You are on page 1of 43

FP6

CONTRACT N°: RII3-CT-2004-506065

ISSUE CERTIFICATE

EURONS
EUROpean Nuclear Structure research

Activity JRA01 : ACTAR

Identification: D-J01-1.1 Revision: 0

ACTAR Physics case and simulations

Dissemination level: RPU


Issued by: CENBG / IN2P3
Reference: EURONS-D-J01-1.1
Status: Final

Summary:

Subtask 1.1
The ACTAR Yellow book has been completed and edited December 2005. It contains a detailed
description of the physics case for ACTAR ranging from reaction-type experiments to studies
related to two-proton radioactivity. It also gives a detailed account of the experimental
requirements needed in order to reach the physics goals. These requirements translated then into
the equipment specifications for the future ACTAR setup.

Subtask 1.2
We have developed a versatile simulation code of an ACtive TARget (ACTARSim). The code is
very useful in the design phase of these kind of devices allowing to determine the adequate set-
up to obtain an optimized response under a variety of reactions and energies of interest. It should
also serve as general purpose simulation and analysis platform. The code is available at
http://www.usc.es/genp/actar together with a Users manual.
Bertram Blank Patricia Roussel-Chomaz Alex C. Mueller,
CENBG/CNRS GANIL CNRS
13.11.2008

RESPONSIBLE WP LEADER COORDINATOR


DATE Name/Company Name/Company Name/Company
Signature Signature Signature
EUR ONS- AC TAR JR A

Deliverab le D -J01 -1 .1 Pa rt 1

The AC TA R Ph ys ics cas e

1 Introduction
Our knowledge of the structure of the atomic nucleus is mainly based on studies with stable nuclei or isotopes
close to these stable nuclei. Like radioactive decay studies, investigations based on direct reactions have
contributed to create a large database of experimental knowledge and theoretical understanding. In particular,
light-ion induced scattering has provided a wealth of nuclear structure information for stable nuclei. Usually,
such reactions are performed in ‘normal kinematics’, i.e. intermediate-energy light ions are scattered off a
fixed target consisting of the stable nuclei to be investigated.

With the advent of machines to produce radioactive ion beams e.g. by projectile fragmentation or by re-
accelerating radioactive nuclei produce by the ISOL principle, these methods can also be used for unstable
short-lived nuclei. However, due to their short lifetime no targets can be produced of these nuclei. Instead,
they have to be used as beams in ‘inverse kinematics’, whereas the light elements like hydrogen or helium
constitute the targets. In this way, the unique potential of direct reactions can be extended to unstable exotic
atomic nuclei opening a wide range of possible discoveries. Essential contributions can be expected to several
of the most important nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics issues, in particular for neutron-rich nuclei:

• The unusual matter distributions in neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron drip line, exhibiting neutron
halos and skins;
• The shell structure in nuclei of extreme proton-to-neutron asymmetry leading to the disappearance of
the known magic numbers and, in turn, to the appearance of new shell gaps;
• Deformations different for the proton and neutron distributions giving rise to new collective modes;
• Electric and magnetic giant resonances with strength distributions totally different from those known
in stable nuclei, e.g. the so-called soft modes;
• Key reactions influencing energy generation and nucleosynthetic pathways in explosive stellar
environments such as novae and supernovae.

The great nuclear structure potential of light-ion scattering arises from the fact that, by means of a proper
choice of the probe, transitions can selectively be induced (e.g. emphasising or excluding spin and/or isospin
transitions), and the form factors are sensitive to the transition multipolarity.

2 Problems related to the use of exotic nuclei


Although the use of direct reactions with exotic nuclei seems to be intrinsically simple, several problems have
to be taken into account. First of all, the most exotic nuclei are usually the most interesting nuclei. However,
the production rate for exotic nuclei decreases basically exponentially with the increase of the proton-neutron
imbalance. Therefore, the nuclei of interest are often available only with a few hundred or a few thousand
counts per second. In order to increase the yields, high-efficiency setups and thick reaction targets are
required. The first point is often not easy to achieve and the second leads to a large uncertainty of the
interaction point in the target and therefore to large uncertainties in the kinematics reconstruction and the
energy resolution.

1
Another problem is related to the fact that the detection of the light-ion recoil is often rather difficult due to
its low energy. However, the detection of the recoil is often necessary, in coincidence with the ejectile, to
enhance the purity of the spectra acquired. Yet another problem may arise from the situation that the beams
of secondary exotic nuclei contain contaminants, reactions on which contribute to the background. Finally,
exotic nuclei are radioactive and their decays may create problems for the detection setup.

The idea of an active target, which forms the target and the detection setup at the same time, overcomes the
most severe of these problems. The low rates of exotic nuclei are counterbalanced by a detection efficiency,
which can approach 100%. In addition, as the active target detects the interaction point between projectile and
target nuclei on an event-by-event basis, thick targets are no longer a problem. In principle, the target
thickness can be increased to a thickness where the incident ion beam is completely stopped in the target
utilizing in this way the exotic beam optimally. Finally, the problem of low recoil energies mentioned above
is addressed, as the recoils are detected in the active target basically without any detection threshold. In
addition, short life times of the reaction products are no longer a problem, as the products are detected in the
production target itself.

A complementary approach to this kind of studies has been chosen at FAIR. The EXL project will use a
window-less internal target in a storage ring, which allows again for a basically threshold free detection of the
reaction products. As for ACTAR, this is very important, as the most important information which will be
extracted from these measurements is at low momentum transfer and therefore at low recoil energies.
However, EXL will be limited to relatively long-lived nuclear species (T1/2 > 500ms) to allow for beam
preparation and accumulation in the storage rings and to rather high production rates. Under these conditions,
EXL will reach very high luminosities and therefore high sensitivities. For short lived species, which usually
also have low production rates, the technique of active targets is presently considered as the only way to
perform high resolution experiments at low momentum transfer with sufficient luminosities to extract the
cross sections of interest. Therefore, in addition to its main use at SPIRAL2 and to complement the results
from EXL, ACTAR will be used also at FAIR.

The EXL project will allow reaching high luminosities for all cases where the nuclear lifetime
of the exotic beam particles is sufficiently long (> 500 ms) to allow for beam preparation in the
CR/NESR rings and for continuous accumulation and stagging. Keeping in mind that the rate
capability of the active target technique will be limited, especially for very heavy projectiles, to
about 105 sec–1 or less, luminosities of the order of 1028 cm–2 sec-1, as expected for EXL, will not be
reachable with external active targets. On the other hand there exist many cases of exotic beams of
high interest for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics, which are located far outside the valley
of stability, and consequently have half-lives much shorter than 500 ms, and relatively low
production rates considerably below 10 5sec –1 (see figure 1). For such cases the technique of active
targets is presently considered as the only way to perform high-resolution experiments at low
momentum transfer with sufficient luminosities to extract the cross sections of interest.

The general layout of such an active target and the R&D needed to develop it has been described in the Joint
Research Project Proposal ACTAR. The purpose of the present paper is to highlight a few key experiments,
which can be performed with a high performance active target.

3 Direct reactions and exotic radioactivities measured with an active target


Before describing a few possible experiments in some detail, we would like to recall the reactions, which
might be used with the active target.

• Elastic scattering:
Such investigations, as for example elastic proton scattering at intermediate energies allow to accurately
determining the nuclear matter radii, and the radial shape of the nuclear matter distributions of these

2
nuclei. The active target will be used to measure the kinematical characteristics of the light recoil, and the
high-energy ejectile may be detected through a large acceptance spectrometer.

• Inelastic scattering:
Examples of such reactions are AZ(4He, 4 He’)AZ*, AZ(3 He, 3He’)AZ*, AZ(d, d’)AZ*, etc. Inelastic
scattering is a very sensitive probe of collective nuclear properties. For example, it may be used to infer
the degree of nuclear deformation, transition densities, and B(E2) values. Another possible use of
inelastic scattering is to study giant resonances, in particular the giant monopole resonance. It is well
known that the giant monopole resonance is a privileged tool to measure the nuclear compressibility. The
variation of nuclear compressibility as a function of isospin is an open and interesting question.

• Charge exchange reactions: direct and resonant


Charge exchange reactions, e.g. (3 He,t), populate mainly the Isobaric Analogue Resonance State (IAS) at
energies of about 50-70 MeV/u and the Gamow-Teller (GT) resonance at somewhat higher energy
(100MeV/u). The IAS is a powerful spectroscopic tool to study single-particle properties of neutron-rich
nuclei. The GT resonance strength can be compared to large-scale shell model calculations that should
become possible for nuclei of mass up to 100 in the near future. The GT-strength is also of prime
astrophysical interest.

• Transfer reactions
Examples of such reactions are AZ(p, d)A-1Z, AZ(d, p)A+1Z, AZ(3He, d)A+1(Z+1), AZ(d, 3He)A-1(Z-1).
Transfer reactions are a well-known tool to explore single-particle properties of nuclei. They can be used
very generally to study the angular momentum and spectroscopic factors associated with specific single-
particle states. In the context of secondary beams, it will be one of the main tools to study shell closures
far from stability and to explore the evolution of the single-particle structure with isospin. In
astrophysics, (d,p) reactions can be employed to determine neutron-capture cross sections which cannot
be measured otherwise.

• Break-up reactions
Break-up reactions are a powerful method to study cluster structures in exotic nuclei, properties that are
predicted to be of increased importance in extremely neutron-rich systems. More generally, resonance
formation during the deceleration of the beam in the target may be used to study, in considerable detail,
the structure of nuclei above particle-decay thresholds. For example, excitation energies, spins and total
and partial widths may be extracted.

• Two-proton radioactivity studies


The mechanism of two-proton emission from atomic nuclei is completely unknown. To study this new
decay mode, the energy and the angle of the individual protons have to be measured with good precision.
These observables will allow distinguishing between different emission patterns proposed by theory.

• Nuclear astrophysics applications


The active target approach is applicable to several techniques used in experimental nuclear astrophysics,
some of which are mentioned above. Firstly, elastic scattering studies can be used to probe the optical
model potentials of exotic systems. This is particularly important for understanding the origin of selected
proton-rich nuclei synthesised only by the p-process.
Also at low energies, direct studies of key nuclear reactions such as (α,p), (p,α) and (α,n) involving
radioactive nuclei lend themselves very well to active target techniques due to the high detection
efficiency and low threshold for recoil detection. In the cases where direct studies are unfeasible with
current technology, active targets can be used at higher energies to determine resonance parameters using
indirect techniques, such as transfer reactions, detailed above.

3
Essential ingredients for all these studies are: i) the multi-particle tracking capacity of the active target, ii) the
4π solid angle coverage, iii) the high target thickness, iv) the very high efficiency of the active target, v) the
low recoil detection threshold, vi) the high energy resolution, and vii) particle identification.

4 Key experiments
In the following sections, we will describe a few key experiments, which will on the one side, demonstrate
the capabilities of the active target principle and on the other side work out the required performances of the
device in order to reach the experimental results projected.

4.1 Elastic scattering


The size of nuclei and the radial shape of the distribution of nuclear matter and charge are fundamental
properties of nuclei, and therefore of high interest for various fields in nuclear physics. Accurate experimental
data on the moments of the charge and matter distributions are of particular interest for the understanding of
nuclear structure and for probing theoretical model descriptions of nuclei. Over the years a large variety of
experimental methods were developed, using leptonic probes for investigating nuclear charge distributions,
and hadronic probes for exploring the distributions of nuclear matter. While all these methods were applied
successfully for many years for the study of stable nuclei, the investigation of the size and radial shape of
exotic nuclei has become a new and exciting field of research.

One of the outstanding results in nuclear physics with exotic beams was the discovery that nuclear matter
may appear under certain conditions with a qualitatively new type of nuclear structure, the so-called halo
structure. Compared to stable nuclei and those close to stability, in which all the protons and neutrons are
essentially distributed uniformly over the nuclear volume, and the nuclear radius scales approximately with
mass number A, it was found that some light neutron-rich nuclei located at or near the neutron and proton
drip lines exhibit an extended low-density distribution of loosely bound valence neutrons or protons
surrounding a compact distribution of the majority of nucleons. Nuclei of interest are the known but little
studied halo nuclei like 14Be, 17B, 19C on the neutron-rich side, but also e.g. 8B, 9C, 26P, 27S on the proton-rich
side. Especially at low momentum transfer, the highest sensitivity to halo and skin structures is reached.
Figures 1 and 2 show measurements and deduced matter radii for lithium isotopes from measurement with
the IKAR device at GSI [1].

Fig. 1: Differential cross section for the Fig. 2: Matter distribution as deduced from the data in
elastic scattering of different lithium isotopes figure 1 using two different descriptions for the matter
on protons as a function of the four distribution of 11Li: i) a Gaussian for the core and the
momentum transfer squared –t . halo neutrons (GG) and ii) a Gaussian for the core and a
1p harmonic oscillator distribution for the halo neutrons.
9
Li is well described with one Gaussian distribution.

4
Beyond these halo structures which have basically an exponential fall off of the neutron or proton matter
distribution due to the rather low binding energy of the last bound nucleon, neutron skins have been observed
for nuclei with a large excess of neutrons with respect to stable nuclides. For these nuclei, both the protons
and the neutrons are reasonably well bound, but the large excess of neutrons pushes the neutron distribution
further out creating a neutron skin at the surface of the nucleus. These neutron skins may enable us to study in
the laboratory cases of almost pure neutron matter. As an example, the series of tin isotopes may be of special
interest. Figure 3 illustrates the differential elastic scattering cross section for 120Sn and 132Sn. The
determination of the neutron skin in these nuclei will also allow determining parameters of the nuclear
equation of state.

