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Doc. Ing. Jaroslav Navrtil, CSc.

Institute of Concrete and Masonry Structures, Brno University of Technology

doln 53, 662 42 Brno, Czech Republic

SCIA CZ, s.r.o. Slavkova 1a, 638 00 Brno, Czech Republic

1 INTRODUCTION

Modern civil engineering structures are often designed and constructed as hybrid systems

consisting of steel, pre-cast concrete and cast-in-place concrete [1]. Main load-bearing

elements are frequently fabricated in advance and are used as a supporting system for parts of

a cross-section or structure produced later. Thus, the static system of the structure changes

during the construction. Consequently, effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete must be

taken into account both during the construction stages and service life of the structure [2].

Modules CONSTRUCTION STAGES, PRESTRESSING and TDA (Time-Dependent

Analysis) are efficient tools for structural analysis of hybrid systems that have been newly

implemented in software system IDA NEXIS. These modules enable the user to perform

calculation for an uninterrupted sequence of automatically generated structural schemes that

reflect the construction process. In addition, TDA takes account of rheological properties of

concrete. The description of individual modules and their interconnection are given in article

[3]. Here we will focus on TDA module, even though some discussed points are of general

validity for the whole software system.

2

Before construction stages may be input, it is necessary to define all load-bearing elements,

tendons, boundary conditions and load cases that are relevant for the structure. Following the

real progress of construction, all elements, tendons, supports etc. are then gradually included

into the structure. If any element is removed or if any boundary condition is changed, internal

forces and corresponding reactions are automatically added to the load that the structure is

subject to.

Time is introduced into the calculation as a new unknown quantity. However, time dependent

changes of the structural model, cross-sections or loads are modelled by means of individual

construction stages. Appropriate load cases and corresponding results are assigned to

individual construction stages independently on time. Load increments are defined in the load

cases. The effects of load increments in a previous time interval (separately dead load

1

In: Proceeding of the seminar Statika most 2001, SCIA CZ, 2001, translated by Ing. Pavel Roun

odezva konstrukce

increment, prestressing increment and increment of rheological effects) are stored in results.

Load cases for rheological effects are generated automatically and numbered n+1, n+2, etc.,

where n is the number of user-defined load cases. It is assumed that the load increments act on

the structure until the last examined construction/serviceability stage. Unloading must be

modelled by means of the opposite-sign load. Total effects of loads (internal forces,

deflections,

etc.)

in

a

given

construction stage are obtained as a

LC(n+1)+LC1+

combination of appropriate load cases

LC(n+2)+LC2+LC4+

acting on the structure up to the time of

LC(n+3)+LC3

LC3 C

the given stage, see Fig. 1. Load cases

representing imposed variable loads

LC(n+3)

C-dotvar. may be added to this combination.

Individual load cases may be assigned

LC2 B+LC4 pedpt

load factors. These factors are equal to

1.0 during creep analysis. Only after

LC(n+2) B-dotvarovn the calculation has been completed,

maximal and minimal load factor is

LC1 A

t [dny] applied

to

permanent

loads,

prestressing, long-term variable loads

F1

F2

F3

and to load cases storing increments of

rheological effects.

Fig. 1 Construction stages and load case

combinations

2.2 Structural model for static

analysis

Since long-term loads are symmetrical, most bridges can be modelled accurately enough in a

vertical plane only. Consequently, a planar frame can be used as a calculation model.

Concerning the general nature of solution and the flexibility in modelling of changes in the

structural scheme, finite element method (FEM) has been selected for static analysis. Since

also structures with composite cross-sections need to be modelled, three-node finite element

with eccentricity [4] has been employed. To ensure strain compatibility on the border of two

eccentric elements, a polynomial of second or third order, respectively, is used to extrapolate

the longitudinal and transverse displacements. All elements of different eccentricity

connecting identical nodes create a substructure for which static condensation of internal

nodal deformation parameters is used.

From the users point of view,

composite structures are input using

function phased cross-sections of

general cross-section module. The

cross-section is created step-by-step

starting from stage 0, see Fig. 2. Each

cross-section phase is in longitudinal

direction modelled by means of a

Fig. 2 Phased cross-section modelled by means of separate finite element with an

eccentricity. The rate of concrete creep

eccentric elements

and shrinkage can be generally

different for individual elements. Therefore, when TDA analysis is used, stress redistribution

occurs between two different cross-section phases. One cross-section phase may consist of

several separate parts (of the same or different material). In such a case, sectional

characteristics of individual parts are transformed into one material (transformed crosssection). As a result, stress redistribution between separate parts of one phase cannot occur

during the calculation.

