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Air Environment

Classification of Air Pollutants


Primary Pollutants- substances directly emitted in the atmosphere
from various sources. (Carbon compounds, nitrogen compounds,
sulfur compounds, lead)
Secondary Pollutants(Precursor)-substances formed in the
atmosphere by primary pollutants. (Nitrogen dioxide, tropospheric
ozone, nitric acid, sulfuric acid)
Carbon Compounds Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities
84% of all greenhouse gas emissions
Sources of Carbon Dioxide
Electricity
Largest single source of CO2 emissions
Combustion in power plants
Transportation
Second largest single source of CO2 emissions
Air, land, and naval vehicles
Industry
Produces CO2 without combustion
Production of cement, iron, and steel
Carbon Compounds: Methane (CH4)
Second most prevalent greenhouse gas
Sources of Methane
Industry
Production of natural gas and crude oil
Agriculture
Primary source of CH4
Normal digestive processes of animals
Nitrogen Compounds: Nitric Oxide (NO)
Colorless gas naturally present in Nitrogen cycle
NOx total concentration of NO and NO2
90% of NOx combustions from NO.
Sources of NO
Vehicular traffic
Effects of NO
Acid Rain
Combustion of fossil fuels
Formation of Tropospheric
Agriculture
ozone (O3)
Waste management
Reduced visibility
Industrial processes
Increases risks of acute and
chronic diseases

Sulfur Compounds: Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2)


Colorless, with suffocating, pungent odor.
Sources of Sulfur Dioxide
Combustion of coal and oil

Energy production

Effects of Sulfur Dioxide


Contributes to Acid Rain
Corrosive to organic materials
Sulfur Compounds: Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2S)
Colorless
Toxic and flammable

Transportation
US, China, Russia among top 3
contributors

Strong odor of rotten eggs

Sources of Hydrogen Sulfide


Anaerobic bacterial breakdown of organic matter (in swamps, sewers, etc.)
Volcanic gasses
Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide
Inhalation at a high concentration can be fatal
Olfactory dysfunction
Shortness of breath
Lead (Pb)
Harmful environmental pollutant
Can be inhaled or swallowed (in air, water, food, dust)
Previously present in gasoline, paint, water pipes, etc.
Sources of Pb
Leaded gasoline combustion
Combustion of solid wastes
Coal, oil, emissions from iron and steel production
Effects of Pb
Affects blood and kidneys
Affects nervous, immune, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems
Effects on fetuses
Effects of Air Pollution: on Climate Change
An increase of 2F to 11F by 2100.
By 2100, average global temperatures expected to warm at least twice as
much as it has during the last 100 years.
Air Pollution Regulations
DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER,No. 14-A, Series of 1993(DAO 14)
o Also known as the "Air Quality Standards and Rules and Regulations
Relating to Air Pollution Control of 1993.

DAO 14 SERIES OF 1993

C.

Standard

Objectives: to control the air

of

for

Emission
Other

Air

Pollutants

standard in the Philippines by


controlling and monitoring the

Absence

When

there

is no emission

or

sources of the emissions of air

ambient standard prescribed for a

pollutants

pollutant

that

is

potentially

harmful, the owner shall conduct

I. AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

its operation or process BY THE

A. Visible Opacity Standard

BEST PRACTICABLE MEANS as


may be necessary to PREVENT OR

for Smoke
Smoke shall not be darker than
Shade 1 (of the Ringelmann chart)

MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION.

D. Penalty

a.) For Non-Compliance

Exception:
a.) Emission of dark smoke for

May be allowed to operate and be

less than 5 mins in a period of 1

issued a temporary permit for 1

hour provided that:

YEAR on the condition:

Total period of emission shall

It pays first the penalty for


polluting = Php20.00 per KG of

not exceed 15 mins in any 24

SO2

mins

Shall not apply to cases of coldstart and upset conditions

b.) Not reasonably practical in


the opinion of the Department

B.

Maximum

Emission

Permissible

Limits

Particulate Matter

for

per

day

(provided further, the calculated

Smoke opacity shall not exceed

amt of the fine does not exceed

shade 3

discharged

Php5,000.00 a day)
Failure to pay, operation will be
stopped.

b.) Without permit


Not exceeding Php1,000 for each
day
Imprisonment of 2 years to 6 years
Both fine and imprisonment

E.

Actions

during

to

be

taken

2.) No person shall cause or

unhealthy

air

permit the discharge of visible

conditions
a.)

Very

fugitive
unhealthful

air

dusts

beyond

the

boundary line of the property


from

quality (Alert level)

which

the

emissions

originate

elderly and those with existing


heart or lung disease should stay

indoors

3.) When dusts, fumes gases, or

and

reduce

physical

activity

any combination thereof escape

from a building or equipment

b.)

Hazardous

air

that may affect the health of

quality

the

(Warning level)

people

around

it,

the

elderly and those with existing

government may instruct the

disease should stay indoors and

building or equipment to be

reduce physical activity

tightly closed and ventilates in a


way that the emissions have to

general population should avoid


outdoor activity

be treated first before it can

escape.

c.) Extremely Hazardous air

B.

quality (Emergency level)

Compounds

ALL persons should stay indoors

Organic
or

Organic

Compound Emission

1.)

II. PROHIBITED ACTS

1.)