Fig. 3: Differential cross sections versus the four momentum transfer squared for proton elastic scattering on two
different tin isotopes at E = 700 MeV/u, resulting from a simulation calculation. The scale displayed on the right-
hand vertical axis and the statistical error bars in the case of 132Sn correspond to typical experimental conditions for
ACTAR, namely a RIB intensity of 5*103 / sec and an active H2 target of 1 m length at 1 bar.

These experiments can be performed at beam intensities as low as 1000 pps. At these rates, one can still get
sufficient counting for low-momentum transfer reactions, which are most sensitive to the halo or skin
structure of these nuclei. The demands concerning the resolution for these reactions are less stringent. The
aim is here to resolve the ground state of the nucleus to be studied from its excited states. For the halo nuclei,
this is a rather easy task, as these nuclei often do not have bound excited states. For other nuclei, a resolution
of a few hundred keV seems to be sufficient. Depending on the incident energy, this energy resolution can be
translated into a position and angular resolution required.

Another subject that can be addressed with elastic scattering is the phenomenon of “Rainbow scattering”. To
study this rainbow scattering, light bound nuclei have to be scattered elastically at energies of 10-70
MeV/nucleon. The process involves an overlap of the nuclear densities of the colliding nuclei and a rather
weak absorption. Experimentally the effect manifests as a non-oscillation shoulder in the angular distribution
caused by the far-side component of the scattering amplitude, i.e. deflection into negative angles. The elastic
data are described by microscopic models, which are related to the equation of state of cold nuclear matter,
e.g. [2]. There exists a rather rich data set on α particle scattering on light nuclei at 25MeV/nucleon. These
data have been analyzed in terms of the microscopic model [3]. Surprisingly enough the 8He+α elastic
scattering at this energy also exhibit the rainbow shoulder [4]. A deficiency of the 8He+α experimental data,
however, is the lack of data points at small scattering angles in the region of the first oscillation where the
calculated cross section is model independent. Therefore, the forward angle data could serve for the absolute
normalization in order to make the analysis reliable. The measurement of the forward angle elastic scattering
is hardly feasible with passive gas target unless one uses high resolution, large solid angle spectrometers for

5
inclusive measurements. With the use of an active target, the low-energy α particles can be detected at
scattering angles close to 90 degrees. Having in mind the low intensity available for radioactive beams,
ACTAR seems to be an ideal instrument for systematic studies of refractive phenomena in elastic scattering
of exotic ions on helium.

4.2 Inelastic scattering

A common feature of giant resonances is the forward peaking of the cross section in the centre of mass frame.
The most extreme case is the Giant Monopole Resonance, peaked at 0º, but even for higher multipolarities,
the cross sections strongly decrease above 20-25º. In reverse kinematics, the measurement of the angular
region where the cross section is maximum therefore requires the detection of very low energy recoil
particles. Active targets are ideal tools for this type of studies, due to their very low detection threshold and
the possibility to avoid angular and energy straggling inside the target.

The Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) is a particularly interesting subject of investigation for heavy nuclei,
where this resonance can be observed as a well-defined structure. In the case of neutron-rich nuclei, it would
provide unique information on the neutron matter compressibility, with possible applications to neutron stars
(supernovae bursts, neutron star structure…). In the case of neutron-deficient, heavy N=Z nuclei, the
symmetric nuclear matter compressibility and more precisely the (N-Z) asymmetry term in the Bethe-
Weizsäcker development of nuclear compressibility could be studied. This term is possibly the origin of the
discrepancy observed between the different predictions for nuclear compressibility provided by relativistic
and non-relativistic models. The measurement of the GMR in a heavy N=Z nucleus, where this term is not
active, would allow to estimate its influence by comparison with neighboring nuclei.

In a long-range plan, a simultaneous measurement of giant resonances in a cocktail of secondary heavy


beams would provide a harvest of data on the GMR and the nuclear compressibility could be measured
experimentally without ambiguity.

In July 2005, a pioneering experiment was performed at GANIL with the active target MAYA. The GMR
was measured in 56Ni at 50 MeV/u by inelastic scattering on deuterium. The intensity of the secondary beam
was of the order of 105pps. Figures 4 and 5 present the kinematical conditions of the reaction and the domain
of angles and ranges covered with MAYA for a pressure of 0.7 atm. The data are presently under analysis.

Fig. 4: Kinematical plot of the energy versus Fig. 5: Range of deuterium versus emission angle
the laboratory angle for the deuteron after inside MAYA for a pressure equal to 0.7 atm. The
inelastic scattering 56Ni(d,d’). The two lines black solid lines correspond to the walls of MAYA. The
correspond to excitation energies equal to 17 dotted line represents the minimum value of the range
MeV (lower line) and 22 MeV (upper line). necessary to obtain a good determination of the
trajectory. The two curves with crosses correspond to
the kinematical correlation for the same excitation
energies as in figure 4. The crosses are different values
of center of mass angles, in 1 deg. steps, starting at 0 in
6 the lower left corner.
4.3 Study of neutron-rich nuclei via isobaric analogue resonances

Proton-rich nuclei beyond the drip line can be studied by resonance scattering of bound nuclei on protons. In
these experiments, a proton-rich nucleus, e.g. 10C, is sent into a gas target (pure hydrogen or methane) where
the proton-rich nucleus resonantly captures a proton which, due to the fact that the reaction populates an
unbound resonance or even an unbound nuclide, is immediately re-emitted with an energy corresponding to
the excitation energy of the level populated in the compound nucleus (e.g. 11 N). By detecting these protons
and by determining their energy, the level sequence of the unbound nucleus can be established and their
spin/parity attributed. The resonance curves are characteristic of the spin/parity of the resonance formed.

There is no mirror method for neutron-rich unbound nuclei due to the fact that no neutron targets exist.
However, the ground and excited states of these neutron-rich isotopes can be studied via their isobaric
analogue states in the neighbouring nuclei. The properties of states in 9He can be addressed by studying
proton-unbound resonances in 9Li populated via 8He+p reactions. These analogue levels usually are located at
high excitation energies (about 15-20 MeV in the case of 9Li). Therefore, the method necessitates secondary
beam energies of the order of a few MeV/nucleon to populate these levels.

Fig. 6: Level and decay scheme of mass A=9 nuclei. The states between 15 MeV and 23 MeV in 9Li can decay to
states in different nuclei, however, only the decays to 8Li and 8He conserve isospin.

Figure 6 shows the level scheme of nuclei involved in the reaction 8 He(p,p’)8 He. This reaction populates
preferentially the T=5/2 states in 9Li between 15 and 22 MeV which are unbound can decay by different
decay branches indicated in the figure. However, only two of them, the decay to 8He+p and to 8Li+n, are
allowed by isospin conservation and form therefore the by far dominant decay branches. By detecting the
decay protons, the resonance state in 9Li can be studied and the structure of the analogue states in 9He can be
deduced.

7
Fig. 7: Elastic scattering excitation function for the reaction 8He+p. The arrows indicate the resonances, which have
different shapes according to their spin/parity.

The spin/parity of the resonances observed can be determined for the spectrum due to the interference
patterns between resonance and potential scattering. These interference patterns when fitted e.g. via an R-
matrix approach yield unambiguous information on the spin and parity of the resonance state. Figure 7 shows
such an interference pattern for the case of 8 He(p,p’)8 He [6].

The comparison with theory allows also extracting neutron spectroscopic factor. The spectroscopic factors
determined by resonance scattering compare favourably with spectroscopic factors determined from transfer
reactions like AZ(d,p)A+1Z or AZ(t,d)A+1Z. Therefore the main advantage of the resonance scattering technique
is the fact that the cross section are typically an order of magnitude higher than for transfer reactions, a very
important advantage in spite of the usually rather low secondary beam intensities for nuclei close to the drip
line. With typical cross sections of 100mb/sr, reasonable angular distributions can be obtained in a one-week
experiment with beam intensities as low as 300 counts per second. In order to achieve an energy resolution of
about 100 keV in the centre of mass reference frame, position resolutions of the order of a millimetre should
be sufficient.

The ACTAR device is the ideal instrument to perform the experiment just described. This device allows for
the use of a thick medium to be used to further compensate the low incident beam intensities. Other reactions
of interest concern the study of nuclei like 7He, 10Li, 13Be, 16B, 18C etc. However, this procedure not only
allows for the study of neutron-unbound systems. Another field of interest is e.g. situated in the region of
neutron-rich tin isotopes around doubly magic 132Sn.

4.4 Transfer reactions

Transfer reactions are a well-established tool to explore the single-particle properties of stable nuclei.
The application of such reactions to exotic nuclei will be a major tool to explore the evolution of these
properties with isospin. These reactions can be used very generally to study the angular momentum and
spectroscopic factors associated with specific single-particle states and can also be used to measure quantities
that are useful for nuclear astrophysics. Below we outline two areas that highlight the importance of transfer
reactions with exotic nuclei.

Doubly magic nuclei have traditionally formed the cornerstones of our understanding of nuclear
physics. The proton and neutron shells in these nuclei are completely filled and so they have a particularly
simple structure. Their properties and those of their nearest neighbors have constrained key ingredients of
nuclear structure theories, such as single particle energies and effective interactions. Doubly magic nuclei are
also essential to be used as the cores for shell-model calculations. This allows the model space to be
substantially reduced and makes the shell-model calculations of heavy nuclei feasible. With the advent of
experimental studies of exotic nuclei we aim to generalize these existing theories of nuclear structure, or if
necessary to develop new theories, which can consistently describe all nuclei, from those in the valley of
stability all the way to those at the neutron and proton drip-lines. Thus studies of exotic doubly magic nuclei
will play a fundamental role in developing and testing such theories. It should be noted here that present
studies of exotic nuclei have evidenced the disappearance of some classical shell gaps and their replacement
by new gaps in lighter nuclei. Nevertheless, if we consider the classical shell gaps known from studies of
stable nuclei, the doubly magic nucleus with the largest imbalance of neutrons to protons is 78Ni. It is clearly
of great interest to establish whether 78Ni is indeed a doubly magic nucleus and then to study its structure. It
therefore represents a crucial testing ground for the structure of very neutron rich nuclei, where the most
unusual nuclear structure is expected to develop. Studies of the single particle properties and shell structure of
nuclei in the region of 78Ni and other doubly magic nuclei will also be needed.

Transfer reactions are an ideal way to study the single-particle properties and thus the shell structure
of nuclei. Single-nucleon transfer reactions such as (d,p) and (p,d) have been used in the past to probe the
particle and hole states in key doubly magic nuclei such as 208Pb. Such studies were crucial in establishing the

8
shell model as a viable theory of nuclear structure. The use of such reactions with, for example, the neutron-
rich 78Ni nucleus will be essential in extending the shell model to exotic nuclei or demonstrating its
inadequacy. However, the use of transfer reactions to study exotic nuclei is challenging. The reactions must
be performed in inverse kinematics, where the nucleus to be studied is the beam and the intensity of this
beam is usually low. Also, for reasons of background reduction and to obtain sufficient resolution in energy
and angle for the reaction, it is advantageous to perform such experiments in complete kinematics. These
requirements necessitate the use of high-efficiency setups, thick targets and low thresholds for particle
detection. Transfer reactions with beams of exotic nuclei are being performed at present with new
sophisticated arrays of silicon detectors such as TIARA or MUST/MUST2 to detect the target-like recoil,
coupled to spectrometers to detect the projectile-like fragment and γ arrays for coincident γ-ray detection.
Nevertheless, in these setups a compromise must be reached in terms of target thickness and particle
resolution, together with the achievable geometrical coverage of the arrays and their detection thresholds.
Practically, the minimum beam intensity that can be utilized to give detailed transfer reaction data is 104 pps.
It is unlikely that the radioactive beam facilities available in the foreseeable future will reach this intensity for
the very neutron rich nuclei, of which 78Ni is a characteristic example. Therefore other techniques are needed.
As explained in this report, the active target concept can achieve the best possible geometrical coverage and
lowest particle detection thresholds. It can also provide the thickest target and so maximize the reaction rate.
It is therefore ideally suited to transfer studies of weakly produced nuclei such as 78Ni. However, sufficient
resolution of the excited states must be achieved, ideally about 10 keV. This may require the use of ancillary
γ-ray detection to be incorporated in the active target.

Another area in which transfer reactions can be useful is studies of very exotic nuclei, lying at the
edge of the drip lines and even beyond. The ultimate cases are the multi-neutron nuclei, whose possible
existence is an old and stimulating topic in Nuclear Physics for more than three decades [7-12]. There was a
considerable amount of interest for the 4n system in the last years, raised by the results obtained in two
different experiments using completely different methods [13,14]. One of these experiments used the
8
He(d,6Li)4n reaction, and detected the 6Li partner with the MUST array. The statistics obtained in this case
was very low, partly because the CD2 target thickness was limited to 1mg/cm2 in order to be able to detect 6Li
with a reasonable threshold. Theoretical calculations for the binding energies of multi-neutron nuclei
conclude that the tetra-neutron is probably not bound [7,15]. Experimentally the situation is not clear. The
experiments studying 4n removal from 8He or 14Be conclude on a bound tetra-neutron, but this conclusion is
obtained by a quite indirect method [13]. The results from the transfer reaction experiment, after claiming for
the possible existence of a tetra-neutron system lying 1-2 MeV above threshold, seem to conclude on the non-
observation of the tetra-neutron, the first result being attributed to an incorrect subtraction of background due
to 12C in the target [14].