Cross-section types must be distinguished from each other not only by shape and material, but

also by the time when the composite slab is cast. Fig. 3 presents a composite continuous beam

of a constant cross-section along the whole length. Since the composite slab is cast in steps,

we must define five cross-section types in total. The types differ only in the time of inclusion

of the cross-sections phase modelling the composite slab.

The structural model for static analysis of a bridge must, among others, give a true picture of

boundary conditions. The finite element method introduces these conditions in nodes.

Considering the real support conditions, the nodes must be located at lower surface of the load

bearing structure. Only this configuration allows for correct introduction of e.g. brake forces.

In addition, the application of concrete and prestressing elements with eccentricity enables the

user to e.g. (i) take account of the effect of a haunch on reduction of shear forces or (ii)

introduce the real action of the equivalent load from tendons. EPW system offers a great

comfort for the definition of changes in sectional characteristics and modification of haunch

beam eccentricity in selected database cross-sections, e.g. cross-sections stored in the library

of bridge sections. Whats more, the real eccentric connection of beams can be modelled

also in beams of a general cross-section, see Fig. 4.

2.3 Prestressing

Bonded tendons are also modelled as finite elements with eccentricity. At the same time,

strain compatibility between a tendon and concrete element is ensured along the whole

element length. We will use a simple example to demonstrate a solution of a prestressed

haunch beam with a kneed centroidal axis. Lets assume that the cross-section of the beam is

not among the library cross-sections. Since a general cross-section must be used, neither

function variable cross-sections nor the automatic generation of finite elements with

eccentricity in haunch can be employed. Therefore, the user must divide the 1D-macro into

numerical solution. The definition of coordinates of 1D-macro nodes must take account of the

change of sectional centre of gravity in the haunch. Next, the appropriate eccentricity of the

macro may be input e.g. related to the lower surface or to the centre of gravity of the crosssection. Thus, the real support of the structure can be modelled. The final model does not

fully reflect the real behaviour of the structure, see Fig. 4, but the approach is sufficient

enough to give a true picture of (i) the gradual change of sectional characteristics and (ii) the

change of beam-eccentricity in the haunch.

Another feature that can be demonstrated on the mentioned model of prestressed beam is the

definition of tendon geometry. The geometry is always related to a selected point defined in

the 1D-beam local coordinate system of the 1D-macro where the origin of the tendon local

coordinate system is situated. It can be related to the axis, upper surface or lower surface of

the beam and to the reference axis (a line connecting FE mesh nodes). In our example the

origin of the tendon local coordinate system is located in node 1, with the X-axis passing

nodes 2 and 3. It means that the X-axis is inclined from the horizontal level. It is clear that if

the starting-point of the tendon is put into the origin of the local coordinate system, it is

necessary to input a negative z-coordinate of the end-point of the tendon. It should be

emphasized that, due to the applied algorithm, the described approach in the definition of the

structure geometry may require a reduction of required geometry accuracy and it may be

necessary to increase the tolerance to 0.01-0.05 m by means of parameter Minimal distance

between two points.

However, the starting-point of a tendon does not have to be necessarily identical with the

origin of the tendon coordinate system. It is therefore possible to define a non-zero xcoordinate. This may be advantageously used just for beams with haunches. Rotation of the

tendon local coordinate system should add some complexity to the definition of tendons

geometry. As a result, it is convenient to locate the tendon on a horizontal 1D-element that

is usually located above supports or in the middle of a span, which is true even if the tendons

starting-point is not in this element. The local coordinate system of the tendon is then also

horizontal. The described configuration is only limited by a condition that the given tendon

must longitudinally cross or at least touch the 1D-element on which it is input.

Finite elements of the structural model are automatically generated from the input prestressing

reinforcement with short-term losses of prestress calculated in advance. The stress in tendons

after the reduction due to the short-term losses then gives the equivalent load that is applied

on the structure. Lets get back to our example: considering the change of position of the

cross-sections centre of gravity, the equivalent load of the straight tendon results in a linear

moment, which is reflected in the structural model for static analysis, see Fig. 5.