No

person

shall

reservoir,

reasonable

taking

precautions

prevent such emission.

to

or

container

is

pressure sufficient under normal

source (vehicles, transport of


w/o

Handling

is not allowed unless such tank,

fugitive particulates from any


etc.),

and

Storage of more than 150,000L

cause,

permit, or allow the emissions of

materials,

Storage

Volatile Organic Compound:

A. Fugitive Particulates

Volatile

conditions

2.) Waste Gas Disposal:

No

person shall cause or permit the


emission of more than 7.0 kg

per day of waste gas from any

f.) Fires for training personnel in

ethylene emission source

the methods of fighting fires.


g.)

Recognized

agricultural,

3.) Organic Solvents:

forest and wildlife management

a.) No emission of more than

practices.

1.5 kg. of organic solvents in

h.)

b.) No more than 7.0 kg. in any


day,

by

the

Department.

any one hour


one

Approved

from

any

article,

machine, equipment, or other

6.) General Restrictions


a.) No plant or source shall

contrivance

operate

at

capacities

which

exceed the limits of operation or

4.) Nuisance:

capability of a control device to

No

one

should

release

maintain the air emission within

air

the standard limitations.

contaminants or materials that


are considered a nuisance in the

civil code of the PH

b.) No person shall implant any

new source, or operate, modify,

5.) Open Burning

or rebuild an existing source, or

Allowed reasons for open fire:

by any other means release or

a.) For cooking food

take action which would result

b.) Recreation/Ceremonies

in the release of air pollutants

c.) Fires to abate a fire hazard,

into the atmosphere and result

provided

the

hazard

is

in,

so

pollutants,

d.) Prevention and control of


of

is no

practical alternative method of


and

ambient

air

ambient air quality standards

dangerous

materials, when there


disposal

the

concentration greater than the

diseases or pests.
Disposal

with

concentrations of existing air

declared by the fire department.

e.)

together

burning,

approved by the Department.

if

c.) All pollution control devices


and systems shall be properly
and

consistently

maintained

and correctly operated in order


to maintain emissions.

d.)

In

the

event

that

any

emission source, air pollution


control equipment or related
facility fails or breaks down in
such a manner as to cause the
emission of air pollutants in
violation of these Rules and
Regulations,
responsible

the
for

person

such

source

equipment or facility shall notify


the Department within 24 hours
of such failure or breakdown.

e.) Any person intending to


erect,

install

or

alter

any

chimney, from or through which


air impurities may be emitted,
shall

obtain

prior

written

approval from the Department.


Republic Act No. 8749

Who- Be it enacted by the


Senate and House of
Representatives of the
Philippines in Congress
assembled
When- This Act shall be known
as the "Philippine Clean Air
Act of 1999." (June 23, 1999)
What- The State shall pursue a
policy of balancing development
and environmental protection.
To achieve this end, the frame
work for sustainable
development shall be pursued.
It shall be the policy of the State
to:

(a) Formulate a holistic


national program of air pollution
management that shall be
implemented by the
government through proper
delegation and effective
coordination of functions and
activities;

(b) Encourage
cooperation and self-regulation
among citizens and industries
through the application of
market-based instruments;

(e) Formulate and enforce


a system of accountability for
short and long-term adverse
environmental impact of a
project, program or activity. This
shall include the setting up of a
funding or guarantee
mechanism for clean-up and
environmental rehabilitation
and compensation for personal
damages.
Why- The State shall protect
and advance the right of the
people to a balanced and
healthful ecology in accord with
the rhythm and harmony of
nature.
The State shall promote and
protect the global environment
to attain sustainable
development while recognizing
the primary responsibility of
local government units to deal
with environmental problems.
The State recognizes that the
responsibility of cleaning the
habitat and environment is
primarily area-based.
The State also recognizes the
principle that "polluters must
pay".

(c) Focus primarily on


pollution prevention rather than
on control and provide for a
comprehensive management
program for air pollution;

Finally, the State recognizes


that a clean and healthy
environment is for the good of
all and should, therefore, be the
concern of all.

(d) Promote public


information and education and
to encourage the participation
of an informed and active public
in air quality planning and
monitoring; and

IMEENVI REVIEWER

KYOTO PROTOCOL
Negotiated on: 11 December 1997
Enforced on: 16 February 2005
192 parties have ratified the treaty
Goal: stabilization of greenhouse
gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would
prevent interference with the
climate system.
Reduce the 4 harmful Greenhouse
Gases (GHG):
- CO2
- Methane
- Nitrous Oxide
- Sulfur Hexafluoride
Reduce emissions by 5.2% against
1990 levels over the period 2008
2012
KYOTO MECHANISMS
Emissions Trading
- Allows countries that have
emission units to spare to sell
this excess capacity to
countries that are over their
targets.
- Since Carbon is the principle
GHG, its often called CARBON
MARKET and CARBON PERMITS
Clean Development Mechanism
- Involves investment in
sustainable development
projects that reduce emissions
in developing countries
Joint Implementation
- Allows industrialized
countries to meet part of
their required cuts in
greenhouse-gas emissions
by paying for projects that
reduce emissions in other
industrialized countries.

