You are on page 1of 3

Comparative discussions about different types of fibres

M. Rezaul Karim Tutul


Fiber name
Acetate and
triacetate
fibers

Description
This type of fiber is known as a
regenerated man made
material. Acetate is derived
from cellulose by reacting
purified cellulose from wood
pulp with acetic acid and acetic
anhydride in presence of
sulfuric acid. Both materials are
heat resistant below their
melting point.

Application
The largest volume
application for
acetate fiber is
cigarette filters, but it
is also widely used in
women's wear.
Luxurious fibers are
available in a wide
range of colors and
lusters.

Acrylic and
modacrylic
fibers

These fibers are unique among


synthetic fibers because they
have an uneven surface. The
fibers are formed by additional
polymerization of at least 85%
by weight of acrylonitrile or
vinyl chanide.

Aramid and
polyimide
fibers

Polyimide fiber is spun from


the polymer by wet or dry
processing techniques. This is
done using a polar organic
solvent.
These fibers are strong, light,
and can be mixed with other
materials. Carbon fiber
technology converts carbon to
graphite to form tightly packed
fibers.

Acrylic fibers can be


artificial wool
because it has the
warmth and softness
of wool but does not
absorb water. It is
often used as cold
weather fiber for
blankets and
sweaters.
Polyimide fabric is
flame retardant and
can be used in hightemp applications.

Carbon and
graphite

Elastomeric
fibers

Spandex or
elastoester

They are cross linked natural


and synthetic rubbers, spandex
fibers (segmented
polyurethanes), anidex fibers
(cross linked polyacrylates) and
the side-by-side biconstituent
fiber of nylon and spandex. The
fibers can have elongations
(400-800%) at break and recover
fully and rapidly.
Spandex is a lightweight
manufactured material that can

Advantages
They are fast
drying are resistant
to moths and
mildew. Triacetate
has excellent
sunlight resistance
but acetate does
not. They are
shrink-resistant
and wrinkleresistant.
They have a high
resistance to
chemical and
biological
degradation as well
as degradation
from sunlight.
Acrylic is
lightweight and
strong.
These fibers are
lighter and tougher
than steel.

The material is used


to produce highquality devices such
as golf-clubs and
fishing rods and can
be used for
composites for air
crafts and autos.
The term elastomer is
derived from elastic
polymer, which is
also known as
rubber.

It is used when a
stretch fiber is

It is a soft fabric
that is resistant to

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
include poor
abrasion
resistance,
susceptible to
attack by
household
chemicals.

High heat can


melt the fabric.

be stretched over 500% without


breaking. Elastoester is a
substitute for spandex.

needed.

It is a high-performance
material that has high strength
and durability. Fluoropolymers
are resistant to many chemicals
and high heat.
It is an artificial fiber made of
polyamide which contains
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and
hydrogen. The material is also
resistant to wrinkling, does not
absorb water, and it dries
quickly.

They are used in


nonstick cook and
bake ware.

Nylon can be used in


carpet. High-filament
nylon yarns are often
blended with
spandex and used in
athletic apparel,
swimwear, and
hosiery.

The fiber is
durable, strong,
resists stains, hides
soil, resists mildew
and bacteria,
prevents static, and
is resistant to
abrasion.

Polyolefin
fibers

They are produced by chain


growth polymerization of
olefins (alkenes) and contain
greater than 85% polymerized
ethylene, propylene, or other
olefin units.

Polyolefin fibers are


resistant to stains,
sunlight, odor and
chemicals, mildew,
rot, and weather.
They are fast drying
and have a high
wick-ability making
them useful for spill
cleanup.

The advantages of
this material
include its strength,
ability to float,
lightness, and
resistance to
abrasion.

Polyester

The most important synthetic


fiber. They contain at least 85%
of polymericester of a
substituted aromatic carboxylic
acid including, but not
restricted to, terephthalic acid
and f-hydroxybenzoic acid. The
manufacturing process uses
melt-spinning so the size and
shape can be adjusted for
specific applications.

It is utilized in all
types of clothing,
home furnishings,
and as a reinforcing
fiber in tires, belts,
and hoses. New
insulating polyester
fiberfill are used in
high-performance
outdoor wear.

Polyethylene

It is produced by the formation


of an ester bond between
terephthalic acid and ethylene

Polyethylene fibers
are used in police and
military ballistic

It's versatile and


has low raw
material and
production costs.
Polyester is
resistant to
abrasion, has the
ability to spring
back into shape,
does not absorb
water, and dries
quickly.
High Molecular
Weight
Polyethylene

Fluropolyme
r

Nylon

abrasion and can


resist body oils,
perspiration and
detergents. It does
not have static or
pilling problems.

Disadvantages
include: the
fabric melts
when exposed
to high heat, can
be
uncomfortable
to wear next to
skin, and
absorbs oil and
grease.
Disadvantages
include
problems with
static and pilling
as well as a low
tolerance for
high
temperature
which tends to
cause swelling
in the presence
aromatic and
chlorinated
hydrocarbons.
Disadvantages
include, melting
when exposed
to high heat and
it absorbs oils
and grease
making it
difficult to clean.
It does attract
static electricity.

Polypropyle
ne

Polyphenyle
ne sulfide
(PPS)

Polyvinyl
chloride
(PVC)/ Vinyl

Vinyon fiber
or Vinal

Rayon/Lyoce
ll

glycol. The material floats,


resists chemicals and water,
and exhibits superior fiber-tofiber abrasion.

vests, helmets and


armored vehicles,
sailcloth, fishing lines
and lifting slings, cutresistant gloves, and
a wide range of
safety apparel.

It is a vinyl polymer, similar to


polyethylene. The structure has
a methyl group attached to
every other carbon in the
backbone chain./p>
It is a specialty fiber
characterized with high
resistance to thermal and
chemical attack as well as
resistance to heat, solvents,
acids and alkalis, mildew, UV
light, and abrasion.

Polypropylene is
used for indooroutdoor carpeting
because it doesnt
absorb water.
PPS can be used for
home interior,
automobile, filter bag
cloth for a coal-fired
boiler, electrical
insulation, and as
filter material for
liquid and gas.
PVC fibers have low
success in the textile
industry because of
their low softening
point.

These fibers have a


polyethylene hydrocarbon
backbone with a substituted
functional group to determine
the physical and chemical
properties of the fiber.
Vinyon is composed of 85%
vinyl chloride
polymerize monomer units.
Vinal fibers are at least 50%
vinyl alcohol units in which at
least 85% of the units are
combined vinyl alcohol and
acetyl cross linked units.

This includes textile fibers and


filaments composed of
regenerated cellulose,
excluding acetate. It is
produced from naturally
occurring polymers. The fiber is
sold as artificial silk and it has a
serrated round shape with a
smooth surface.

Application of
vinyon is limited
because it dissolves
easily in organic
solvents. Vinal
resembles cotton and
high strength and
abrasion resistance
making it useful in
many applications.
Rayon is used in
fashion, furnishings,
sanitary products,
diapers, and medical
supplies.

(HMWP) is one of
the worlds
strongest and
lightest fibers.
Polyethylene fiber
is pound-for-pound
10 times stronger
than steel.

They do not burn,


and they resist
many chemicals.

The fibers have a


high chemical
resistance. They are
also resistant to
water.

Vinyon does not


burn; the fabric
will melt at
relatively low
temperatures.

A disadvantage
is that is loses
30-50% of its
strength when
wet, has poor
resistance to
abrasion,
expensive, and
stretches and
shrinks more
than cotton.