When an initial stress is introduced into a post-tensioned tendon, only the tendons load

impulses calculated as a load equivalent to the effects of the tendon stress after short-time

losses are added to the global equilibrium equations. After the tendon is anchored, also its

stiffness is taken into account and it becomes a part of the structure. Therefore, the calculation

automatically takes account of long-time losses and losses due to structure deformation. In

case of pre-tensioned tendons, the tendon stiffness is added to the structure stiffness already at

the time of tensioning. Therefore, the tendon participates on transferring the load caused by

prestressing. As a result, the method takes account of the loss due to elastic deformation of

concrete.

Post-tensioned tendons are often stressed to just a certain percentage of their ultimate strength

and only later are they stressed to the final value. In EPW this can be modelled by means of a

pair of identical tendons with one of them only partly stressed. The first tendon can be

removed at the time of final tensioning. As a result, the load that is equivalent to the opposite

internal forces in the tendon is automatically introduced into the load vector. Simultaneously,

the other tendon is stressed to the maximal allowable value. Reduced relaxation capacity of

the post-tensioned tendon can be taken into account by modifying the relaxation table.

An external tendon can be defined in advance as a separate macro of a special cross-section.

The geometry and sectional area of the macro are the only properties that an external tendon

takes over from the 1D-macro. Moment of inertia and other parameters are adjusted

automatically in a way so that the tendon transfers axial force only. External tendons are also

modelled as eccentric elements. The strain compatibility of tendon and concrete element is

obtained in nodes only. Rigid links must be inserted between the nodes at the ends of

individual external-tendon elements and corresponding structure nodes. The input type of the

rigid link defines the type of compatibility between nodes. In program the rigid links are

substituted by extremely rigid elements the stiffness of which is 1000 times greater than the

stiffness of the most rigid element in the structure. Similarly to bonded tendons, posttensioning of external tendons is possible. However, the geometry of the new tendon must be

slightly altered. Relaxation of external tendons is not considered in version 3.50 of the

program.

2.4 Calculation of rheological effects

The method used for time-dependent analysis is based on a step-by-step calculation where the

time interval is divided into subintervals by time nodes. Finite element method is used to

perform the structural analysis in every time node. The calculation takes account of aging,

shrinkage and creep of concrete and relaxation of prestressing reinforcement. Measured

mean-values of strength can numerically improve the accuracy of the function of concrete

aging. The theory of viscous-elasticity with aging is used to calculate creep. Creep, shrinkage

and effects of aging can be considered in compliance with recommendation laid in Eurocode

2, SN 73 1201, SN 73 6207, and NEN 6720. The method takes account of stress history,

does not require iterations in individual steps and does not limit creep functions [4].

3 POSSIBILITY TO MODEL SPECIFIC CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

Program can be used to model a whole range of special construction technologies, such as

precast segmental cantilever construction method, cast-in-place segmental cantilever

construction method, incremental launching, suspension structures, jointing of simple beams

into continuous ones including the subsequent casting of a composite slab or step-by-step

construction of building frames. This article cannot give the full account of program

capabilities. Therefore, further we will deal with some features the understanding of which

can contribute to an effective use of the program.

3.1 Macro history, line supports

Every macro-element has got its own history in the local time axis. The origin of the time

axis, called birth of macro, is set to the moment when the corresponding macro stiffness is

added to the stiffness matrix of the whole structure. The birth of macro is closely linked to the

time of casting and to the formation and acting of a line support (formwork, centering). If the

time of casting is identical with the birth of the macro, it is necessary, with a few exceptions,

to use a line support of the macro, because the stiffness of the concrete element is equal to

zero at the time of casting. Notwithstanding the line support, the structure must be duly

supported in nodes, see Fig. 6a, because standard FEM solver is run simultaneously with the

TDA solver when the calculation is being performed in EPW program.

a) application of prestressing

Fig. 6 Construction stages in getting a simple supported beams continuous

The casting can even happen before the birth of the macro. In such a case, the element

stiffness is not included into the global structure stiffness matrix for the time interval from

casting time to the birth of the macro. Simultaneously, the age of concrete is derived from the

casting time. In this configuration the line support is not necessary because in fact the element

does not exist and free nodes are automatically fixed. This feature can be exploited in

modelling of additionally cast joints, which can be demonstrated on an example when simple

supported beams are made continuous. As seen in Fig. 6c, the upper slab of the beam is cast

simultaneously with the cross-beam (at the time node of 60 days). In order to model properly

the behaviour of the simply supported beam in the time of casting, the insertion of the joint is

postponed until the next step (63 days), see Fig. 6d. At the same time, the casting time is set

equal to 3 days (considering the time of birth of the joint). This configuration leads to an

identical age of the joint and the slab. The time when the beam starts act as a continuous beam

is 3 days after casting, i.e. in the time when concrete is already hard enough to carry the load.