MONTREAL PROTOCOL
Since: 1987
Every country in the world has
ratified this treaty

Goal: to preserve the ozone layer


and the global environment by
replacing ozone depleting
chemicals with safer alternatives
The ozone layer is expected to
recover by 2050
Examples of Ozone depleting
chemicals that have been phased
out:
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
- Methyl Bromide found in
pesticide
- Halon used in fire-fighting

Global environmental challenges


Ozone depletion
- explains much of the observed reduction in stratospheric
and upper tropospheric temperatures
-The source of the warmth of the stratosphere is the absorption of
UV radiation by ozone, hence reduced ozone leads to cooling
- Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects
- Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more
ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth

Acid deposition
- occurs when acid-forming pollutants in the air are deposited on
the earths surface
- main acid-forming pollutants are sulphur dioxide (SO2)
and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
These substances interact with water in the
atmosphere to form mild acids that return to the earth in four ways:
- mixed with rain to form acid rain;

- mixed with snow or hail, which form acids as they melt;


- as particles of solid matter, which form an acid when they mix with water in
lakes and rivers
-as dry deposition of gases and particles.


-Common air pollutants like Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen form acids
in
water.
Sulphur dioxide comes from smelters (such as the nickel smelters in
-Sudbury, Ontario), gas processing plants, oil sands plants, coal-fired power
plants, and transportation (trains and vehicles).
-Oxides of nitrogen come from
the same sources with nearly half of it coming from transportation source

IMEENVI report: Solid Waste treatment, minimization, ra 9003


INTRODUCTION
Significance
Statistics

2011, approximately 25% of the total daily output of solid waste


in the Philippines comes from Metro Manila. 230% of the global average
(which is 0.3 kg)

National solid waste output is 35,000 tons.


MM produces about 8,500 tons of trash per day

50%
17%
16%
17%

biodegradable waste like food leftovers.


paper
plastics
or so are metals, ceramics, rubber, and leather.

Of the total amount of biodegradable waste, only less than 30%


is recycled into compost.

What is solid waste?

Solid waste refers to all non-toxic solid waste. OBV.

What are the different kinds of solid waste? (according to ra 9003)

Compostable:
(1) biodegradable wastes such as food waste, garden waste, animal waste
and human waste

(2) undergo biological degradation under controlled conditions

(3) can be turned into compost (soil conditioner or organic fertilizer) by


mixing them with soil, water, air and (optional) biological additives/activators.

Recyclable:
(1) any waste material retrieved from the waste stream and free from
contamination that can still be converted into suitable beneficial
use

(2) may be transformed into new products in such a manner that the
original products may lose their identity.

Residual:

(1) non-compostable and non-recyclable

(2) should be disposed ecologically through a long-term disposal facility


or sanitary landfill.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Special wastes: household hazardous wastes.

ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MINIMIZATION


What is solid waste management? (according to ra 9003)

Solid waste management shall refer to the discipline associated with


the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport,
processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the
best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation,
aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also
responsive to public attitudes

Phases of SWM
Generation: Houses, commercial establishments, and factories generate solid
wastes.
Storage: Where garbage is stored. Example: houses - garbage cans,
restaurants - garbage cans or small dumps nearby
Collection, Transfer and Transport: The government is usually in charge of
this. Generally, garbage is collected and transported to the processing site or
directly to dumpsites. In urban areas, garbage is usually collected regularly
(can be everyday or a few times a week).
Processing (if any)
Disposal: The final phase of solid waste management, where wastes are
stored in dumpsites.

Approaches to ESWM
Ecological Solid Waste Management refers to the systematic administration of
activities which provide for segregation at source, segregated transportation,
storage, transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste and all
other waste management activities which do not harm the environment.

1. Segregation of wastes at source.


2. Separate container for each type of waste
3. The use of special collection schedules and/or separate trucks or haulers
must be required for specific types of wastes.
4. Recyclable wastes should be taken to the Materials Recovery Facility in every
(cluster of) barangays
5. Compostable wastes should be composted either in the backyard or the
community composting site
6. Hazardous wastes are further screened and sent to appropriate hazardous
waste treatment and disposal plants.
7. Residual wastes shall be transferred to a long-term storage or disposal facility
or sanitary landfill.

Actors that need to be involved in solid waste minimization

Government: right policy framework and legislation, incentives to


reduce waste generation at the source, ensure adequate infrastructure,
strengthen waste markets, sustainable procurement

Industries: integrate RE and decoupling in production strategies and


invest in adequate production processes, technologies and
research/innovation; Waste Minimization Work Plan 2012-2013

Designers and producers: new products, dematerialization, life


cycle management, eco-design

Retailers and entrepreneurs: access to sustainable products,


product service systems, and access to distribution of products (collaborative
consumption, ebay, car share etc)

Consumers: making better choices, recycling schemes, shifting to


services instead of products (eg velib.fr), making use of repair services and
purchasing from redistribution points ( boncoin.fr, ebay.com). Scavengers
and waste pickers: important to increase work conditions and better salaries,
new opportunities for decent job

RA 9003: ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF 2000


An Act providing for an ecological solid waste management program, creating
the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts
prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefor, and for other
purposes

passed by the congress on December 20, 2000, signed by the president on


January 26, 2001

Violations
1. Littering = 300 - 100 pesos / community service 1-15 days
2. violation of sanitation, open burning of solid waste = 300 - 100 pesos /
community service 1-15 days
3. Squatting in open dumps = 1000-3000 pesos/prison 15-6 months
4. The mixing of source-separated recyclable material with other solid waste =
1000-3000 pesos/prison 15-6 months
5. The manufacture, distribution or use of non-environmentally acceptable
packaging materials = 500,000 + 5 percent to 10 percent of his annual
income during the previous year+prison 1 - 3 years
6. Importation of toxic wastes misrepresented as "recyclable" or "with recyclable
content" = 500,000 + 5 percent to 10 percent of his annual income during
the previous year+prison 1 - 3 years
7. Transport and dumping in bulk of collected domestic, industrial, commercial
and institutional wastes in areas other than centers of facilities prescribed
under the Act. = 10,000 - 200,000 / prison less 3o days to three years (or
both)

8. Site preparation, construction, expansion or operation of waste management


facilities without an Environmental Compliance Certificate required pursuant
to Presidential Decree No. 1586 and the Act and not conforming with the land
use plan of the LGU Para 15. The construction of any establishment within
two hundred (200) meters from open dump or controlled dumps or sanitary
landfills 100,000 - 1,000,000 / prison 1-6 years or both
8. The construction or operation of landfills or any waste disposal facility on any
aquifer, groundwater reservoir or watershed area and/or any portion thereof.