However, the non-existence of the tetra-neutron does not exclude the existence of heavier multi-
neutron systems. Of particular interest is 8n, which may be stabilized due to the n=8 shell closure. Recent
shell model calculations predict that 8n is unbound [17]. These calculations should be taken very carefully for
small binding energies and are completely unreliable for unbound systems. A detailed study of the binding
energies when two protons are removed shows that the extrapolation to Z=0 should be very close to 0 and
therefore opens the possibility for a bound 8n system [18].
Two different two-body reactions can be taken as examples:

• 22Ne(8 He,8n)22 Mg at Elab ~ 120.0MeV

This reaction has a Q value of -40MeV (considering 8n with B=0MeV). The energy of the partner 22 Mg
is very small, of the order of 2 MeV at a center-of-mass angle of 10 degrees. ACTAR is therefore
extremely powerful for this type of experiment with low energy reaction products. Supposing a pressure
of 20 mbar, an average thickness of 20cm would correspond to 1mg/cm2. With a cross section of
0.1µb/sr and an intensity of 108pps, we obtain a count rate of 0.3 events per hour. For an unambiguous
identification of the 8n, we would propose to count at least 60 events, giving a total of 200 hours (~8
days) for this experiment.

• 22Ne(11Li, 8n)25 Al at Elab ~ 120.0MeV:

9
This reaction has a Q value of -23MeV. The energy of the partner is larger than in the previous case
(around 4 MeV at 10 degrees in the center-of-mass frame). The cross section for a triple proton transfer
should be one order of magnitude larger, say 1µb/sr. If one considers this reaction and the count rate of
11Li of the order of 1 x 107 pps, we can have 60 events for a total of 8 days of experiment.

Other unbound nuclear systems beyond the drip line, which can be populated in simple one-step
exchange or knockout processes, include 5 H, 7He or 7 H, 9He. Let us take as an example the d(6 He,3He)5 H
reaction, which has been exploited in a search for the ground state of the unbound heavy hydrogen 5 H [19].
The main process in question is a one-proton transfer from an α-particle core of 6 He to the target deuteron.
The conservation of quantum numbers implies a zero orbital angular momentum of the transferred particle.
This means that the angular distribution in the CM system is highly forward peaked. In the laboratory system,
due to inverse kinematics, the most interesting products are forward-angle target-like 3He of low energies.
The resulting excitation energy resolution of 5H heavily depends on the target thickness. Therefore, passive
targets have obvious limitations of their thickness, which, combined with usually weak intensities of exotic
beams, makes many interesting experiments unfeasible. The active target is free of this deficiency.

4.5 Resonance scattering to study the cluster structure of light nuclei

The resonance scattering technique allows for the production and observation of particle-unstable isotopes or
of highly excited particle-unstable states of other nuclei. In both cases, the states of interest are populated by
the resonance capture of a nucleus from the detector gas onto the incident nucleus. The nuclear state, which is
created, decays after a very short half-life depending on its decay width. The detection of the emitted decay
particle allows the deduction of spectroscopic information on the nuclear state populated, its energy, its
angular momentum, and other characteristics. This method can be used to study e.g. nuclei or resonances of
astrophysical interest or cluster structures in nuclei as e.g. done at SPIRAL at GANIL or at Louvain-la-
Neuve. The second topic will be examined here in some detail.

The provision in ACTAR of gas mixtures including helium permits the characterization of reactions
involving 4He nuclei with a large variety of projectiles. In particular, resonance reactions leading to a
composite intermediate state can identify states with large α-particle decay widths, or cluster states. For
example, experiments of the reaction 6He+4He were recently performed at Louvain-la-Neuve, where the 6He
beam traversed a 4 He gas volume contained within the LEDA chamber. The 6He beam traced out resonances
in 10Be as it slowed which then subsequently decayed into 6He+4 He. The decay products were detected in
coincidence in a large array of silicon strip detectors, which allowed a clean identification of the reaction
channel. The measured energy allowed the laboratory and the centre-of-mass emission angles to be
reconstructed and the approximate location of the interaction point within the gas to be found.

Fig. 8 shows the plot of the centre-of-mass emission angle against the distance travelled by the 6He ion (the
experimental data is compared with simulations) [5]. The broad bump located at a distance of 150 mm along
the path of the 6He nucleus, corresponds to the fraction of the strong resonance at Ex(10Be)=10.15 MeV which
is located within the experimental acceptance. The variation of the yield with angle is determined by a
Legendre polynomial of order J, J being the spin of the state. Hence, in this case the angular distributions
indicate a spin and parity 4+. The distance travelled in the gas permits the energy of the resonance to be
determined, and in principal the width, the angular distribution allows to extract the spin and parity, whilst
the cross section gives access to the partial width.

However, the present technique possesses no direct information on the emission angle of the two decay
products, and the distance of the resonance is determined with limited resolution and thus additional
measurements are required to determine both the energy and width of the resonance precisely. However, in
ACTAR all of the reaction parameters will be determined, in particular the energies and emission angles of
all the products and, even more importantly, the location at which each interaction occurred. This will
provide a precise determination of resonance characteristics in a single measurement with extremely high
solid angle coverage, given that the gas acts both as the target and the detection medium.

10
ACTAR in conjunction with a low energy beam facility such as SPIRAL or SPIRAL II will allow the search
for exotic cluster structures, which are similar to those in 10Be. For example, a 8 He beam would allow the
α+4n+α system 12Be to be accessed. Further, beams of neutron-rich neon isotopes would permit the
characterization of the cluster structure of neutron rich magnesium nuclei. More generally, the technique
lends itself to the full characterization α-cluster states close to decay thresholds across a wide range of
neutron-rich nuclei. Such information will provide a detailed picture of the evolution of cluster structure
towards the neutron drip-line and the role of valence neutrons. Indeed, it is anticipated that at the drip-line
clustering will be an important structural mode.

Fig. 8: The distance of the interaction inside the reaction vessel, plotted against the centre-of-mass emission angle of
the 4He and 6He nuclei. The data on the left are compared with the simulation on the right. The oscillations in the
centre-of-mass distribution are characteristic of a spin-4 resonance. Measurements of this type provide a unique
characterisation of clustering in such light systems.

With a peak resonance cross section of the order of a 100 mb and a beam intensity of 106 particles per second
one can anticipate about 10 counts per minute. For relative low pressures (e.g. 150 mbar), resonances with
appreciable widths (say 300 keV) are spread out over the gas, which allows a determination of their widths
from the location of the interaction, information that also comes from a measurement of the energies of the
reaction products, via the differential energy loss in the gas of the beam and recoil. For the 6 He+4He case, the
resonance width Γ =300 keV was spread out over 15 cm.

The energy-loss measurement, dE/dx, in the gas would allow particle identification, which is crucial for
differentiating between the target recoil and the ejectile. The events of interest will be those in which the
target recoil is emitted in the same direction as the beam, following the resonance decay.

The resolution with which neighbouring resonances may be separated is largely related to the resolution with
which the energies of the resonance decay products may be determined. It also depends of course on the
conversion of energy between the laboratory and centre of mass frames. For a symmetric system like
6
He+4 He, a resolution of 100 keV in the laboratory frame is equivalent to 50 keV in the centre-of-mass,
which would be a reasonable energy resolution for the quantities searched for. For asymmetric systems, e.g. a
heavy ion and a proton, the centre-of-mass resolution, i.e. the energy with which the resonances are
reconstructed, are closer to the detector resolution.

The angular resolution determines the ability to reconstruct the centre-of-mass angular distributions, which
ultimately may be used to provide spin/parity information. Again, these will depend on the kinematics
resulting from the particular reaction, but the worst case is the symmetric one. For this case, the laboratory

11
angle is half the centre-of-mass angle, which means that for a 2-degree centre-of-mass resolution a 1-degree
laboratory resolution is required.

4.6 Two-proton radioactivity studies

Two-proton radioactivity is a new nuclear decay mode discovered about 3 years ago in the decay of 45Fe
[20,21]. Even-Z nuclei with a strong excess of protons can no longer bind all protons and, as one-proton
emission is energetically forbidden due to the pairing interaction, eject a pair of protons simultaneously. This
two-proton emission process has been observed up to now only indirectly: the process has been clearly
identified by measuring the decay energy, by the absence of β particles indicative of a β–delayed decay
process, and by the observation of the decay of the two-proton daughter. However, nothing else is known
about the decay process. Possible scenarios which are discussed are i) a three-body phase space decay where
the energy and the momentum of the two protons only dictated by energy and momentum conservation and
ii) a strongly correlated emission of the two protons via a 2He resonance. Of course, an intermediate scenario
is also possible.

To distinguish between the possible scenarios, the individual energies of the protons as well as their relative
emission angle have to be measured. These measurements are no feasible with the standard technique used in
this kind of studies until now. The protons do not escape from the silicon detectors into which the two-proton
emitters are implanted. Therefore, neither the individual energies nor the emission angle is accessible. These
problems can be overcome by the use of gas detectors. However, these detectors have to allow visualizing in
three dimensions the traces of the emitted particles (see figure 9).

Fig. 9: Schematic representation of the visualization of the traces of the two protons emitted in the case of two-proton
radioactivity. A two-dimensional detector together with a drift-time analysis allows determining the energy of the
protons via their range in the gas and the angle between the two protons.

The studies of two-proton emitters will include nuclei like 45Fe, but also 54Zn [22], or yet unobserved emitter
candidates like 59Ge. However, although these cases of direct two-proton emission from the ground state are
probably the most interesting cases, β-delayed two-proton emitters like 22Al, 22Si, 26P, and others are also

12
highly interesting cases. According to theoretical predictions proton-proton angular and energy correlations
may also be expected and allow for a study of pairing correlations in atomic nuclei.

The ACTAR detector is the ideal device for these studies. The detector gas will not be used as a target
medium to induce nuclear reactions, but only to slow down the nuclei, which will be implanted in the center
of the detector. However, the gas detector will allow observing the traces from the decay protons and
determining therefore the quantities searched for in these studies.

The two-proton radioactivity studies do not require the use of any particular gas. The most common gas as a
detector gas is P10, a mixture of argon and methane, which is well suited for the investigations proposed
here. The range of the protons in this gas at atmospheric pressure is about 16 mm. The proton-proton angle
can vary between small angle close to zero degrees and back-to-back angle close to 180o. Therefore, the
requirement in terms of position resolution is of the order of 1 mm in all three dimensions. The energy
resolution for each channel should be such that a reasonable sum energy signal can be obtained. This allows
to trigger on events having the expected sum energy and requires an energy resolution of about 100 keV for
the individual channels.

4.7 Nuclear astrophysics

Nuclear astrophysics studies require a wide range of nuclear physics techniques to be exploited to address the
unique challenges of the field. In endeavouring to explain the origin of the chemical elements, information
on the parameters of a huge range of nuclei, ranging from the lightest to the heaviest, is required. In
particular, reaction rate data on exotic as well as stable nuclei is required as input to network calculations.
These calculations, involving thousands of reactions, allow the nucleosynthetic pathways and energy
generation of various astrophysical sites to be simulated. The resulting predictions can be compared to
astronomical observations to improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of the chemical elements.

The nuclear reactions occurring in explosive astrophysical environments have two key features: the relevant
energies are very low by nuclear physics standards; and timescales are extremely short and so exotic nuclei
often play critical roles. The low energies involved means that direct studies of these reactions are
particularly challenging: low detection thresholds are necessary; cross sections are low requiring high
efficiency, large solid angle detection systems. In addition, since exotic nuclei are involved, beam intensities
are low, reinforcing the need for high efficiency detectors. These experimental conditions and requirements
clearly demonstrate the applicability of active target techniques to these studies.

The production of radioactive nuclear beams in the last two decades has opened up a whole range of nuclear
astrophysics studies of explosive stellar environments, such as novae, supernovae and X-ray bursters. The
nuclear reaction channels in these sites involve (α,p), (p,γ), (α,γ) and (α,n) reactions at centre of mass
energies typically between 0.1 and 2 MeV/u. At the higher end of this energy range, these reactions can be
studied very successfully using existing silicon strip detection systems. However, for the lower energy range,
which is the most astrophysically important, the energies of the recoiling particles are too low for this
technique to be used effectively. Consequently, a new approach is needed and active target technology
would seem to be the most applicable. For example, the 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction has been the focus of much
experimental effort using both direct and indirect methods. Previous measurements have covered the energy
range from 2.5 to 3 MeV in the centre of mass and a further measurement is planned at TRIUMF, using a
18
Ne beam, to cover the range from 2.5 down to 1.75 MeV using silicon strip detectors. This, however, is the
limit of the technique and a study of the most astrophysically relevant energies will require the use of an
active target.

Particularly pertinent to active targets are the (α,n) reactions. The capability of active targets to detect, with
almost 100% efficiency, the low energy recoil from such reactions removes the need to detect the outgoing
neutron. Since charged particle detection is significantly more efficient and has inherently better energy and
position resolution, the resulting data is of higher quality. The use of active targets allows key (α,n) reactions
to be studied directly, at the relevant astrophysical energies, providing new high resolution experimental data
which can be used to constrain astrophysical models of the sites where these reactions play a critical role.

13
As mentioned above, elastic scattering studies at low energies are also suited to active targets. The
motivation for such studies arises from the lack of knowledge of the optical model α-nucleus potentials in
the mass A=100 region. Model calculations of the p-process rely heavily on statistical models of the reaction
networks and recent sensitivity studies have shown that the largest uncertainty arises from the α-nucleus
potential at low energies where little or no experimental data is available to constrain the models.
Experimental data on these potentials for tin isotopes are of particular interest since there already exists some
data for the stable isotopes. Detailed measurements of both extremely proton and neutron-rich isotopes
would extend this data to more exotic systems providing more stringent tests of the models. The
experimental requirements are low detection thresholds and very good energy and position resolution.

