if the sequence is changed from YB

to YRB the combination of NAND & or gate
creates an output with a missing pulse during
the fixed time duration. This pulse is used in
triggering a monostable 555 timer. Thus,
while the sequence is not there the triggering
to the timer is missed which is indicated by

connected point of NC are given to pin2

through a resistor R5 to a 555 timer i.e. wired
in monostable mode. The output of the same
timer is connected to the reset pin 4 of
another 555 timer wired in astable mode.
LEDS are connected at their output to
indicate their status.

an LED driven from the output of the 555

timer. DC requirement of the circuit is

Future Scope

powered from a step down transformer along

The above proposed model can be enhanced

with a bridge rectifier and filter capacitor.

by interfacing the GSM technology with the

system which will send alert message to the

operating personal as soon as system is

Fault Location on AC Transmission

encountered with fault condition. Interfacing

and Distribution Lines, IEEE Std.

G.S.M technology will tell he exact location


where the fault occurred by giving the

latitude & longitude of the place.

J. Grainger , John, 2006. power

system analysis. 5th ed. delhi: McGraw hill.


The research paper gives us some idea about

the model which is used to detect fault in

Javad Sadeh, N. Hadjsaid, A. M.

Ranjbar, and R. Feuillet, Accurate
Fault Location Algorithm for Series

transmission line. Switches are used to create

fault condition while 555 timer & relay are
used to analysis the fault condition in line.
Short duration fault return supply to the lo9ad
immediately after resolving the problem
called temporary trip while long duration







Gross, charles , 2011. power system

analysis. 5th ed. delhi: willey india

IEEE Power Engineering Society

(PES), IEEE Guide for Determining

singh, manohar, 2011. Transmission

Line fault detection & classification .
Ieee, 3, 6.
El-Harway, Mohamed E. Electrical
power system: design & analysis.
M.B. Djuri6, Z.M. Radojevi6 and











Current Phasors, October 1998