Solid Environment
- Any material that is discarded
from a plant, a company or a
factory is considered to be a
solid waste
- It can be garbage, a refuse, a
sludge from a wastewater
Sources, Classification, and
Composition

Sources:
Residential
Industrial
Commercial
Institutional
Construction and Demolition
Municipal Services
Process (Manufacturing, etc.)
Agriculture

Classification:
Residential Solid Wastes
Generators:
Single and Family dwellings.
Usually found in houses,
apartments or condominiums.

Types of Solid Wastes:


Commercial Solid Wastes
Generator:
Stores, hotels, restaurants,
markets, office buildings, etc.
Types of Solid Wastes:
Paper, cardboard, plastics,
wood,
food wastes, glass, metals,
special
wastes and hazardous wastes.

Institutional Solid Wastes


Generator:
Schools, hospitals, prisons and
government centers.
Types of Solid Wastes:

treatment plant or air pollution


control facility
- These materials are usually
common in industrial,
commercial, mining and
agricultural operations

Food wastes, paper,


cardboard,
plastics, textiles, leather, yard
wastes, wood, glass, metals,
ashes
and special wastes.

Industrial Solid Wastes


Generator:
Light and heavy
manufacturing,
fabrication, construction sites,
power and chemical plants.
Types of Solid Wastes
Housekeeping wastes,
packaging,
food wastes, construction and
demolition materials, hazardous
wastes, ashes and special
wastes.

Same as commercial wastes

Construction and Demolition


Solid Wastes Generator:
New Construction sites, road
repair, renovation sites,
demolition
of buildings.
Types of Solid Wastes:
Wood, steel, concrete, dirt,
etc.

Municipal Solid Wastes

Generator:
Street cleaning, landscaping,
parks,
beaches, other recreational
areas,
water and wastewater
treatment
plants
Types of Solid Wastes:
Street sweepings; landscape
and
tree trimmings general wastes
from parks and beaches.

Process (Manufacturing, etc.)


Solid Wastes
Generator:
Heavy and light
manufacturing,
refineries, chemical plants,
power
plants, mineral extraction and
processing.
Types of Solid Waste
Industrial process wastes and
scrap
Materials

Agricultural Solid Wastes


Generator:
Crops, orchards, vineyards,
dairies,
feedlots and farms.
Types of Solid Waste:
Spoiled food wastes,
agricultural
wastes and hazardous wastes.

Composition:
Composition of Solid Wastes
Composition is described as
the individual components that
make up a

solid waste and their relative


distribution.
This is important in evaluating
equipment needs, systems,
equipment and
management programme and
planning.
The residential and
commercial makes up about 5075 of total MSW
(Municipal Solid Waste)
generated in a community.
Actual percentage distribution
usually depends on:
The extent of construction
and demolition activities.
The extent of municipal
services provided.
The types of water and
wastewater treatment process
that are used.
Because the heterogeneous
nature of solid wastes,
determination of the
composition is not an easy task
for factory and plant managers
and
engineers.
Common sense and random
sampling techniques are
evolved for
determining composition.
The field procedure for
component identification for
commercial and
industrial waste involves the
analysis of representative waste
samples
taken directly from the source.

Waste Generation, Transport


and Handling
FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:
1. Waste Generation

2. On-site Handling, Storage and


Processing
3. Collection
4. Transfer and Transport
5. Processing and Recovery
6. Disposal

1. Waste Generation
activities in which materials
are no longer identified as being
of value and are either being
thrown away or gathered for
disposal
Generation Rate of Municipal
Solid Waste
used to obtain data to
determine waste volume and for
subsequent solid
waste management

Generation Rate of Municipal


Solid Waste
Units of expression for types of
waste:
Household: kg per capita/day
Commercial: kg per x/day (x =
m of floor area of commercial
establishment, unit vol. or $ in
sales, no. of employees, etc.)
Institutional: kg per x/day (x =
no. of students, no. of visitors,
m of park
area or public place, etc.)
Industrial: kg per x/day (x =
unit vol. or $ of production
input, m of floor
area, no. of employees, etc.)