Finally, transfer reactions are also an important tool for nuclear astrophysics experiments. Despite recent
improvements in detection systems, the direct study of some astrophysically important reactions is simply not
feasible at the relevant energies and thus indirect techniques must be exploited. However, many of the
reaction rates under investigation are dominated, at astrophysical temperatures, by the contribution from one
or two resonances, and so information on the properties of these resonances (energy, spin and width) allows
the contribution to the total reaction rate to be calculated. Transfer reactions, such as (d,p) and (3 He,t), are
powerful tools for investigating these properties for key energy levels in the relevant nuclide. The use of
active targets for transfer studies has been discussed in a previous section and the points raised there are
equally pertinent to this application.

5 Characteristics of ACTAR
For the key experiments presented in the preceding paragraphs, the characteristics of the ACTAR chamber
required for the experimental studies proposed can be determined. The required energy resolution for each
channel should not exceed about 100 keV. Such a resolution will allow to distinguish between different
particle types (e.g. protons or α particles) and to generate a meaningful sum signal from all channels, which
fired.

The position resolution of the two-dimensional detector has to be well below 1 mm. This means that the pitch
of the detector in x and y should be of the order of 1 mm. A fit of the charge collected on neighboring
channels will then allow determining the position with a resolution well below the detector pitch.

The third dimension will be determined from a drift time analysis of the charge cloud. The position resolution
in this dimension will depend on the drift time, which depends on the gas type and the detector high voltage.
A typical example is a P10 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure and a high voltage of 100 V/cm. These values
lead to a typical drift time of 5 cm/µs. A 1 mm resolution therefore requires a time resolution of the order of
20 ns.

These characteristics should be similar for other gas types, as transfer and scattering experiments will use
many different gases. In addition, the ACTAR device will be used together with ancillary detectors like
magnetic spectrometers to detect heavy reaction recoils, CsI detector to detect high-energy light charged
particles, neutron detectors for neutrons, or γ detectors like germanium solid state detectors or scintillators
like BaF2 or NaI. The incorporation of these detectors has to be foreseen right from the beginning.

6 Conclusion
The experiments outlined in the preceding paragraphs are meant to give a detailed idea about the new
possibilities opened by a detection set-up like ACTAR. The needs in resolution and in detection gases that
should be available are also essential for the technical work to follow to study the different options for the
ACTAR detector and for setting up a prototype of the device. As mentioned the experiments detailed here are
only considered key experiments, but do of course not limit the use of the ACTAR device for others studies
which might take benefit from the active target principle.

14
References

[1] P. Egelhof et al., Eur. Phys. J. A15 (2002) 27


[2] Dao T. Koa et al. Nucl. Phys. A672 (2000) 387
[3] W. von Oertzen et al. Nucl. Phys. A722 (2003) 202
[4] R. Wolski et al. Nucl. Phys. A722 (2003) 55
[5] M. Freer et al., private communication
[6] G.V. Rogachev et al., Phys. Rev. C67 (2003) 041603
[7] W.D. Myers, Proc. of the 1st. RNB Intern. Conf., 16-18 October 1989, Berkeley, California, USA, p. 269
[8] S. Fiarman and W.E. Meyerhof, Nucl. Phys. A206 (1973) 1
[9] F.W.N. De Boer et al., Nucl. Phys. A350 (1980) 149
[10] A.V. Belozyorov et al., Nucl. Phys. A477 (1988) 131
[11] A. Turkevich et al., Phys. Lett. 72B (1977) 163
[12] C. Détraz, Phys. Lett. 66B (1977) 333
[13] M. Marques et al., Phys. Rev. C65 (2002) 044006
[14] D. Beaumel et al, private communication
[15] S. Pieper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 252501
[16] E. Rich et al., EXON2004 Conference, July 2004, Peterhof, Russia
[17] B.R. Barrett and P. Navrátil, private communication.
[18] A.C.C. Villari et al., Letter of Intent for the SPIRAL facility
[19] S.V. Stepantsov et al., Nucl. Phys. A738 (2004) 436
[20] J. Giovinazzo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 102501
[21] M. Pfützner et al., Eur. Phys. J. A14 (2002) 279
[22] B. Blank et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 232501

15
!"#$%&'()*$*+'(,-$#'./*".01*2.%*#31*!45!6*+1#,7
8'/$-*617.%#*2.%*#31*!45!6*9:6;<&*=6!
>&'(,-$#'./*7$%#?*&,@#$+A*5B=CDBDEF*G1#$'-10*+'(,-$#'./+H

DFIDFICJ*>2'/$-*%17.%#*KDEDH*

L<G9M)
DE G1+"%'7#'./*.2*#31*&'(,-$#'./*".01*!"#$%&'(E
FE N3O+'"+*"$+1+)*P$++*(1$+,%1(1/#*Q'#3*>0?7H*%1$"#'./+E*
$H*&'(,-$#'./+*,+'/R*",@'"*R1.(1#%OE
@H*&'(,-$#'./+*,+'/R*"O-'/0%'"$-*R1.(1#%OE

!"#$%&'()*+),-#,.#+/%#0)1234+),-#',5%#6'+4(0)1"
!"#$%&'(*'+*$*".01*01K1-.710*2.%*#31*+'(,-$#'./*.2*#31*!45!6*1S71%'(1/#$-*+1#,7E*
!"#$%&'(*3$+*@11/*01K1-.710*Q'#3*#31*$'(*#.*$/+Q1%*T,1+#'./+*-'A1*Q3'"3*+1#,7*'+*(.%1*
$01T,$#1*2.%*.@#$'/'/R*#31*@1##1%*%1+7./+1*,/01%*#31*K$%'1#O*.2*%1$"#'./+*$/0*1/1%R'1+*.2*
'/#1%1+#?*0,%'/R*#31*01+'R/*73$+1E*L#*+3.,-0*$-+.*+1%K1*$+*#31*+'(,-$#'./*$/0*$/$-O+'+*
7-$#2.%(*2.%*#31*0$#$*$/$-O+'+*$/0*1K$-,$#'./*Q31/*1S71%'(1/#$-*0$#$*Q'--*@1*$K$'-$@-1E*

531*01K1-.7(1/#*.2*#31*".01*@1R$/*'/*FCCU*$/0*+1K1%$-*'(7%.K10*+#$@-1*K1%+'./+*3$K1*
@11/*$K$'-$@-1*+'/"1*#3$#*>+11*3##7)IIQQQE,+"E1+IR1/7I$"#$%HE*

531*".01*'+*$@-1*#.*#%$"A*#31*7$%#'"-1+*$-./R*#31'%*7$#3*'/*#31*01#1"#.%*R$+*$+*Q1--*$+*#31'%*
'/#1%$"#'./*Q'#3*.#31%*$/"'--$%O*01#1"#.%+?*%17.%#'/R*#31*%1+7./+1*.2*1$"3*01#1"#.%*#.*#31*
'/#1%$"#'./+E*G'221%1/#*%1$"#'./+*.2*'/#1%1+#*$%1*'/"-,010*@O*012'/'/R*$*%1$"#'./*K1%#1S*$/0*
$77-O'/R*#31*$77%.7%'$#1*A'/1($#'"+E*531*$/$-O+'+*.2*#31*01#1"#.%+*%1+7./+1*$/0*#31*
01%'K10*122'"'1/"O*$/0*%1+.-,#'./*$%1*#31*7%'($%O*R.$-+E*G'221%1/#*+O+#1(+*$/0*7$%$(1#1%+?*
1/".(7$++'/R*#31*R$+*"1--*+3$71*>",@'"*.%*"O-'/0%'"$-H?*+'V1?*R$+*#O71*$/0*01/+'#O*'/*#31*R$+*
K.-,(1?*@1$(*+3'1-0'/R?*#31*#O71*$/0*7.+'#'./'/R*.2*$/"'--$%O*01#1"#.%+*$/0*#31*7.++'@-1*
,+1*.2*($R/1#'"*2'1-0+?*"$/*@1*#,/10*2.%*$/*$77%.7%'$#1*+1#,7*01+'R/E*!"#$%&'(*'+*$*
(.0,-$%*$/0*"./2'R,%$@-1*+'(,-$#'./*2.%*#1+#'/R*R1.(1#%O?*R$+*7$%$(1#1%+?*$(7-'2'"$#'./*
$/0*%1"./+#%,"#'./*$-R.%'#3(+E

531*!"#$%&'(*".01*'+*Q%'##1/*'/*4WW*$/0*@$+10*./*X1$/#Y*$/0*6;;5*-'@%$%'1+*2.%*#31*
#%$"A'/R*$/0*($##1%*'/#1%$"#'./*$/0*#31*71%+'+#1/"O*$/0*0$#$*$/$-O+'+*-'@%$%'1+?*
%1+71"#'K1-OE*L#*,+1+*X1$/#Y*-'@%$%'1+*2.%*#31*7%.0,"#'./*$/0*#%$"A'/R*.2*7%'($%O*$/0*(.+#*
1/1%R1#'"*+1"./0$%O*2%$R(1/#+*>9",#*Z*D*A1[H*Q'#3'/*#31*R$+?*#31*01#1"#.%+*$/0*.#31%*
+,77.%#*+#%,"#,%1+E*531*7.+'#'./*$/0*#31*1/1%RO*017.+'#10*2.%*1$"3*#%$"A*'/*#31*R$+*'+*
+#.%10*$/0*#31*0%'2#*$/0*0'22,+'./*.2*#31*1-1"#%./'"*"-.,0+*"$-",-$#10E*!2#1%*#31*0%'2#?*#31*
'/0,"#'./*'/*#31*7$0+*7-$/1*".,-0*@1*.@#$'/10*2.%*0'221%1/#*7$0*R1.(1#%'1+E*!*0O/$('"*
0$#$*+#%,"#,%1*$--.Q'/R*(,-#'3'#*1K1/#+*'/*0'221%1/#*01#1"#.%+?*@$+10*./*#31*6;;5*-'@%$%'1+*
3$+*@11/*'(7-1(1/#10?*$+*Q1--*$+*2,/"#'./+*$/0*$-R.%'#3(+*2.%*#31*1K1/#*%1"./+#%,"#'./E

531*01#1"#.%*01+"%'7#'./*'/"-,01+*#31*R$+*K.-,(1*Q31%1*#31*'/#1%$"#'./*#$A1+*7-$"1?*$*+1#*.2*
+'-'"./*01#1"#.%+*$/0*+"'/#'--$#.%*"%O+#$-+*2.%*#31*01#1"#'./*.2*"3$%R10*7$%#'"-1+*$/0*R$(($+*
1+"$7'/R*2%.(*#31*R$+1.,+*K.-,(1E*P$R/1#'"*$/0*1-1"#%'"*2'1-0+*".,-0*@1*'/#%.0,"10E*

61R$%0'/R*#31*K1%#1S*$/0*%1$"#'./*R1/1%$#.%+?*!"#$%&'(*,+1+*#31*A'/1($#'"*"$-",-$#.%+*2.%*
@'/$%O*%1$"#'./+*4L<9?*01K1-.710*2.%*\E*P'##'R*>P&:H?*$/0*]L<9?*Q%'##1/*@O*G%E*PE&E*
X-.KA.K*>G,@/$H?*2.%*.@#$'/'/R*#31*A'/1($#'"+*.2*#31*7$%#'"-1+*$#*#31*%1$"#'./*K1%#1S1+E*531*
K1%#1S*'+*'/"-,010*2.--.Q'/R*$*%1$-'+#'"*@1$(*'/#1%$"#'./?*'/"-,0'/R*#31*@1$(*1('##$/"1*$/0*
#31*@1$(*1/1%RO*-.++*'/*#31*R$+E*4%.++*+1"#'./+*2.%*0'221%1/#*%1$"#'./+*".,-0*@1*
'/".%7.%$#10*$+*1S#1%/$-*0$#$*2'-1+E*!00'#'./$--O?*'/0'K'0,$-*7$%#'"-1+*".,-0*@1*#3%.Q/*./*
#31*+O+#1(*2.%*#1+#'/R*#31*01#1"#.%+*%1+7./+1E*

7"#8/9&)'&#'4&%&
\1*'--,+#%$#1*#31*71%2.%($/"1+*.2*!"#$%&'(*Q'#3*+1K1%$-*73O+'"*"$+1+*+#,0'10*./*0'221%1/#*
+1#,7+E*L/*#31*2.--.Q'/R*7$%$R%$73+?*#31*A'/1($#'"$-*"./+#%$'/+*$/0*#31*01#$'-+*.2*#31*+1#,7*
2.%*($++*(1$+,%1(1/#+*,+'/R*>0?7H*%1$"#'./+*$%1*01+"%'@10E

:4&&#1%4&2(%1%-+#;)+/#<5=*>#(%4'+),-&"
531*($++*.2*^_<'*"$/*@1*(1$+,%10*@O*,+'/R*$*>0?7H*%1$"#'./?*@O*,+'/R*#31*"./+1%K$#'./*-$Q*
.2*1/1%R'1+*$/0*(.(1/#$*@12.%1*$/0*$2#1%*#31*%1$"#'./E*531*A'/1($#'"+*.2*!"#$%&'()!*#$?*$/0*
!"
#$%&'+)!!#$,Q1%1*$-+.*"$-",-$#10?*#.*2'/0*#31*@1+#*"./0'#'./*2.%*#31*'01/#'2'"$#'./*.2*7%.#./+*
2%.(*01,#1%./+*$/0*#%'#./+*'/*#31*1S71%'(1/#E*