Simultaneously, it is possible to postpone the time when the newly created concrete element is

subject to loads, e.g. in joints cast additionally in-situ between segments of precast or cast-inplace segmental cantilever construction, see chapter 3.2.2.

The installation and removal of the line support is done by means of time nodes of the local

time axis. It follows from chapter 2.1 that it may happen that e.g. the removal of an existing

line support is made outside the time of a construction stage. Consequently, the increment of

internal forces and deformation due to the removal of the support may take effect in the load

case for rheological effects, where it cannot be separated from other effects. If the line support

both originates and expires between two successive construction stages, it may even happen

that the effects of removal of the support and support reactions will not be stored in any load

case and therefore, they cannot be presented in results. This can be prevented by insertion of

an empty construction stage into the time of the removal of the support.

Last of the local time nodes in

the macro history is the time

when curing of concrete is

completed. In phased crosssections it is the time when

curing of concrete in stage

Fig. 7 Reaction in line support

zero is completed, while

another curing period can be

input for other newly originated phases of cross-section. In terms of the program, this entry

defines the time when shrinkage and creep starts to occur in concrete. Flawless curing is

assumed until the end of curing period, which means that no drying can be observed.

3.2 Modelling of step-by-step construction of bridges built using a segmental cantilever

construction method

Four projects have been prepared in order to explain some program features available for

modelling of the process of segmental cantilever construction. The structure geometry, crosssections and time sequence of construction staged were simplified in these projects with a

view to focus on the difference in step-by-step construction models. For the same reason,

variable loads imposed by a moving crane, by a traveller, etc. were not modelled. The

structure is formed by two precast or cast-in-place segmental cantilevers and a closing cast-inplace joint. The cantilevers consist of four precast or cast-in-place concrete segments.

Therefore, in the final stage it is a fixed beam. Each of the two construction methods is

modelled in two variants: precise levelling approach and tangent approach. The models

differ only in the interpretation of final deflections, not in internal forces.

In precise levelling method for both precast and cast-in-place approach, the free-end of the

newly added segment of the calculation model has zero deflection in the time of attachment.

The engineer must assume that e.g. the traveller is so positioned that its face is exactly in the

designed level after the casting is completed. Any inaccuracies and errors made in previous

construction stages must be corrected at the construction site when the traveller is

repositioned to a new segment. The calculated deflections then represent the increment in

deflection since the time of casting or segment prestressing.

On the other hand, the tangent method assumes that a new segment is assembled or cast in

the direction of the tangent to the deflection curve for the time of new segment installation. It

means that deflections of all finite element nodes of the cantilever must be corrected during

the calculation or even when the first cantilever segments are being installed. This can be

ensured by a special function, but only if special algorithms are elaborated for each type of

segmented construction. This could be a user-friendly solution, but in the end it would

degrade the generality of solution and limit the range of assembly approaches. TDA employs

a different approach. The user must choose a gradual birth of segments, loads and boundary

conditions in a way so that the behaviour of the model is as close to the real structure as

possible. Therefore, a set of preliminary steps must be taken if the tangent approach is used.

The steps will be described later. The advantage of this modelling approach is that the final

calculated deformation forms a smooth curve in all construction and service stages. For

example, if we want to achieve a theoretical zero deflection after 50 years of service, we must

define a pre-camber whose shape is identical with the deflection curve after those 50 years of

service.