2. On-Site Handling, Storage


and Processing

a. On-Site Handling - associated


with the handling of solid waste
until they
are placed in containers used
for storage before collection,
which can take
place before during or after
storage
Importance:
reduce volume of waste
generated
alter physical form
recover usable materials
On-Site Handling Methods:
1. Segregation
2. Shredding
3. Grinding
4. Composting

b. On-Site Storage - requires


facilities to temporarily store
refuse on the
premises; individual owners
have responsibility for onsite
storage of solid
waste
Factors:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Type of container
Location of container
Public Health
Collection Method and Time

c. On-site Processing - improves


disposal options, recover
valuable
resources, and prepare
materials for recovery as new
products or energy
Factors to consider in
evaluating:
1. Capabilities
2. Reliability
3. Environmental Effects
4. Ease of Operation
5. Safety to Workers and Local
Community
6. Efficiency
7. Economics
8. Aesthetics (noise, odor, litter,
increased traffic)

Objectives:
Component Separation (i.e.
hand sorting, screening,
magnetic separation,
air classification for lighter
materials)
Volume Reduction (i.e. bailing,
shredding, incineration)
Size Reduction (shredding,
grinding)
Resource Recovery
(compacting, energy recovery,
material recovery)

Waste Minimization
a process of elimination that
involves reducing the amount of
waste
produced in society

helps eliminate the generation


of harmful and persistent
wastes
supports the efforts to
promote a more sustainable
society
primary focus for most waste
management strategies
includes source reduction and
recycling

Benefits:
It can improve:
Efficient production practices
Economic returns
Public image
Quality of products produced
Environmental responsibility
Recycling
What is recycling?
means separating, collecting,
processing, marketing, and
ultimately using a
material that would otherwise
have been thrown away
Some benefits are:
reduces air and water
pollution/emissions associated
with landfilling and
incineration

conserves our natural


resources such as timber, water,
and minerals because
it reduces the need for raw
materials.
saves energy
decrease emissions of
greenhouse gases that
contribute to global climate
change
helps sustain the
environment for future
generations.

What can be recycled?


Each local recycling program is
designed to handle specific
materials. Commonly
recycled materials include:
Paper - Newspaper, office
paper, cardboard, and other
paper types
Yard trimmings - Grass,
leaves, and shrub and tree
clippings are recycled by
composting
Glass - Bottles and jars (clear,
green, and amber)
Aluminum - Beverage
containers
Other metals - Steel cans,
auto bodies, refrigerators,
stoves, and batteries
Used motor oil - Vehicle
crankcase oil
Plastics - Soda bottles, milk
jugs, bags, and detergent
containers.

Solid Waste Treatment and


Management

Incineration (Thermal
Treatment)

-Process of disposing solid


waste through combustion
-Oldest and most effective way
of waste management
-Used mostly on solid residue
from solid and waste water
management, clinical waste
(blood, needles, scalpels, body
parts), and hazardous waste
(paint, solvents, aerosols)
-Converts waste into ash, flue
gas (gas that exits flue/pipes.
Mainly comprised of nitrogen
carbon dioxide, water vapour,
and excess oxygen) and heat
-Can generate electricity
-Commonly used in Japan,
Netherlands, Luxembourg,
France, and Sweden or
countries where land is scarce
-Controversial waste
management method
Process of Incineration

Drying and degassing


volatile content are
degassed from solid
waste at 100-300 C
does not require any
oxidizing agent. Depends
only on heat
Pyrolysis and gasification

pyrolysis is the further


decomposition of organic
substances at approx.
250 700 C.
Gasification is the
reaction of the residues
with water vapour and
CO2 at temperatures,
typically between 500

and 1000 C, but can


occur at temperatures up
to 1600 C.
Solid organic matter is
transferred to the
gaseous phase. In
addition to the
temperature, water,
steam and oxygen
support this reaction
oxidation
The combustible gases
created in the previous
stages are oxidised at
flue-gas temperatures
generally between 800
and 1450 C.

Composting

Compost Decomposed organic


material often used as an
alternative for artificial fertilizer
Process of composting
Happens naturally

Disposal of Solid Wastes Sanitary Landfill

What is a Sanitary Landfill?


major method of disposing
waste materials in North
America and other
developed countries
sites where waste is isolated
from the environment until it is
safe
It is considered safe when it
has completely degraded
biologically,
chemically and physically.
popular alternative
it is simple and versatile

not sensitive to the shape,


size, or weight of a particular
waste material

Four basic conditions should


be met before a site can be
regarded as a
sanitary landfill.
Full or partial hydrogeological
isolation
Formal engineering
preparations
Permanent control
Planned waste emplacement
and covering
leachate- water that has
percolated(filtered gradually)
through a solid and
leached out some of the
constituents

engineered pit
in which layers of solid waste
are filled, compacted and
covered for final disposal
consists of:

a lined bottom

leachate collection and


treatment system

groundwater monitoring

gas extraction

cap system

Stages of decomposition

1st stage: Aerobic Phase


solid wastes that are
biodegradable react with the
oxygen in the landfill and begin
to form
carbon dioxide and water
weak acids are formed and
dissolves some of the minerals

2nd stage: Anaerobic


Phase
microorganisms that do not
need oxygen break down the
wastes into hydrogen,
ammonia, carbon dioxide and
inorganic acids.