8.%*"$-",-$#'./*.2*#31*A'/1($#'"+*.2*#31*0>*^J<'?*^_<'H7*%1$"#'./?*Q1*/110*#.*A/.Q*#31*
($++1+*.2*#31*2.,%*/,"-1'E*531*!P9FCC`*".--1"#'./*.2*R%.,/0B+#$#1B($++1+*a!P9FCC`b*.2*
^J
<'?*01,#1%./?*$/0*7%.#./*Q1%1*$0.7#10?*Q3'"3*$%1*^^E_U`DJ*,?*FECDYDCF*,?*$/0*FECDYDC*,?*
%1+71"#'K1-O*>D*,c_`DEY_YCD*P1[HE*531*($++*.2**^_<'*Q$+*"$-",-$#10*$"".%0'/R*#.*'#+*
@'/0'/R*1/1%RO*>UYFEUJ*P1[?*dL&9WW?*dGP*eFH?*Q3'"3*'+*^^E_U`DJ*,E*531*A'/1($#'"+*.2*
0>^J<'*?^J<'H0?*$/0*0>^_<'*?^_<'H#*Q1%1*$-+.*"$-",-$#10E*531*($++1+*.2*/,"-1'*'/*#31+1*
%1$"#'./+*Q1%1*#$A1/*2%.(*!P9FCC`E*53'+*'+*#.*2'/0*#31*@1+#*"./0'#'./*2.%*#31*'01/#'2'"$#'./*
.2*7%.#./+*2%.(*01,#1%./+*$/0*#%'#./+*'/*#31*1S71%'(1/#E*<.#1*#3$#*#31*1-$+#'"*+"$##1%'/R*
"%.++*+1"#'./*+3.,-0*@1*(,"3*-$%R1%*#3$/*#31*>0?7H*%1$"#'./?*+.*Q1*1S71"#*-.#+*.2*01,#1%./+E

8'R,%1+*D*$/0*F*+3.Q*#31*1/1%R'1+*$/0*$/R-1+*.2*7%.#./?*01,#1%./?*$/0*#%'#./?*'/*#31*
-$@.%$#.%O*>d!fH*+O+#1(E*;/1*"$/*+11*#3$#)
DE*\31/*#31*'/"'01/#*1/1%RO*'+*g!*P1[?*#31*7%.#./+*$#*2.%Q$%0*$/R-1+*'/*#31*"1/#%1B
.2B($++*>4PH*+O+#1(*Q'--*R.*#.*#31*2.%Q$%0*$/R-1+*'/*#31*-$@.%$#.%O*+O+#1(*Q31/*#31*
1S"'#$#'./*1/1%RO*.2*^_<'*1S"110+*`*P1[?*Q3'"3*Q'--*.K1%-$7*Q'#3*#31*$/R,-$%*%$/R1*.2*
01,#1%./+*$/0*#%'#./+E
FE*\31/*#31*'/"'01/#*1/1%RO*'+*DC*!*P1[?*#31*7%.#./+*$#*2.%Q$%0*$/R-1+*'/*#31*4P*
+O+#1(*Q'--*%1".'-*#.*#31*@$"AQ$%0*$/R-1+*'/*#31*d!f*+O+#1(*1K1/*Q31/*#31*1S"'#$#'./*
1/1%RO*.2*^_<'*1S"110+*g*P1[E*G1,#1%./+*$/0*#%'#./+*$%1*+"$##1%10*'/*#31*2.%Q$%0*$/R-1+E*
53'+*'+*R..0*2.%*7%.#./*'01/#'2'"$#'./*$#*#31*@$"AQ$%0*$/R-1+*'/*#31*d$@*+O+#1(E
`E*\31/*#31*'/"'01/#*1/1%RO*'+*g*!*P1[?*#31*7%.#./*1/1%RO*$#*@$"AQ$%0*$/R-1+*Q'--*
@1*#..*-.Q*#.*@1*(1$+,%10*Q'#3*P!h!*Q31/*#31*1S"'#$#'./*1/1%RO*.2*^_<'*'+*R1##'/R*3'R31%E*
\3'-1*2.%*DC*!*P1[?*#31*+'#,$#'./*'+*(,"3*@1##1%*>,7*#.*1S"'#$#'./*1/1%RO*.2*g*P1[*.2*^_<'HE
?)@#!"#!/R-1+*$/0*1/1%R'1+*.2*7%.#./?*01,#1%./*$/0*#%'#./+*Q'#3*^J<'*$#*g*!*P1[*$/0*^_<'*$#*
0'221%1/#*1S"'#$#'./*1/1%R'1+*.2*#31'%*".%%1+7./0'/R*31$KO*7$%#'"-1+E

?)@#7"#!/R-1+*$/0*1/1%R'1+*.2*7%.#./?*01,#1%./*$/0*#%'#./+*Q'#3*^J<'*$#*DC*!*P1[*$/0*^_<'*
$#*0'221%1/#*1S"'#$#'./*1/1%R'1+*.2*#31'%*".%%1+7./0'/R*31$KO*7$%#'"-1+E

&.*'/*#31*2.--.Q'/R*+'(,-$#'./*Q.%A?*#31*'/"'01/#*1/1%RO*.2**^J<'*Q'--*@1*DC*!*P1[E
8(%&&2(%#,.#A/%#$%2+%(,-#B4&
531*7%1++,%1*.2*#31*01,#1%./*R$+*Q$+*01#1%('/10*@O*%1T,'%'/R*#3$#*#31*%$/R1*.2*`CC*A1[*
7%.#./*'+*$%.,/0*DC*"(E*8'RE*`*+3.Q+*#31*%$/R1*.2*$*7%.#./*$#*`CC*A1[*1/1%RO*$+*$*2,/"#'./*
.2*#31*7%1++,%1*.2*#31*01,#1%./*R$+E*;/1*"$/*+11*#3$#*#31*.71%$#'/R*7%1++,%1*+3.,-0*@1*
$%.,/0*DYC*(@$%E

?)@#C"#6$/R1*.2*$*7%.#./*'/*#31*01,#1%./*R$+*$#*`CC*A1[*$+*$*2,/"#'./*.2*#31*7%1++,%1E

A/%#D(,&&E&%'+),-&#,.#A/%#5<FGH)#=FIH)>*#J%4'+),-#4+#!K6#:%L
G\f!*"%.++*+1"#'./+*.2*#31*#%$/+'#'./*#.*#31*R%.,/0*+#$#1*.2*^_<'*"$-",-$#10*,+'/R*869&4;*
Q$+*($01E*531*4iJ_*+O+#1($#'"*.7#'"$-*7.#1/#'$-+*Q1%1*,+10*2.%*01,#1%./*$/0*7%.#./E*531*
+'/R-1B/1,#%./*+71"#%.+".7'"*2$"#.%*.2*^_<'*Q$+*$++,(10*#.*@1*DE*531*%1+,-#*Q$+*+3.Q/*'/*
8'RE*YE
?)@#M"#G\f!*"%.++B+1"#'./+*.2*#31*0>^J<'?*^_<'H7*%1$"#'./*$#*DC*!*P1[E

4>#0)1234+),-#2&)-@#'2N)'#@%,1%+(9"
L/*#31*+'(,-$#'./*Q1*$++,(1*$*R$+*"3$(@1%*.2*$*",@'"*R1.(1#%O*Q'#3*$*+'V1*.2*gCSgCS`C*
"(`?*'#+*2%./#?*@$"A?*$/0*-12#B3$/0*+,%2$"1+*$%1*".K1%10*Q'#3*$/"'--$%O*+'-'"./*01#1"#.%+?*$+*
+3.Q/*'/*8'RE*gE*\1*$++,(1*#31*@1$(*'/"'01/#*$-./R*#31*Wj*$S'+*2%.(*ScOcC*((E*

?)@# O"# !"#$%&'(* +1#,7* 2.%* #31* ",@'"* R1.(1#%OE* &'-'"./* 01#1"#.%+* >'/* R%11/H* $/0* 4+L>5-H*
+"'/#'--$#.%* "%O+#$-+* >'/* @-,1H* $%1* $%%$/R10* $%.,/0* #31* R$+* K.-,(1E* N$%#'"-1+* #%$"A10* '/* $*
".(7-1S*%1$"#'./*7%.0,"10*'/*#31*R$+*"1--*$%1*+3.Q/E
8.%*#31*0>^J<'?* ^_<'H0*%1$"#'./*$#*DC*!*P1[?*#31*1/1%RO*.2*#31* ^_<'*7$%#'"-1+*$%1*#..*3'R3*#.*
@1* +#.7710* '/* #31* R$+* "3$(@1%?* +.* Q1* ./-O* "./+'01%* #31* 122'"'1/"O* .2* #31* 7%.#./+E* 531*
%1$"#'./*K1%#1S*'+*$++,(10*#.*@1*'/*#31*"1/#1%*.2*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%?*'E1E?*>S?O?VHc>C?C?FgHE*531 *
"1/#1%B.2B($++*>4PH*$/R-1*.2*#31*7%.#./+* !4P* Q1%1*+"$//10*2%.(*Fk*#.*^Ck*Q'#3*$*+#17*.2*FkE*
531* "* $/R-1+*Q1%1*%$/0.(-O*"3.+1/* 2%.(*C*#.*F#E* 8.%* 1$"3* !4P* $/R-1?*DCCC*1K1/#+*Q1%1*
+'(,-$#10E*
531*2.--.Q'/R*'/2.%($#'./*.2*7%.#./*Q'--*@1*%1".%010)
B*'#+*'/'#'$-*1/1%RO*$#*#31*%1$"#'./*K1%#1S?
B*'#+*1/1%RO*-.++*'/*#31*R$+?
B*'#+**!d!f*$/0*"*$/R-1+?*$/0
B*'#+*+,(*-1/R#3*.2*+#17+*'/*#31*R$+E
531*7%1++,%1*.2*#31*01,#1%./*R$+*.2*FCC?*YCC?*$/0*JCC*(@$%*Q1%1*,+10E

8.%* $* 2'%+#* $77%.S'($#'./?* Q1* 01"'01* #31* 7%.#./* "$/* .%* "$/* /.#* @1* 01#1"#10* @O* #31*
2.--.Q'/R*"%'#1%'$)
DE*8.%*$*7%.#./*+#.7710*'/*#31*R$+?*'#*"$/*@1*01#1"#10*'2)
B*'#+*7%.l1"#10*%$/R1*-1/R#3*'/*R$+*'+*-$%R1%*#3$/*`*"(?*$/0
B*'#+* !d!f* $/R-1*%1-$#'K1*#.*#31*@1$(*-'/1*'/*#31*d$@*+O+#1(*'+*-$%R1%*#3$/*gk*>#.*
$K.'0*#31*@1$(HE

FE*8.%*7%.#./+*1+"$7'/R*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%?*'#*"$/*@1*01#1"#10*'2)
B* '#+* %1+'0,$-* 1/1%RO* >1/1%RO* $#* %1$"#'./* K1%#1S* ('/,+* 1/1%RO* -.++* '/* R$+H* '+*
-$%R1%*#3$/*gCC*A1[*+.*#3$#*'#*".,-0*@1*01#1"#10*@O*$/"'--$%O*01#1"#.%+?
B* '#+* 1/1%RO* -.++* 71%* "1/#'(1#1%* $-./R* '#+* 7$#3* 7%.l1"#'./* ./* 7$0* 7-$/1* '+*
-$%R1%*#3$/*D*A1[?*$/0
B*'#+*!d!f*$/R-1*%1-$#'K1*#.*#31*@1$(*-'/1*'/*#31*d$@*+O+#1(*'+*-$%R1%*#3$/*gkE
***

8'R,%1* U* +3.Q+* #31*7%.#./*01#1"#'./*122'"'1/"O* $>!4PH*$+*$*2,/"#'./*.2*#31*%1".'-'/R*$/R-1?*


2.%* 7%.#./+* ".%%1+7./0+* #.* #31* R%.,/0* +#$#1* >RE+EH* $/0* 1S"'#10* +#$#1* >gP1[H* .2* ^_<'* ?* $/0*
8'RE* ^* '+* l,+#* '#+* V..(10* K'1Q* 2.%* +($--1%* !4P* $/R-1+E* <.#1* #3$#* #.* @1* $@-1* #.* @1*
0'+#'/R,'+310*2%.(*#31*@1$(*7%.l1"#'./*./*#31*7$0B7-$/1?*Q1*+3.,-0*7,#*+.(1*"./+#%$'/#+*
./* #31* "
% $/R-1+* .2* #31* 7%.#./+?* 'E1E?* #31* 7%.#./+* 1('##10* Q'#3* $* "1%#$'/* "
% $/R-1+* +3.,-0*
$-+.*@1*1S"-,010E*8.%*1S$(7-1?*'2*#31*"%'#1%'$*'+*gk?*#31*7%.#./+*Q'#3*Ckm"mgk?*D^gkm"mDJCk?*
$/0*`ggkm"m`UCk*+3.,-0*@1*".,/#10*$+*/.#*1221"#'K1E*&.*#31*K$-,1*.2*#31*122'"'1/"'1+*'/*8'RE*
U*$/0*8'RE*^*+3.,-0*01"%1$+1*@O*$*2$"#.%*.2*gEUnE

