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Three phase fault analysis with auto reset technology on temporary fault or remain tripped

otherwise
Pritesh Kumar1
Vijayendra Kumar2
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology
(Key words: Tripping, Timer, Transformer, Temporary Fault 555 Timer, Voltage regulator
(LM7805), Relays, Comparator, Transformer (230 V 12V AC))
Abstract
Since power demand is increasing rapidly in

India there is need to ensure high reliability


& stability of power supply. So automated

transmission system is 60-65 % time.

analysis approach is much needed which can


automatically

characterize

fault

&

subsequently perform the relay operation by


tripping the system is required in order to
safeguard the transmission system. There are
various method for calculating fault &
locating fault position but the researcher used
conventional

symmetrical

component

L-G fault occurrence of this fault in

L-L fault- occurrence of this fault in


transmission system is

3 line fault -occurrence of this fault in


transmission system is ----%

To overcome this problem a system is


required to be developed which can sense this
type of fault and can subsequently perform
relay operation ensuring no further damage.

method. The researcher has used SIMULINK

Concept of low voltage testing of fault

software( MATHLAB) to simulate different

condition is followed as it is not advisable to

operating & fault condition on high voltage

create on a mass line.

transmission line namely single phase to


ground fault, line to line fault, double line to
ground & three phase short circuit.
Fault
In India it is common to observe failure of in
supply due to fault that occur in transmission
or distribution. Fault might be the following:

Figure 1: different type of fault


Block Diagram

In the below shown block diagram six


number of transformer are used to step down
the voltage to 12V. The output of transformer
is rectified & filtered using capacitor &

MATLAB Simulation

diode. The output is given to 3 relay coil.

Advantage

Auto tripping mechanism can reduce


the outage of time due to fault and can
provide continuous supply to the
consumer with less hindrance.

Figure 2: Block diagram

It helps to maintain system stability.

If system encounter fault it notifies by


glowing the LED or lamp.

Hardware component to be used

Proposed system is reliable and cost


effective

Transformer

Relay (3CO) & 555 Timer

reduce the injury or death caused due

Op-Amp LM358

to line to ground fault in transmission

Switch

line especially in short distance

Voltage Regulator (LM78L05)

Comparators

LED

The proposed system will help to

transmission line in urban area


making the system tripped.

The

proposed

system

will

automatically respond to transient

fault making the power system to run

The project uses 6numbers step-down

smoothly.

transformers for handling the entire circuit


under low voltage conditions of 12v only to
test the 3 phase fault analysis. The primaries

Proteus Simulation

of 3 transformers are connected to a 3 phase


supply in star configuration, while the
secondary of the same is also connected in
star configuration. The other set of 3
transformers with its primary connected in
star to 3 phase have their secondarys
connected in delta configuration.
The outputs of all the 6 transformers are
rectified and filtered individually and are
given to 6 relay coils. 6 push buttons, one
each connected across the relay coil is meant
to create a fault condition either at star i.e. LL

Figure 3: circuit diagram


Explanation of Circuit Diagram

Fault or 3L Fault. The NC contacts of all the


relays are made parallel while all the
common points are grounded. The parallel

Suppose if the sequence is changed from YB


to YRB the combination of NAND & or gate
creates an output with a missing pulse during
the fixed time duration. This pulse is used in
triggering a monostable 555 timer. Thus,
while the sequence is not there the triggering
to the timer is missed which is indicated by

connected point of NC are given to pin2


through a resistor R5 to a 555 timer i.e. wired
in monostable mode. The output of the same
timer is connected to the reset pin 4 of
another 555 timer wired in astable mode.
LEDS are connected at their output to
indicate their status.

an LED driven from the output of the 555


timer. DC requirement of the circuit is

Future Scope

powered from a step down transformer along

The above proposed model can be enhanced

with a bridge rectifier and filter capacitor.

by interfacing the GSM technology with the


system which will send alert message to the

operating personal as soon as system is

Fault Location on AC Transmission

encountered with fault condition. Interfacing

and Distribution Lines, IEEE Std.

G.S.M technology will tell he exact location

C37.114TM-2004.

where the fault occurred by giving the

latitude & longitude of the place.

J. Grainger , John, 2006. power


system analysis. 5th ed. delhi: McGraw hill.

Conclusion

The research paper gives us some idea about


the model which is used to detect fault in

Javad Sadeh, N. Hadjsaid, A. M.


Ranjbar, and R. Feuillet, Accurate
Fault Location Algorithm for Series

transmission line. Switches are used to create


fault condition while 555 timer & relay are
used to analysis the fault condition in line.
Short duration fault return supply to the lo9ad
immediately after resolving the problem
called temporary trip while long duration
fault

result

in

tripping

the

system

permanently.
References

Gross, charles , 2011. power system


analysis. 5th ed. delhi: willey india
edition.

IEEE Power Engineering Society


(PES), IEEE Guide for Determining

singh, manohar, 2011. Transmission


Line fault detection & classification .
Ieee, 3, 6.
El-Harway, Mohamed E. Electrical
power system: design & analysis.
M.B. Djuri6, Z.M. Radojevi6 and
V.V.

Terzija,

Distance

Member

Protection

and

IEEE,
Fault

Location

Utilizing

Only

Phase

Current Phasors, October 1998