3rd stage
gas is produced
about half of the gas produced
will be carbon dioxide
the other half will be methane

Advantages
Effective disposal method if
managed well
Sanitary disposal method if
managed effectively
Energy production and fast
degradation if designed as a
bioreactor landfill

Disadvantages
Fills up quickly if waste is not
reduced and reusable waste is
not collected
separately and recycled
A reasonably large area is
required
Risk of groundwater
contamination if not sealed
correctly or the liner
system is damaged
High costs for high-tech
landfills
If not managed well, there is a
risk of the landfill degenerating
into an
open dump
Once the landfill site is shut
down O&M and monitoring must
continue for
the following 50 to 100 years

Republic Act 9003 ,


Ecological Management Act
of 2000

When: January 26, 2001


Who: Be it enacted by the
Senate and House of
Representative of the
Philippines in Congress
assembled:
What/Why: It is hereby declared
the policy of the State to adopt
a systematic, comprehensive
and ecological solid waste
management program which
shall:

(a) Ensure the protection


of the public health and
environment;

(b) Utilize
environmentally-sound methods
that maximize the utilization of
valuable resources and
encourage resource
conservation and recovery;

(c) Set guidelines and


targets for solid waste
avoidance and volume
reduction through source
reduction and waste
minimization measures,
including composting, recycling,
re-use, recovery, green charcoal
process, and others, before
collection, treatment and
disposal in appropriate and
environmentally sound solid
waste management facilities in
accordance with ecologically
sustainable development
principles;


(d) Ensure the proper
segregation, collection,
transport, storage, treatment
and disposal of solid waste
through the formulation and
adoption of the best
environmental practice in
ecological waste management
excluding incineration;

(e) Promote national


research and development
programs for improved solid
waste management and
resource conservation
techniques, more effective
institutional arrangement and
indigenous and improved
methods of waste reduction,
collection, separation and
recovery;

(f) Encourage greater


private sector participation in
solid waste management;

(g) Retain primary


enforcement and responsibility
of solid waste management with
local government units while
establishing a cooperative effort

among the national


government, other local
government units, nongovernment organizations, and
the private sector;

(h) Encourage
cooperation and self-regulation
among waste generators
through the application of
market-based instruments;

(i) Institutionalize public


participation in the
development and
implementation of national and
local integrated,
comprehensive, and ecological
waste management programs;
and

(j) Strength the


integration of ecological solid
waste management and
resource conservation and
recovery topics into the
academic curricula of formal
and non-formal education in
order to promote environmental
awareness and action among
the citizenry.

Hazardous Wastes - solid


waste or a combination of solid
waste that because of its
chemical, quantity or physical
properties may be considered
harmful

Characteristics -

Ignitability
o Wastes that can
spontaneously ignite or
create fires
o Have a flash point of less
than 60 C

1. Liquid Water-based
solution containing more
than 24% alcohol (ex: oilbased paints, solvents)

2. Solids Spontaneously
combust due to friction or
moisture; Persistent burning
once ignited (ex. Rags in
linseed oil)

3. Gas Burns when mixed


with less than 13% air (ex.
Aerosol)

Corrositivity
o Acids or bases that are
capable of corroding
metal containers
o Any other liquid that will
corrode steel faster than
inch per year
o Aqueous; Strong acids or
strong bases (have a pH
less than or equal to 2, or

greater than or equal to


12.5)
Can destroy skin by
catalyzing the hydrolysis
of fats
Denature or dehydrate
proteins
Most hazardous to
eyesight causes
blindness within 2-10
seconds destruction of
the cornea
Ex. Battery acid, ferric
chloride

Reactivity
o unstable
o reacts with water
o potentially explosives
with water
o cannot be exposed to
materials with a PH level
of 2.0 and 12.5
o detonation under heat
o Examples: crystallized
picric acid, cyanide
solutions, lithium sulfur
batteries and explosives

Toxicity
o harmful or fatal when
ingested
o contaminated water may
leach from the waste and
pollute ground water

TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC
LEACHING PRODECUDRE

helps identify wastes that would


likely leach chemicals into the
environment

RULE OF 20

Solid wastes

TLCP involves a 20 fold dilution


of the leachate

leaching test using an


acidic solution

comparison of threshold
concentration

Liquid wastes

contains less than 0.5%


filterable solids
comparison of threshold
concentration

Multi-phase waste

both solid and liquid


components are
separated

comparison of threshold
concentration

TLCP can be expensive

If the total concentration is less


than 20 times the hazardous
waste threshold, it is not
hazardous,
If the total concentration is
more than 20 times the
hazardous waste threshold, is it
hazardous.
Liquid wastes cannot be tested
by this method.

Hazardous Wastes Legislations

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET


Only hazardous component
more than 1% are listed
toxic contaminant may not be
listed

products that will not be used


and disposed of

The Philippine Chemical and


Hazardous Wastes
Emergency Management
Program

The objectives the


Philippine Chemical and
Hazardous Wastes Emergency
Management is to establish a
national framework for
concerted action by the
industry, government and
community to address incidents
involving chemicals or
hazardous wastes. (For the
purpose of this program
radioactive materials are
excluded.)

products that will be used and


be disposed of

Major Elements of a
Chemicals and Hazardous
Wastes Emergency Action
Plan

Organization and Personnel


responsibilities

Planning, hazard analysis, and


plan updating

Training

Drills and Exercise

Facilities, supplies, and


equipment

Detection, alarm, and


notification procedures

Response Functions

Containment and clean-up

Documentation and
investigation follow-up

The program is a guide for the


formulation of local emergency
management plans.

The local plan will depend on


the hazards existing in the area,
i.e., types of chemicals and
hazardous wastes, local
geography and climate, time
variables, particular
characteristics of chemical and
wastes facilities and
transportation routes, and the
capability of local industry,
government and community.