?)@#P"#922'"'1/"O*.2*7%.#./*01#1"#'./*2.%*0'221%1/#*4P*$/R-1+E
?)@#F"#!*V..(10*K'1Q*.2*8'RE*U*2.%*+($--*7.-$%*$/R-1+E

8%.(*8'RE*U*$/0*8'RE*^*Q1*"$/*0%$Q*#31*2.--.Q'/R*"./"-,+'./+)
B* 8.%*#31* ",@'"*R1.(1#%O?*$++,('/R*#3$#*Q1*3$K1*$/"'--$%O*+'-'"./* 01#1"#.%+* ./*#31*
2%./#?* @$"A?* $/0* #31* -12#B+'01* .2* #31* R$+* "3$(@1%?* #31* $>!4PH* '+* ($'/-O* 01#1%('/10* @O* #31*
R1.(1#%O* .2* #31* R$+* "3$(@1%* 2%.(* $* "1%#$'/* !4P* $/R-1?*Q3'"3*(1$/+*#3$#*'/"%1$+1*.2*#31*
31'R3#*.2*#31*01#1"#.%*Q'--*'/"%1$+1*#31*122'"'1/"OE
B* 531* $>!4PH* $-+.* 0171/0+* ./* #31* 7%1++,%1* .2* #31* R$+?* '/"%1$+1* #31* 7%1++,%1* Q'--*
'/"%1$+1* #31* 122'"'1/"O* $#* -$%R1%* !4P* $/R-1+?* 1+71"'$--O* 2.%* #31* 7%.#./+* ".%%1+7./0* #.* #31*
1S"'#10*+#$#1+*.2*^_<'E

'>#0)1234+),-#2&)-@#'93)-5()'43#@%,1%+(9"
\1* 3$K1* $-+.* 71%2.%(10* +'(,-$#'./+* 2.%* #31* !"#$%&'()!*#$* %1$"#'./* $#* DC!P1[* 3$K1* ,+'/R*
#31*!"#$%&'(*&'(,-$#'./*4.01*2.%*#31*"O-'/0%'"$-*R1.(1#%OE*531*R$+*K.-,(1*'+*012'/10*@O*$*
%$0',+*.2*`C*"(*$/0*$**-1/R#3*>'/*#31*@1$(*$S'+*0'%1"#'./H*.2*gC*"(E*\1*3$K1*"./+'01%10*#31*
7%1+1/"1* .2* $* ($R/1#'"* 2'1-0* >fcD?* F* $/0* `5H* $"#'/R* '/* #31* 71%71/0'",-$%* 0'%1"#'./* #.* #31*
@1$(*$S'+*0'%1"#'./E
*531*+'(,-$#'./+*Q1%1*71%2.%(10*#$A'/R*'/#.*$"".,/#*#31*2.--.Q'/R*"./0'#'./+)*
DH #31%1*'+*/.*1/1%RO*-.++*.2*#31*7%'($%O*@1$(*'/+'01*#31*R$+*K.-,(1*>#31*@1$(*7%.2'-1*
Q$+*"3.+1/*$+*X$,++'$/?*Q'#3*8\iPcD*"(Ho
FH #31*/$#,%1*.2*#31*R$+*#$%R1#*'+**01,#1%./o
`H +1K1%$-*R$+*7%1++,%1*$%1*"./+'01%10*)*YCC?*JgC*$/0*DCD`*(@$%o*
YH #31*".01*$--.Q+*#.*+1-1"#*7.-$%*$/R-1+*2.%*+1"./0$%O*7$%#'"-1+*'/*#31*"1/#1%*.2*($++*
1'#31%*%$/0.(-O*.%*#.*+#,0O*#31*@13$K'.%*$#**2'S10*K$-,1+E*\1*3$K1*'/K1+#'R$#10*#31*
"$+1* .2* +1"./0$%O* 7$%#'"-1+* 1('##10* $#* Fk?* gk?* DCk?* gCk* $/0* ^Ck* 7.-$%* $/R-1+* '/* #31*
"1/#1%*.2*($++?*Q3'"3*".%%1+7./0*#.*#31*@$"AQ$%0*K$-,1+*'/*#31*-$@.%$#.%O*+O+#1()*
D^Fk?* DUDk?*DYgk?* DFDk?*JFk*$/0*U^k?*%1+71"#'K1-O*>1+71"'$--O?*2.%*#31*@$"AQ$%0* $/R-1+*
#31*7%.#./*3$+*K1%O*-.Q*1/1%RO?*pD*P1[Ho*
gH $V'(,#3$-*$/R-1+*$%1*"3.+1/*%$/0.(-Oo*
UH Q1*3$K1*'/K1+#'R$#10*0'221%1/#*7%'($%O*%1$"#'./*K1%#1S*7.+'#'./+?*/$(1-O**jcDC*$/0*
Fg*"(o
^H #31*7$0*7-$/1*7.+'#'./*'+*$++,(10*#.*@1*-."$#10*'/*#31*"O-'/01%*9/0*4$7*>#%$l1"#.%'1+ *
$%1*7%.l1"#10*'/*#31*7-$/1*71%71/0'",-$%*#.*#31*@1$(*0'%1"#'./Ho*
JH #31* 1K1/#* R1/1%$#.%* "./+'01%10* '+* #31* 4L<9* ".01?* Q3'"3* 71%2.%(+* %1-$#'K'+#'"*
A'/1($#'"+*"$-",-$#'./+*2.%*$*R'K1/*%1$"#'./*"3$//1-E*

8'R*J*+3.Q+*#31*+'(,-$#'./*%1+,-#+*2.%*#31*7%1++,%1*NcDCD`*(@$%?*$/0*($R/1#'"*2'1-0*fc`*5E
\1* Q'--* ./-O* "./+'01%10* #3.+1* "$+1+* Q'#3* %1".'-* 7%.#./+* +#.7710* '/+'01* #31* R$+* K.-,(1E*
531* 7%1+1/"1* .2* '/#1/+1* ($R/1#'"* 2'1-0+* ($A1+* '#* 7.++'@-1* '/* $* %1$+./$@-1* %$/R1?* * Q'#3'/*
#3'+*"./+'01%$#'./*'#*'+*/.#*/1"1++$%O*#31*,+1*.2*$/O*$/"'--$%O*01#1"#.%+E*L/*.%01%*#.*$--.Q*$/*
$01T,$#1* 2%$R(1/#* *'01/#'2'"$#'./*Q1*./-O* "./+'01%10* 7%.l1"#10*%$/R1+*-$%R1%*#3$/* `*"(E*
!/.#31%*1S71%'(1/#$-*2'-#1%*'(7.+10*'+*+1-1"#'./*.2*7.-$%*$/R-1+*-$%R1%*#3$/*gk*#.*R,$%$/#11*
$*"./K1/'1/#*'/"'01/#*@1$(*%1l1"#'./E*

\1*3$K1*01#1%('/1*#31*122'"'1/"O*.2*#31*+1#,7*Q'#3'/*$--*#31*$@.K1*"./0'#'./+E*

8'R* _* +3.Q+* #31* 122'"'1/"O* %1+,-#+* 2.%* #31* !"#$%&'()!*#$* %1$"#'./* $#* DC*!* P1[* $#* #31* K1%#1S*
7.+'#'./**jcDC*>-12#H*$/0*Fg*"(*>%'R3#H?*"./+'01%'/R*$*%$/0.(*7.-$%*$/R-1*01#1%('/$#'./*2.%*
#31*+1"./0$%O*7$%#'"-1+E*L/*#31+1*"$+1+*#31*%1+,-#+*2.%*#31*122'"'1/"O*"$-",-$#'./+*2$--*'/#.*#31*
%$/R1* YgnBUgn* 2.%* #31* K1%#1S* 7.+'#'./* $#* jcDC* "(?* $/0* '/* #31* %$/R1* gYn* #.* UYn* 2.%* #31*
K1%#1S*7.+'#'./*$#*jcFg*"(E*

#######################<4>###################################################<N>
?)@# G"# N%.#./+* #%$"A+* 2.%* #31* !"#$%&'()!*#$* %1$"#'./?*2.%*NcDCD`*(@$%* $/0*fc`*5)* <4>*2%.(*$*
@1$(* K'1Q* $-./R* #31* j* 0'%1"#'./o* <N>* #3%11* 0'(1/+'./$-* K'1Q?* Q31%1* Q1* "$/* +11* #3$#* #31*
!*
#$,R.*2.%*#31*2.%Q$%0*$/R-1+?*$/0*#31*7%.#./+*R.*2.%*#31*@$"AQ$%0*$/R-1+E
<4>#######################################################<N>#
?)@#I"# 922'"'1/"O*%1+,-#+*2.%*$*7%.#./*+#.7710*'/*#31*R$+*2.%*#31*K1%#1S*7.+'#'./+*'/)* <4># jcDC*
"(*$/0*<N>#jcFg*"(E*8.%*#31+1*"$+1+*#31*#31#$*$/R-1*2.%*#31*+1"./0$%O*7$%#'"-1+*'+*%$/0.(E

531*+1"./0*7$%#*2.%*#31*+'(,-$#'./+*Q'#3*#31*"O-'/0%'"$-*R1.(1#%O*Q$+*71%2.%(10*2.%*2'S10*
7.-$%*$/R-1*K$-,1+E*5$@-1*D*+3.Q+*#31*%1+,-#+*2.%*#31*122'"'1/"O*1+#'($#'./E*8'R,%1+*DC*$/0*
DD*+3.Q*#31*%1+,-#+*2.%*#31*7%.#./*1/1%RO*-.++*$/0*#.#$-*7%.#./*7$#3*-1/R#3*'/*#31*R$+*2.%*
#31*K1%#1S*7.+'#'./+*jcDC*>-12#H*$/0*Fg*"(*>%'R3#H?*%1+71"#'K1-OE*

f$+10*./*5$@-1*D*$/0*8'R,%1+*DC*$/0*DD?*Q1*"$/*"./"-,01*2.%*#31*K1%#1S*7.+'#'./*jc*DC"()*
DE 8.%* #31* R%.,/0* +#$#1* $/0* -.Q* 7%1++,%1* >N* c* YCC(@$%H?* * '/* #31* ($l.%'#O* #31* "$+1+? *
7%.#./+*+"$71*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%E*8.%*#31*+71"'$-*"$+1+*.2*7%.#./*7.-$%*$/R-1*.2*Fk?*gk*
$/0* DCk* #31*7%.#./*1/1%RO*-.++*'+*pCEgP1[* *$/0*#31*#.#$-*7$#3*-1/R#3*.2*DC*"(E*L/*
#31+1*"$+1+*#31*K$-,1*2.%*#31*7%.#./*1/1%RO*-.++*+3.Q10*'/*8'R,%1+*DC*$/0*DD*'+*/.#*
".(7-1#1-O*%1$-'+#'"E
FE 8.%*#31*R%.,/0*+#$#1*$/0*$/0*3'R3*7%1++,%1*>N*c*DCD`*(@$%H?*7%.#./+*+#.7*'/+'01*#31*
R$+*K.-,(1E
`E 8.%*9q>!*#$*Hcg*P1[*$/0*-.Q*7%1++,%1*>N*c*YCC*(@$%H?*'/*$-(.+#*$--*#31*"$+1+*7%.#./+*
+#.7*'/+'01*#31*R$+*K.-,(1E*;/*#31*.#31%*3$/0*2.%*#31*$/R-1+)*Fk*$/0*gk*#31*7%.#./*
1/1%RO*'+*K1%O*-.Q*$/0*#31+1*7%.#./+*0.*/.#*3$K1*#31*"./0'#'./+*2.%*@1'/R*01#1"#10*
'/+'01*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%?*Q'#3*7%.l1"#10**7$#3*-1/R#3*'+*pDE`*"(E
YE 8.%*9q>!*#$*Hcg*P1[?**3'R3*7%1++,%1*>N*c*DCD`*(@$%H*$/0*7.-$%*$/R-1*+1-1"#'./*.2*Fk?*
gk*$/0*DCk?*Q1*3$K1*#31*+$(1*+'#,$#'./*$+*`HE*8.%*-$%R1%*$/R-1+*7%.#./+*+#.7*'/+'01*
#31*R$+E
gE 8.%* 7.-$%* $/R-1+* Fk?* gk?* DCk* $/0* FCk?* $/0* 9q>!*#$* H* cg* P1[?* #31* 7%.#./* 1/1%RO* -.++*
0.1+*/.#*0171/0*./*#31*7%1++,%1?*$+*Q1*"$/*+11*'/**8'R,%1+*`*$/0*YE

61R$%0'/R*#31*K1%#1S*7.+'#'./*jc*Fg*"()
DE 8.%*$-(.+#*$--*#31*"$+1+*#31*7%.#./+#+#.7*'/*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%?*1S"17#*2.%*+.(1*"$+1+*
2.%*Fk?*gk*$/0*DCk*2.%*9q>!*#$*H*cg*P1[?*'/*Q3'"3*#31*7%.#./+*3$K1*K1%O*-.Q*1/1%RO*
$/0*-.+1*pCE`*P1[*'/*pDE^*"(*#.#$-*7%.#./*7$#3*-1/R#3E*L/*#31+1*"$+1+*#31O*0.*/.# *
2,-2'--*#31*"./0'#'./+*2.%*@1'/R*01#1"#10*'/+'01*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%E
FE 8.%*#31*R%.,/0*+#$#1*$/0*#31*7.-$%*$/R-1+)*Fk*$/0*gk?*#31*7%.#./*1/1%RO*-.++*'+*pDEF *
P1[*2.%*$*#.#$-*7%.#./*7$#3*-1/R#3*.2*pFC*"(E*L/*#31+1*"$+1+*#31*7%.#./*-..+1+*$--*'#+*
1/1%RO*$/0*+#.7+*'/+'01*#31*R$+*"3$(@1%E*
531* 122'"'1/"O* $"3'1K10* Q'#3* !"#'K1* #$%R1#+* Q'#3* "O-'/0%'"* R1.(1#%O* $/0* '/* 7%1+1/"1* .2*
'/#1/+1*($R/1#'"*2'1-0+*'+*T,'#1*3'R3E*L/*.%01%*#.*1S#%$"#*(.%1*".(7-1#1*%1+,-#+?*+'(,-$#'./+*
Q'#3*.#31%*'/7,#*7$%$(1#1%+*Q.,-0*@1*/110*/11010E*i.Q1K1%*T,$/#'#$#'K1*%1+,-#+*$%1*./-O*
7.++'@-1*#.*@1*1S#%$"#10*$2#1%*'(7-1(1/#$#'./*.2*$/*$01T,$#1*%1"./+#%,"#'./*$-R.%'#3(*#3$# *
'+*.,#+'01*#31*+".71*.2*#31*7%1+1/#*Q.%AE*

