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crete mathematics. This subject was studied as long ago as the seventeenth century, when c

ombinatorial questions arose in the study of gambling games. Enumeration, the counti

ng of objects

with certain properties, is an important part of combinatorics. We must count ob

jects to solve

many different types of problems. For instance, counting is used to determine th

e complexity of

algorithms. Counting is also required to determine whether there are enough tele

phone numbers

or Internet protocol addresses tomeet demand. Recently, it has played a key role

inmathematical

biology, especially in sequencing DNA. Furthermore, counting techniques are used

extensively

when probabilities of events are computed.

The basic rules of counting, which we will study in Section 6.1, can solve a tre

mendous

variety of problems. For instance, we can use these rules to enumerate the diffe

rent telephone

numbers possible in the United States, the allowable passwords on a computer sys

tem, and the

different orders in which the runners in a race can ?nish. Another important com

binatorial tool

is the pigeonhole principle, which we will study in Section 6.2. This states tha

t when objects are

placed in boxes and there are more objects than boxes, then there is a box conta

ining at least two objects. For instance, we can use this principle to show that

among a set of 15 or more students,

at least 3 were born on the same day of the week.

We can phrase many counting problems in terms of ordered or unordered arrangemen

ts of

the objects of a set with or without repetitions. These arrangements, called per

mutations and

combinations, are used in many counting problems. For instance, suppose the 100

top ?nishers

on a competitive examtaken by 2000 students are invited to a banquet.We can coun

t the possible

sets of 100 students that will be invited, as well as the ways in which the top

10 prizes can be

awarded.

Another problem in combinatorics involves generating all the arrangements of a s

peci?ed

kind. This is often important in computer simulations. We will devise algorithms

to generate

arrangements of various types.

The Basics of Counting

Introduction

Suppose that a password on a computer system consists of six, seven, or eight ch

aracters. Each

of these charactersmust be a digit or a letter of the alphabet. Each passwordmus

t contain at least

one digit. How many such passwords are there? The techniques needed to answer th

is question

and a wide variety of other counting problems will be introduced in this section

.

Counting problems arise throughout mathematics and computer science. For example

, we

must count the successful outcomes of experiments and all the possible outcomes

of these

experiments to determine probabilities of discrete events. We need to count the

number of

operations used by an algorithm to study its time complexity.

We will introduce the basic techniques of counting in this section. These method

s serve as

the foundation for almost all counting techniques.

Basic Counting Principles

We ?rst present two basic counting principles, the product rule and the sumrule.

Then we will

show how they can be used to solve many different counting problems.

The product rule applies when a procedure is made up of separate tasks.

THE PRODUCT RULE Suppose that a procedure can be broken down into a sequence of

two tasks. If there are n1 ways to do the ?rst task and for each of these ways o

f doing the ?rst

task, there are n2 ways to do the second task, then there are n1n2 ways to do th

e procedure.

Examples 1 10 show how the product rule is used.

A new company with just two employees, Sanchez and Patel, rents a ?oor of a buil

ding with

12 of?ces. How many ways are there to assign different of?ces to these two emplo

yees?

Solution: The procedure of assigning of?ces to these two employees consists of a

ssigning an

of?ce to Sanchez, which can be done in 12 ways, then assigning an of?ce to Patel

different from

the of?ce assigned to Sanchez, which can be done in 11 ways. By the product rule

, there are

= ?

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