Other Legislations
RA 6969*
PD 1586^ -

Established the
countrys
Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS)
system
o EIS system- classifies
certain projects or
areas including those
which involve the use
of chemicals and the
generation or
management of
hazardous wastes as
environmentally
critical.

o ECC- (Environmental
Compliance
Certificate) issued by
the President or his
representative, either
the DENR Secretary or
Director or Regional
Director of the
Environmental
Management Bureau
(EMB).
-contains the key
conditions which must
be satisfied by the
project proponent in
order to protect or
enhance the
environment.
o ERA- (Environmental
Risk Assessment)

- discusses
the hazardous
substances and
situations of the
project;

PD 1566 - the overarching


law of the country on
disaster management
o

RA 7160 - The act reinforced


the responsibilities of local
chief executives on disaster
management.
PD 1185 - Fire Code of the
Philippines
*See Angeleens Reviewer
^PD- Presidential Decree

R.A. 6969
(Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of
1990)
An act to control toxic substances and hazardous and nuclear wastes,
providing penalties for violations thereof, and for other purposes.
Passed: September 6, 1990.
Approved: October 26, 1990

OBJECTIVES
1. To keep an inventory of chemicals that are being imported and manufactured in
the country.
2. To monitor and regulate the chemical substances in the country.
3. To inform and educate the people regarding the risks and hazards of chemical
substances.
4. To prevent the entry of hazardous and nuclear wastes in the country.

POLICY
1. To regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture, processing, sale,
distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present
unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment
2. To prohibit the entry of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the
Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose
3. To provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals.

DENR: FUNCTIONS, POWERS & RESPONSIBILITIES


1. To keep an updated inventory of the presently used chemicals.
2. To require chemical substances/mixtures be tested BEFORE they are
manufactured and those PRESENTLY being manufactured.
3. To evaluate the characteristics and determine the toxicity and effects of the
chemicals.
4. To enter into contracts and make grants for research, development, and
monitoring of chemical substances and mixtures.
5. To conduct inspection of any establishment
6. To confiscate or impound chemicals violating the act
7. To monitor and prevent the entry or disposal of waste into the country
8. To subpoena (require) witnesses and documents and to require other information
9. To call for assistance in any govt office as the need arises.
10.To disseminate information and conduct educational awareness campaigns
11.To exercise powers and perform other functions as may be necessary

INTER-AGENCY TECHNICAL ADVISORY COUNCIL


Chairman: Secretary of DENR
Members:
Secretary of DOST

Secretary of DND (National Defense)


Secretary of DOLE (Labor and Employment)
Secretary of DOH
Secretary of DFA (Foreign Affairs)
Secretary of DTI (Trade & Industry)
Secretary of DOF (Finance)
Secretary of DA
Director of Phil. Nuclear Research Institute
Representative from an NGO (non-govt organization) appointed by the
President 3 yr. term

FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCIL


1. To assist the DENR in:
a. formulation of rules
b. inventory updates
2. To conduct preliminary evaluation of substances and make the necessary
recommendations
3. To perform other functions required by DENR

PRE-MANUFACTURE & PRE-IMPORTATION REQUIREMENTS


Manufacturer/importers shall submit the ff. info:
1. Name of chemical substance
2. Chemical identity and molecular structure
3. Proposed categories of use
4. Estimation of amount to be processed
5. Processing and disposal
6. Health and environmental effects

CHEMICALS SUBJECT TO TESTING


Testing shall be required in all cases where:
1. There is a reason to believe that the chemical substances present an
unreasonable risk to health or the environment
2. insufficient data and experience for determining the health and
environmental effects of the chemicals
3. necessary to develop data

ACTIONS BY THE SECRETARY


Secretary shall (within 90 days from date of filing of notice of
manufacture/importation of a chemical substance) decide whether or not to
regulate or prohibit its importations, sale, manufacture, processing,
distribution, use, or disposal.

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EXEMPTED FROM PRE-MANUFACTURE


NOTIFICATION
The manufacture of the ff. chemical substances shall be exempted from premanufacture notification:

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.

Existing substances already in the list


Small quantities produced for research/experiment purposes
Substances that will not present an unreasonable risk
Substances that exists temporarily

PUBLIC ACCESS TO RECORDS, REPORTS, AND NOTIFICATIONS


Public can access documents concerning:
Chemical substances and mixtures
Safety data submitted and NOT confidential files that would divulge trade
secrets, productions or sales figure/methods, unique production processes of
certain manufacturers.
3. Data of emission and discharge in the environment

PROHIBITED ACTS, OFFENSES AND PENALTIES


Prohibited Acts:
1. Using a chemical substance which violates this act.
2. Failure/refusal to submit reports or access to records and inspection to
establishment where chemicals are stored/processed.
3. Failure/refusal to comply with the pre-manufacture and pre-importation
requirements.
Penalties (#1-3):
Individuals:
Imprisonment of 1 day with a fine: Php600-4,000
Imprisonment of 6 months & 1 day 6 yrs & 1 day
Foreigners: deported and banned to enter Philippines
Govt officials & employees:
Automatically dismissed from office
Permanently disqualified from holding any elective positions.
Corporations:
The partner, president, director or manager shall be directly liable for the act
of the employees and shall be criminally liable as a co-principal.

Prohibited Act:
4. Cause, aid or facilitate, directly or indirectly, in the storage, importation, or
bringing into Philippines territory, including its maritime economic zones,
even in transit, either by means of land, air or sea transportation or otherwise
keeping in storage any amount of hazardous and nuclear wastes in any part
of the Philippines.
Penalties (#4):
Individuals:
Imprisonment: 12 yrs & 1 day 20 yrs
Foreigners: deported and banned
Corporations:
Penalty imposed to CEO/President
Fine: at least Php500,000
Foreign firms: banned from PH and cancellation of business license in PH

Govt officials & employees:


Dismissed from office
Permanently disqualified from holding any position

Every penalty imposed on unlawful importation of chemical substances will


carry with it the confiscation and forfeiture of the proceeds of the unlawful act and
or other improvements used in or with which the offense was committed.