3.2.1

Modelling of precise levelling method in precast segmental cantilever construction method

is quite simple. Lets assume that segments are always cast 60 days before the attachment to

the cantilever. Further lets assume that a five-day assembly cycle is used. It means that one

segment will be installed in each five days. Individual steps are shown in colour in Fig. 8

where just one cantilever is displayed, i.e. a half of the fixed beam. The time schedule of

segmental construction (introduction of the segment into the structure stiffness matrix) for

individual segments can be seen in Table 1. The origin of the closing joint in Fig. 8e is related

to its introduction into the structure stiffness matrix and not to the casting itself.

a) Assembly of segment 1

b) Assembly of segment 2

c) Assembly of segment 3

d) Assembly of segment 4

e) Birth of closing joint

segment

no.

segment casting

local time

1

2

3

4

5 (joint)

-60

-60

-60

-60

-5

curing of concrete

time

-60

-55

-55

-55

-50

-55

-45

-55

15

0

global

time

-55

-50

-45

-40

20

matrix of stiffness

load

local time global

global time

time

[days]

0

0

0

0

5

5

0

10

10

0

15

15

0

20

20

schedule

Dead load of segments and also the equivalent load due to prestressing of segments is defined

precisely in the time of installation (attachment) of segments. Loads imposed by possible

crane motion or prestressing device can be input as variable loads in the given construction

stage or as loads on a completed part of the structure. Dead load of the closing joint is,

according to Table 1, applied after 20 days and not in the time of casting, which is 15 days,

when this load acts in reality. The reason is that in fact the joint in the model does not exist

between days 15 and 20 and therefore, it is not capable of transferring any load. The same

applies to other construction approaches described below.

The deflections of a half of the symmetrical structure calculated after the installation of

segment 4, and in 1000 days after the two cantilevers have been made monolithic are given in

Fig. 9. The deflection curve shows apparent breaks that are not real in fact, but they result

from the fact that the deflection of the free-end of the newly attached segment of the model is

zero in the time of attachment.

monolithic

Fig. 9 Precise levelling precast segmental cantilever construction, cantilever deflection

3.2.1.2 Tangent method - precast segments

This method requires that deflections of all finite element nodes be corrected during the

calculation to reflect the current rotation of cantilever end. Therefore, all the cantilever nodes

must be connected by means of finite elements at the beginning of construction. These may be

formed by already made segments. Thats why segments 1 to 4 are installed at the very

beginning of construction (global time 0 (zero)), see Fig. 10. However, it follows from

Table 2 that the dead load of the segments is not introduced simultaneously with their

installation. The dead load is applied gradually in compliance with the real time schedule of

the installation of segments. Consequently, EPW function for an automatic generation of dead

load cannot be employed, which is not a significant disadvantage considering the existence of

diaphragms and pads in the real structure.

segment

no.

segment casting

local time

1

2

3

4

5 (joint)

-60

-55

-50

-45

-5

global

time

-60

-55

-50

-45

15

concrete

matrix of stiffness

load

local time global local time global

global time

time

time

[days]

-55

-55

0

0

0

-50

-50

0

5

0

-45

-45

0

10

0

-40

-40

0

15

0

0

20

0

20

20

Fig. 11 shows the deflection of a half of the symmetrical structure calculated after the

installation of segment 4, and in 1000 days after the two cantilevers have become monolithic

in the joint. It is clear that the deflection curve is smooth except the break in the point of

attachment of the cantilever to the closing joint. The deflections calculated between the ends

of the cantilevers are not real. Correct values may be obtained (i) by interpolating between

values in the ends of cantilevers or (ii) by preventing the generation of finite elements nodes

between the ends of cantilevers when defining the mesh parameters. Singular points in the

deflection curve in the ends of the cantilevers occur not only in the model, but also in the real

structure.

monolithic

Fig. 11 Tangent precast segmental cantilever construction, cantilever deflections

3.2.2

Also the modelling of precise levelling method in cast-in-place segmental cantilever

construction method is quite simple. Lets assume that segments are always stresses 5 days

after casting. To simplify the matter, lets assume that a five-day working cycle is used

(transfer and rectification of traveller, casting, stressing). Individual construction stages are

graphically identical to the precise levelling method for precast segmental cantilever

construction and are shown in colour in Fig. 8. The time schedule of the step-by-step cast-inplace construction is presented in Table 3.

segment

no.

segment casting

local time

1

2

3

4

5 (joint)

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

global

time

-5

0

5

10

15

concrete

matrix of stiffness

load

local time Global local time global

global time

time

time

[days]

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

5

5

0

10

0

10

10

0

15

0

15

15

0

20

0

20

20

schedule

Dead load of segments is applied in the time of prestressing of the segments. Similarly to the

dead load of closing joint, also the dead load of segments acts in fact in the time of casting.