#$
%&'()*+,-'./0/1' 2"13'145&/1-'1,1)(6'7*)'#$%&
8)*/*,' 8)*/*,'
1,1)(6 ''8';'<=='>?0) '''8';'@=@A'>?0) 1,1)(6 '''8';'<=='>?0) 8';'@=@A'>?0)
!!" 9"13: 9"13:
B';'@C B';'DC B';'@C B';'DC B';'@C B';'DC B';'@C B';'DC

! "#$ % % "%% "%% %#!& % % % %


& "#' % % "%% "%% %#$! % % % %
"% "#( % % "%% "%% %#&) "%% "%% % %
!% !#* % % "%% "%% "#&( "%% "%% "%% "%%
&% "%#& "%% "%% "%% "%% *#" "%% "%% "%% "%%
)% "*#& "%% "%% "%% "%% "'#) "%% "%% "%% "%%
!"#

#$
%&'()*+,-'./0/1' 2"13'145&/1-'1,1)(6'7*)'#$%&
8)*/*,' 8)*/*,'
1,1)(6 ''8';'<=='>?0) '''8';'@=@A'>?0) 1,1)(6 '''8';'<=='>?0) 8';'@=@A'>?0)
!!" 9"13: B';'@C B';'DC 9"13:
B';'@C B';'DC B';'@C B';'DC B';'@C B';'DC

! "#$ "%% "%% "%% "%% %#!& % % % %


& "#' "%% "%% "%% "%% %#$! % % % %
"% "#( "%% "%% "%% "%% %#&) "%% +% % %
!% !#* "%% "%% "%% "%% "#&( "%% "%% +* "%%
&% "%#& "%% "%% "%% "%% *#" "%% "%% "%% "%%
)% "*#& "%% (( "%% "%% "'#) "%% +* "%% "%%
!$#
A4N3%# !"# 922'"'1/"O* %1+,-#+* 2.%* $* 7%.#./* 01#1"#'./* '/+'01* #31* R$+* "3$(@1%* 2.%* #31* K1%#1S*
7.+'#'./+*$#)*<4>#jcDC*"(*$/0*<N>#jcFg*"(?*2.%*0'221%1/#*#31#$*$/R-1+E
#
##########<4>#######################################################<N>

?)@# !K"# <4>N%.#./* 1/1%RO* -.++* $/0* <N>* #.#$-* 7%.#./* 7$#3* -1/R#3* '/* #31* R$+?* 2.%* #31* K1%#1S*
7.+'#'./)*jcDC*"(E
#

#<4>#######################################################<N>
?)@# !!"# <4>N%.#./* 1/1%RO* -.++* $/0* <N>* #.#$-* 7%.#./* 7$#3* -1/R#3* '/* #31* R$+?* 2.%* #31* K1%#1S*
7.+'#'./)*jcFg*"(E
EURONS- ACTAR JRA
Deliverable D-J01-1.1 Part 3
ACTAR simulation work

D.Y. Pang

December 17, 2008

Abstract

This is the report of the simulation work of active target detector MAYA/ACTAR. The first two sections
are about proton detection efficiencies of the test d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p reaction in a chamber of cubic geometry of
50 × 50 × 30 cm3 , which have been shown in the Santiago de Compostela in March. Section 3 and 4 are
summary of recent work on position resolutions.

Contents

1 Basic Information 2
1.1 Mass measurement with (d,p) reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Incident Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Pressure of The Deuteron Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 The Cross-sections of The d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p Reaction at 10A MeV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Simulation Work 5
2.1 Description of The Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Simulation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 Particle Stopping Power in ActarSim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4 Damping of The Beam Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 Another kinematic calculator: KINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5.1 KINE and CINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5.2 New commands for KINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 Estimation of the Detection Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6.1 The Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6.2 Efficiency Estimation: the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3 Charge signal on pads 10


3.1 Wire amplification mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 MicroMegas amplification mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1
4 Position resolution with cubic geometry 13
4.1 Definition of position resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2 Position resolution dependence on pad size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

5 Conclusions and Outlook 14

1 Basic Information

1.1 Mass measurement with (d,p) reaction

The mass of 79 Ni can be measured by using a (d,p) reaction. As is shown in Fig.(1), according to the conserva-
tion law of energies and momenta before and after the reaction, we have (subscript 1, 2, d, and p for 78 Ni, 79 Ni,
deuteron and the recoiled proton, respectively):

E1 + md = E p + E2 , (1)

and

Pp cos θ p + P2 cos θ2 = P1
Pp sin θ p = P2 sin θ2 (2)

where E 2 = P2 + m2 and m is the static mass of the particle. From Eq.(1, 2) one have

· q q ¸
m22 = m21 + m2d + m2p + 2 2 2 2 2
E1 md − E1 E p − md E p − E1 − m1 E p − m p cos θ p (3)

78Ni theta_l

d theta_h

79Ni

Figure 1: Scheme of the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p reaction.

From Eq.(3) one can see that the measurement of the mass of the exotic nucleus 79 Ni dependens on the
measurement of:

1. the energy of the 78 Ni at the reaction vertex,

2. the energy of the proton, and

3. the angle of proton.

2
1.2 Incident Energy

For calculation of the kinematics of the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p reaction, we need to know the masses of the four nuclei.
The AME2003 collection of ground-state-masses[1] of 78 Ni, deuteron, and proton were adopted, which are
77.96318 u, 2.014102 u, and 2.01410 u, respectively (1 u=931.49401 MeV). The mass of 79 Ni was calculated
according to its binding energy (642.68 MeV, LISE++, LDM #2), which is 77.96318 u.
The kinematics of d(78 Ni,78 Ni)d, and d(78 Ni,77 Ni)t were also calculated. The masses of nuclei in these
reactions were taken from AME2003. This is to find the best condition for the identification of protons from
deuterons and tritons in the experiment. Note that the elastic scattering cross section should be much larger
than the (d,p) reaction, so we expect lots of deuterons.
Figure (2, 3) show the energies and angles of proton, deuteron, and triton, in the laboratory (LAB) system.
One can see that:

1. When the incident energy is 5A MeV, the protons at forward angles in the centre-of-mass (CM) system
will go to the forward angles in the LAB system when the excitation energy of 79 Ni exceeds 3 MeV,
which will overlap with the angular range of deuterons and tritons.

2. When the incident energy is 10A MeV, the protons at forward angles in the CM system will recoil to the
backward angles in the LAB system even when the excitation energy of 79 Ni exceeds 5 MeV. Deuterons
and tritons are scattered in the forward angles. This is good for proton identification at the backward
angles in the Lab system.

3. When the incident energy is 5A MeV, the proton energy at backward angles will be too low to be mea-
sured with MAYA when the excitation energy of 79 Ni is getting higher. While for 10A MeV, the situation
is much better (up to excitation energy of 5 MeV of 79 Ni).

4
proton g.s.
proton ex 1MeV
proton ex 2MeV
proton ex 3MeV
proton ex 4MeV
proton ex 5MeV
deuteron g.s.
3 deuteron ex 1MeV
deuteron ex 2MeV
deuteron ex 3MeV
deuteron ex 4MeV
deuteron ex 5MeV
ELab [MeV]

triton g.s.
triton ex 1MeV
triton ex 2MeV
2 triton ex 3MeV
triton ex 4MeV
triton ex 5MeV

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
θLab [deg]

Figure 2: Angles and energies of proton, deuteron and tritons with 78 Ni at 5A MeV and 79 Ni at different
excitation energies of their corresponding heavy particles.

So in the following simulation work, the incident energy of 78 Ni will be 10A MeV.

3
4
proton g.s.
proton ex 1MeV
proton ex 2MeV
proton ex 3MeV
proton ex 4MeV
proton ex 5MeV
deuteron g.s.
3 deuteron ex 1MeV
deuteron ex 2MeV
deuteron ex 3MeV
deuteron ex 4MeV
deuteron ex 5MeV
ELab [MeV]

triton g.s.
triton ex 1MeV
triton ex 2MeV
2 triton ex 3MeV
triton ex 4MeV
triton ex 5MeV

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
θLab [deg]

Figure 3: Angles and energies of proton, deuteron and tritons with 78 Ni at 10A MeV and 79 Ni at different
excitation energies of their corresponding heavy particles.

1.3 Pressure of The Deuteron Gas

The pressure of the deuteron gas was determined by requiring that the range of 300 keV proton is around 10
cm. Fig.(4) shows the range of a proton at 300 keV energy as a function of the pressure of the deuteron gas.
One can see that the operating pressure should be around 140 mbar.

350
SRIM

300

250
range of proton [mm]

200

150

100

50

0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
pressure [mbar]
Figure 4: Range of a proton in the deuteron gas at 300 keV as a function of the pressure.

1.4 The Cross-sections of The d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p Reaction at 10A MeV

DWBA cross sections of the transition to the ground state of 79 Ni calculated using FRESCO was made. The
CH89 systematic optical potentials were used for deuteron and proton. The single-neutron spectroscopic factor

4
of 79 Ni was assumed to be 1. The result was shown in Fig.(5).

DWBA cross section of the d(78Ni,79Ni)p reaction at 10A MeV


g.s.

dσ/dΩ [mb/sr] 10

0.1

0.01
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
θCM [deg]

Figure 5: DWBA cross-sections of the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p reaction at 10A MeV.

2 Simulation Work

2.1 Description of The Detection System

In the simulation we assume a gas chamber of a cubic geometry with a size of 50 × 50 × 30 cm3 , its front, back,
and left-hand surfaces are covered with ancillary silicon detectors. We assume the beam incident along the +Z
axis from x = y = 0 mm.

2.2 Simulation Tool

The simulation tool ActarSim, developed by Héctor Alvarez Pol, is a combination of ROOT and GEANT4.

2.3 Particle Stopping Power in ActarSim

To simulate a reaction using ActarSim, the first thing is to check whether it is consistent with another well
known program SRIM about the stopping powers of particles. Fig.(6) shows the comparison of the ranges of
4 He and 78 Ni in a isobutane gas at standard condition calculated using ActarSim and SRIM. One can see that

for light particle like 4 He, these two programs consistent with each other very well, however, for heavy particle
like 78 Ni they are not, especially at low energies.

2.4 Damping of The Beam Energy

With ActarSim we can calculate the accumulated energy loss of the incident particle along its trajectory. For
example, Fig.(7) shows the accumulated energy loss of the 78 Ni beam along its trajectory in the deuteron gas
of 140 mbar with the incident energy of E0 = 10A MeV, where the abscissa is the trajectory length (s) and the

5
(a) 4 He (b) 78 Ni

Figure 6: Comparison between ActarSim and SRIM about the range of particles.

Accumulated beam energy loss and trajectory length


Accumulated energy loss [MeV]

25
χ2 / ndf 1.511e+11 / 445
p0 0 ± 1.4
20 p1 0.04947 ± 0.00000
p2 -1.378e-06 ± 3.533e-13

15

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
trajectory length [mm]

Figure 7: Accumulated energy loss of beam in the gas along its trajectory.

vertical axis is the accumulated energy loss as a function of s (∆E(s)). So the energy of 78 Ni along its trajectory
is E(s) = E0 − ∆E(s).
The ∆E(s)-s can be fitted using a linear function (in this case the beam energy is so high that it losses only
a very small part of its energy in the gas), the parameters were shown in the fig. We then have

E(s) = E0 − (0.04923 × s − 0.2236) MeV. (4)

By this way we can calculate the beam energy at the reaction vertex.
Update: beam information has been included in the latest version of ActarSim, in which the damping of the
beam energy is automatically treated so that the method described here is no longer necessary.

2.5 Another kinematic calculator: KINE

2.5.1 KINE and CINE

KINE is a kinematic calculator for binary reactions written by Dr. M.S. Golovkov (Dubna), which has similar
functions as CINE. The differences between KINE and CINE are, for example, for a reaction A(B,C)D:

• Inputs

1. CINE requires: 1) mass numbers of A, B, C, and D (integers); 2) excitation energies of the projectile
and scattered particle (B and C), 3) incident energy, 4) reaction Q-value; 5) LAB angle of scattered
particle C.

6
2. KINE requires: 1) static masses of A, B, C, and D (real numbers); 2) excitation energy of A, B, C,
and D, 3) incident energy, 4) center-of-mass angle of the scattered particle.

• Outputs: both calculators give the information ActarSim needs, i.e., the energies and angles of the scat-
tered and recoil particles C and D in the Lab system. For reverse kinematics, CINE might have two
solutions for the recoiled particle (ActarSim randomly chose one in the simulation) while since KINE
requires the C.M. angle as input, it has only one solution.

In figure.(8) we compare the proton energy calculated using KINE, LISE++ and CINE of the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p
reaction at 10A MeV with 79 Ni excitation energy of 5.0 MeV. One can see that these three programs give the
same result.

Figure 8: Comparison of the result of KINE, LISE++ and CINE.