The person or firm responsible or connected with the bringing or importation


into the country of hazardous or nuclear wastes shall be under obligation to
transport or send back said prohibited wastes.

ADMINISTRATIVE FINES
There will be a fine not less than Php10,000.00, but not more than
Php50,000.00 upon any person found guilty

Administrative fines imposed and collected by DENR will be a special


fund for projects and research activities relative to toxic substances and mixtures.

VIOLATORS EXAMPLES:
1. March 7, 2001: DENR officer-in-charge Joemari Gerochi said CHEVALIER
ENVIRO SERVICES, INC (CESI) has been the subject of numerous calls from
residents from Bormaheco compound in Paranaque and from other businesses.
a. CESIS clientele include Jesus Delgado Hospital, de Los Santos Medical
Center, Capitol Medical, FEU Hospital, Las Pinas District Hospital, and Rizal
Medical Center among others.
b. ISSUES: Allegedly illegally dispose hospital wastes such as syringes, diapers,
syringe packing used for bloodletting, dextrose, used adult diaper, used
sanitary napkins, bandages, PVC tubing mixed with other industrial and
municipal wastes as well as electronic equipment
c. ACTION TAKEN: investigating team was sent to CESI and if found guilty,
officials may be punished by imprisonment of 12 years and 1 day to 20 years
and a fine of Php500,000. Punishment will be imposed on the managing
partner, the president or chief executive. The investigating team will also
inspect if the corporation has an environmental compliance certificate (ECC)
and if they do, further investigation will be made whether they have violated
the conditions of its ECC.
2. Dec. 7, 2011: DENR secretary Ramon J.P. Paje suspends transporter permits of
Chevalier Enviro Services, INC (CESI) and the AEC Hauling Services
(AEC).
a. ISSUES: For allegedly transporting and attempting to dump untreated
medical waste at a Landfill I Capas, Tarlac
b. ISSUES: Hospital wastes loaded in the two trucks were unsafe to transport
due to unsanitary condition such as foul odor and drenching of blood
residue.
c. ACTIONS TAKEN: suspension orders were signed by Environmental
Management Bureau (EMB) Director Juan Miguel Cuna

3. Four lead smelting plants in Nueva Ecija


a. Asia Pacific Resources Inc., Solid Lead Inc. a private unnamed
company were given a cease and desist order to stop all operations from
these companies from continuing
b. The Oceanic Fishing Gear Inc. was issued a notice of violation of its
environmental compliance certificate due to failing to meet standards that
would ensure the safety of the public and the environment.
c. Reasons to stop: illegal business, arent taxed, operations arent monitored

PROMULGATION OF RULES & REGULATIONS


DENR shall prepare and publish the rules and regulations implementing this Act
within six months from the date of its effectivity

EFFECTIVITY
This Act shall take effect after 15 days following its publication in the Official
Gazette or in any newspaper of general circulation

BUDGET
Given annually, and amount is based on the provisions that will implemented
which is included in the budget of the DENR

SEPARABILITY
If a provision is declared void or is considered as unconstitutional, the remaining
provisions that are not affected will still remain applicable

REPEALING
Laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, and rules that are in conflict with
this Act are repealed or changed to fit accordingly


STOCKHOLM CONVENTION on PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

When/where - The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is


an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May
2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent
organic pollutants (POPs).
Who- Presidential Decree 1144
-Creates an agency called Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA)
- the agency is tasked to regulate and monitor production, importation and
use of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals in the country.
- has power to issue rules about use of fertilizers and chemicals
- no chemicals or fertilizers should be used unless they are registered by the
FPA
-Any person who violates any of the provisions of this Decree or any of the
provisions of the rules and regulations issued or promulgated by FPA or
pesticide, shall be liable to a penal servitude of not in excess of one year or a
fine of P5,000.00 but not more than P10,000.00 provided that if the violation
is committed by a corporation, firm, partnership, cooperative, association or
any other entity, the penalty shall be imposed upon the guilty officials or
officers of such entities.

What:

The Convention requires its Parties to take measures to reduce or eliminate


releases from intentional and unintentional production and use of these
chemicals. These measures include the development and implementation of
action plans to be able to fulfill the Partys obligations to the Convention. In
summary, Parties to the Convention are obligated to:
- Immediately ban production and use of all POPs pesticides except DDT1
- Restrict the use of DDT for vector control and aim to phase it out over time
-

Ban production and use of PCBs and hexachlorobenzene


Phase out existing PCBs over the next 25 years
Dispose stockpiles of unwanted POPs
Reduce, with the ultimate aim of eliminating, unintentional POPs by-products
(dioxins, furans,PCBs, hexachlorobenzene)
Identify and manage contaminated sites

As documented in the report on Capacity and Needs Assessment for the


Implementation of the Convention on POPs, the most important POPs issues
are:
- Completion of the inventory of POPS including stockpiles and wastes
- Identification and management of POPs-contaminated sites

- Monitoring and surveillance of health status relevant to potential impacts of


POPs
- Screening, enforcement, and monitoring of present and potential POPs
chemicals
- Management and disposal of POPs-contaminated equipment (PCBs)
- Enforcement of existing laws relative to dioxin and furan emissions
- Lack of understanding and knowledge on POPs
- Limited capacity to monitor dioxins and furans releases