However, the appropriate segments do not yet exist in terms of stiffness in that time (neither

in the model nor in the real structure) and are not capable of carrying any load. In the real

structure, the load is transferred by the traveller to the previous segment as a point loads.

Considering the fact that a young concrete is subject to loads, the demand of an engineer to

take account of correct time schedule of dead load application is justified. This can be

modelled by means of a set of point loads that will be input into the load case applied on the

existing structure (the previous segment) in the time when a new segment is being cast. In the

time of prestressing (and application of the dead load of the new segment) the set of point

loads must be applied with the opposite sign in order to prevent doubling of the dead load.

Also the load from the traveller can be additionally input to this set and in case of e.g. a

bridge of a constant cross-section, both load sets (loading and unloading) can be moved along

the structure together with the casting of a new segment. If also the effect of this load on

creep of concrete should to be taken into account, the set of point loads must be defined in a

permanent load case and not in a variable one.

a) Deflection after casting of segment 4 b) Deflection in 1000 days after getting monolithic

Fig. 12 Precise levelling cast-in-place segmental cantilever construction, cantilever

deflection

Once again, apparent breaks can be observed in deflection curves in Fig. 12. These breaks

result from the fact that the deflection increments relate to the time of segment casting.

Modelling of the tangent

cast-in-place

segmental

cantilever construction is

more difficult in terms of

a)Birth of zero section-stage of segments 1-4

preparation of input data. All

cantilever nodes must be

again connected by means of

finite

elements

at

the

b) Casting of segment 1

beginning of construction.

This time however, the nodes

cannot be formed by segment

elements because in the time

of

the

first

segment

c) Casting of segment 2

installation, other segments

are not yet cast. Therefore,

auxiliary elements must be

defined and these must be

d) Casting of segment 3

installed at the very beginning

of construction (global time 0

(zero)), see Fig. 13a. The

cross-section

is

thus

transformed to a general

e) Casting of segment 4

cross-section, an imaginary

zero section-phase is defined

that is formed by a steel

element of minimal possible

f) Birth of closing joint

dimensions (in order not to

affect the sectional stiffness).

Fig. 13 Tangent cast-in-place segmental cantilever

Considering a different time

construction, construction stages

of casting (phasee 1 of crosssections), number of section types must be increased similarly to the project described in

Fig. 3.

In the second construction stage, casting of segment 1 is modelled by the change of

appropriate cross-section from phase 0 to phase 1, see Fig. 13b. Similarly to precise

levelling, the fresh concrete of the first segment cannot be subject to dead load for the same

reason. Therefore, the dead load of the first segment is applied only in the time of prestressing

of the first segment, see Table 4. Once again, a set of point loads can be used to model the

real dead load. Subsequent construction stages can be seen in Fig. 13 and Table 4.

construction

stage

segment

no.

segment casting

local

time

1

2

3

4

5

6

stage 0

segments

1, 2, 3, 4

1

2

3

4

5 (joint)

-5

curing of segment

segment stiffness for prestressing

concrete

matrix of stiffness

and load

global time local time global time local time global time global time

[days]

0,1

5

10

15

20

0,1

5

10

15

25

25

5

10

15

20

25

For better understanding, Fig. 14 shows the deflection of a half of the symmetrical structure

calculated after segment 4 has been stressed, and in the time of 1000 days after the two

cantilevers have become monolithic in the joint. The deflection curve is again smooth except

the break in the point of attachment of the cantilever to the closing joint.

monolithic

deflections

4 LITERATURE

[1] Strsk, J., Navrtil, J. Concrete Hybrid Bridges, FIP Symposium, Johanesburg, 1997, pp.

321-328.

[2] Strsk, J., Navrtil, J., Susk, S. Applications of Time-Dependent Analysis in the Design

of Hybrid Bridge Structures, PCI Journal, vol. 46 no. 4, 2001, pp. 56 - 74.

[3] Navrtil, J. Analza a posouzen betonovch konstrukc v systmu IDA NEXIS (Analysis

and checking of concrete structures in EPW system), Proceeding of the seminar Statika

most 2001, SCIA CZ, 2001.

[4] Navrtil, J. asov zvisl analza rmovch konstrukc (Time Dependent Analysis of

Frame Structures), Stavebnick asopis (Building Research Jour.), 7 (40), 1992, pp. 429-451.

[5] SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS (SCIA) SOFTWARE. Construction stages, Pretressing,

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