2.5.2 New commands for KINE

Similar to CINE, the primary generator using KINE was named ActarSimKinePrimGenerator. New commands
were defined in ActarSimPrimaryGeneratorMessenger:

1. /ActarSim/gun/reactionFromKine: option, to use KINE as primary generator or not (on or off);

2. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/randomTheta: option, whether the input C.M. angle is randomly chosen or set by
the user (on or off);

3. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/randomThetaVal: if the input C.M. angle is randomly chosen, give the minimum
and the maximum of the range;

4. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/incidentIon: properties of the incident particle: Z, A, Q, Ex, Mass, i.e., its Atomic
number (int), mass number (int), charge number (int), excitation energy (in keV), and mass (in atomic
mass unit u), respectively (B);

5. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/targetIon: same information as the previous command, for the target nucleus (A);

6. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/scatteredIon: same information as the previous command, for the scattered parti-
cle;

7. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/recoilIon: same information as the previous command, for the recoiled particle;

7
8. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/labEnergy: incident energy, in MeV;

9. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/thetaCMAngle: C.M. angle, in degree.

10. /ActarSim/gun/Kine/vertexPosition: position of the reaction vertex (x,y,z) in cm.

2.6 Estimation of the Detection Efficiency

For the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)d reaction at 10A MeV, the energy of the 79 Ni particles are too high to be stopped in the gas
chamber, so we only consider the efficiency of the protons. The reaction vertex is assumed to be in the center
of the gas chamber, i.e., (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 25). The center-of-mass (CM) angle of the protons θCM were scanned
from 2◦ to 70◦ with a step of 2◦ . The φ angles were randomly chosen from 0 to 2π. For each θCM angle 1000
events were simulated. The following information of proton will be recorded:

1. its initial energy at the reaction vertex,

2. its energy loss in the gas,

3. its θLAB and φ angles, and

4. its sum length of steps in the gas.

The pressure of the deuteron gas of 200, 400, and 800 mbar were used.

2.6.1 The Criteria

For a first approximation, we decide the proton can or can not be detected by the following criteria:

• For a proton stopped in the gas, it can be detected if:

1. its projected range length in gas is larger than 3 cm, and


2. its θLab angle relative to the beam line in the Lab system is larger than 5◦ (to avoid the beam).

• For protons escaping the gas chamber, it can be detected if:

1. its residual energy (energy at reaction vertex minus energy loss in gas) is larger than 500 keV so
that it could be detected by ancillary detectors,
2. its energy loss per centimeter along its path projection on pad plane is larger than 1 keV, and
3. its θLab angle relative to the beam line in the Lab system is larger than 5◦ .

2.6.2 Efficiency Estimation: the Results

Figure.(9) shows the proton detection efficiency as a function of the recoiling angle η(θCM ), for protons cor-
responds to the ground state (g.s.) and excited state (5MeV) of 79 Ni, and Fig.(10) is just its zoomed view for
smaller θCM angles. Note that to be able to be distinguished from the beam projection on the pad-plane, we
should put some constraints on the φ angles of the protons, i.e., the protons emitted with a certain φ angles
should also be excluded. For example, if the criteria is 5◦ , the protons with 0 < φ < 5◦ , 175◦ < φ < 185◦ , and
355◦ < φ < 360◦ should be counted as not effective. So the value of the efficiencies in Fig.(9) and Fig.(10)
should decrease by a factor of 5.6%.
From Fig.(9) and Fig.(10) we can draw the following conclusions:

8
Efficiency of proton detection with different pressures of deuteron gas Efficiency of proton detection with different pressures of deuteron gas
110 110
200 mbar, g.s. 200 mbar, ex=5 MeV
400 mbar, g.s. 400 mbar, ex=5 MeV.
100 800 mbar, g.s. 100 800 mbar, ex=5 MeV

90 90
80 80
70 70
Efficiency [%]

Efficiency [%]
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
θCM [deg] θCM [deg]

(a) 79 Ni in ground state (b) 79 Ni excitation energy of 5 MeV


Figure 9: Efficiency of proton detection for different CM angles.

Efficiency of proton detection

100 200 mbar, ex=5 MeV


400 mbar, ex=5 MeV
800 mbar, ex=5 MeV
Efficiency [%]

80
60

40

20
0
100 200 mbar, g.s.
400 mbar, g.s.
800 mbar, g.s.
Efficiency [%]

80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
θCM [deg]
Figure 10: A zoomed view of Fig.(9).

9
1. For the cubic geometry, assuming that we have ancillary silicon detectors on the front, back, and the
left-side of the gas chamber, the η(θCM ) is mainly determined by the geometry of the gas chamber from
a certain θCM angle, which means that increase of the height of the detector will increase the efficiency.

2. The η(θCM ) also depends on the pressure of the gas, increase the pressure will increase the efficiency at
larger θCM angles, especially for the protons correspond to the excited states of 79 Ni.

3 Charge signal on pads

3.1 Wire amplification mode

In case of wire amplification, the cathode charge singals in pads are induced from anode wires. The induced
charge distributions, parallel and normal to the wire direction, as a function of the distance between the center
of the amplification x, are ρ1 (x) and ρ2 (x), as is shown in Fig.(11)[2]:

Figure 11: (a) x-axis parallel to anode wire direction, cathode charge distribution ρ1 (x) (b) x-axis perpendicular
to anode wire direction, cathode charge distribution ρ2 (x). From. Ref.[2].

Three parameters, namely, anode wire radius ra , anode wire pitch s, and anode-cathode separation h, are
needed to calculate charge distributions ρ1 (x) and ρ2 (x) in the empirical formula of E. Mathieson and J.S.
Gordon [2, 3], which are:
1 − tanh2 (K2 λ )
ρ(λ ) = qa × K1 ,
1 + K3 tanh2 (K2 λ )

K2 K3
K1 = √ , and (5)
4 tan−1 K3
µ √ ¶
π K3
K2 = 1− ,
2 2
where qa is the net anode charge, λ = x/h. In practice, primary charges per stride from ionization of the gas
by particles along its trajectory are used for qa . To calculate the distributions of induced charge on pads using
Eq.5, the only thing needed is the value of Mathieson factor K3 .

10
Values of the single parameter K3 , as a function of ra /s and h/s, have been presented in Fig.2 of Ref.[2] for
1.4 < h/s < 6 and in Fig.1 and Fig.2 of Ref.[3] for h/s < 1.4. These figures were fitted using function:

K3 (x) = a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 , (x = h/s). (6)

The coefficients ai (i = 0, · · · , 4) are listed in Table.(1). The fittings with these coefficients are shown in Fig.(12,
13, and 14). The Mathieson parameter K3 at a certain h/s and ra /s values is then calculated by extrapolation or
interpolation from the five values calculated with the five ra /s values in Table.(1).

Table 1: Coefficients for calculation of Mathieson parameter K3 .


ra /s a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
1.4 < h/s < 6 1.50 × 10−3 0.0000 -0.00315 0.0520 -0.3206 0.8442
2.50 × 10−3 0.0000 -0.00329 0.0535 -0.3215 0.8072
3.75 × 10−3 0.0000 -0.00358 0.0568 -0.3279 0.7774
5.25 × 10−3 0.0000 -0.00375 0.0582 -0.3257 0.7409
7.50 × 10−3 0.0000 -0.00385 0.0585 -0.3184 0.6947
h/s < 1.4, ρ1 1.50 × 10−3 -0.2617 1.09140 -1.6192 0.7656 0.6024
2.50 × 10−3 -0.2872 1.20289 -1.7956 0.8768 0.5476
3.75 × 10−3 -0.3566 1.45366 -2.1068 1.0276 0.4923
5.25 × 10−3 -0.3980 1.62109 -2.3460 1.1715 0.4334
7.50 × 10−3 -0.4498 1.83572 -2.6674 1.3720 0.3556
h/s < 1.4, ρ2 1.50 × 10−3 -0.5693 2.15238 -2.6865 0.8155 0.9300
2.50 × 10−3 -0.6011 2.26450 -2.8095 0.8285 0.9326
3.75 × 10−3 -0.6160 2.34445 -2.9222 0.8449 0.9352
5.25 × 10−3 -0.7929 2.94533 -3.5883 1.0858 0.9085
7.50 × 10−3 -0.8419 3.10651 -3.7445 1.0955 0.9146

0.5

0.4

0.3
K3

0.2
ra/s

1.50x10-3
0.1 2.50x10-3
3.75x10-3
5.25x10-3
7.50x10-3
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
h/s
Figure 12: Values of parameter K3 as a function of chamber geometry parameters h/s and ra /s. For h/s > 1.4.
The points are from digitization of Fig.2 in Ref.[2].

11
0.7

0.6
K3

0.5

ra/s
-3
0.4 1.50x10-3
2.50x10-3
3.75x10-3
5.25x10-3
7.50x10
0.3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
h/s
Figure 13: Values of parameter K3 as a function of chamber geometry parameters h/s and ra /s, for empirical
distribution ρ1 (parallel to anode wire direction) and h/s 6 1.4. The points are from digitization of Fig.1 in
Ref.[3].

0.9

0.8

0.7
K3

0.6

ra/s
0.5 -3
1.50x10-3
2.50x10-3
0.4 3.75x10-3
5.25x10-3
7.50x10
0.3
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
h/s
Figure 14: Values of parameter K3 as a function of chamber geometry parameters h/s and ra /s, for empirical
distribution ρ2 (normal to anode wire direction) and h/s 6 1.4. The points are from digitization of Fig.2 in
Ref.[3].

12
For each stride along particle trajectory the induced charge distribution function ρ(x, y) = ρ1 (x)ρ2 (y) cor-
responding to the wire are calculated and integrated within the area of each corresponding pads.

3.2 MicroMegas amplification mode

Not implemented yet.

4 Position resolution with cubic geometry

We study the position resolution of ACTAR with cubic geometry and square pads and its dependence on the
size of pads. We use the wire amplification mode as described in the previous section. 9 Li particles at different
energies were shot into the pure isobutane gas with pressure of 150 mbar from along the positive z direction.
Energies of 9 Li particles were selected to make sure it stops inside the gas chamber and has a range between
120 and 170 mm. The range of 9 Li particle at a certain energy can be obtained by two ways:

1. GEANT gives the real range Rreal , within which the particle loses all its kinematic energy in the gas. For
example, Rreal = 153.3 mm for a 9 Li at 25.1 MeV.

2. by fitting the Bragg-peak of charge distribution on pads with a Gaussion function, we define the recon-
structed range Rsim = RGauss + 1.18σ , where RGauss is the mean value of the Gaussion function and σ is
its standard deviation. For example, in Fig.(15), RGauss = 141.1 mm, σ = 8.14 mm, so that Rsim = 150.7
mm.

Charge deposited on pads χ2 / ndf 1.431e+04 / 5


Prob 0
3000 Constant 2010 ± 44.16
Charge (relative unit)

Mean 141.1 ± 0.3925


Sigma 8.138 ± 0.3723
2500

2000

1500

1000

500

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200


X (mm)

Figure 15: Example of the pad signal distribution along the particle trajectory and fitting to the Bragg-peak.

4.1 Definition of position resolution

For the same event, the difference between Rsim and Rreal , ∆R = Rreal − Rsim defines the offset of the recon-
structed range relative to its real value. The average of ∆R could be used to correct the reconstructed range
(and hence, the energy of particles and the other quantities calculated using range information). The standard
deviation of ∆R defines the position resolution of the detector.

13
4.2 Position resolution dependence on pad size

We compare the position resolutions with 5 × 5 mm2 and 2 × 2 mm2 pads. The distributions of range offsets
(∆R ) are shown in Fig.(16) and Fig.(17). One can see that the mean values of ∆R for 5 mm and 2 mm pads
are very close, namely, 2.3 and 2.1 mm, respectively, while the position resolution with 5 mm pads are worse
than 2 mm pads, which are 0.5 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The (ra , s, h) value for wires (see subsection 3.1) are
(0.02, 5, 8) mm for the 5 mm pad case and (0.02, 2, 3) mm for the 2 mm pad case.

Offsets of ranges: 5 mm pads offset


Entries 92
Mean 2.302
Counts

10 RMS 0.3497
χ2 / ndf 13.6 / 20
Prob 0.85
Constant 4.879 ± 0.696
8 Mean 2.326 ± 0.078
Sigma 0.4841 ± 0.0815

0
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
offsets (mm)

Figure 16: Distributions of offsets of ranges for 5 mm pads. The width of the distribution defines the position
resolution.

5 Conclusions and Outlook

Things finished:

• Inclusion of another kinematics calculator for binary reactions: Kine.

• Estimated the efficiency of proton detection of the d(78 Ni,79 Ni)p reaction at 10A MeV with the cubic
geometry of ACTAR.

• Introduction of wire amplification.

• Studied position resolution with cubic geometry and its dependence on size of pads.

Things need to be done:

1. Implementation of MicroMegas amplification mode.

2. Q-value resolution study.

14
Offsets of ranges: 2 mm pads offset
Entries 111
Mean 2.052

Counts
RMS 0.2238
χ2 / ndf 25.27 / 21
12
Prob 0.2355
Constant 7.236 ± 1.136
10 Mean 2.079 ± 0.027
Sigma 0.2109 ± 0.0309

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3
offsets (mm)

Figure 17: Distributions of offsets of ranges for 2 mm pads. The width of the distribution defines the position
resolution.

References
[1] G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra and C. Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A729 (2003) 337.

[2] E. Mathieson and J.S. Gordon, Nucl. Instru. Meth. 227 (1984) 277.

[3] E. Mathieson, Nucl. Instru. Meth. A270 (1988) 602.

15