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G. SA UIl A

n(cd In know mor~ . ho.!<Il 1hcse narlld. III'IIl dlei. !\)I ~ Walo r~(~~ 'h"J tu l"aI
of carrion o r tile , Iw,,,l heritage.
Th il piaure is nut 0ftI)" F.ullKmlrk it .. :.1$1,1 an ~a""Jlcnl.
.ulTljllc 0( had hw<)ry. Iu; main ''''Iline aw,uma KimI:. 10 ""', C1<hure
rrtc emily Illal C&I1 lie Inns fdTcoJ . wilhout d~",I1,,,. (rum " "" ,....1tu' c II)
the nc~l, ant.! it .1>0 ~"mo:s a Idoololk.1 panc'!' " in wh l~h lh~ wurks or
" ..... ~lIllY re an: .,...~)mpli! hffl for the (\III'J'IO~I:$ of anulh.,.. :0/> if ~vcryon~
is p~" iI;~,"1 in Lh"!IlIrM progn:ssivc ,~nu: in whl..:h ,h" linal player iI
the b.:ncfiti ....y (If all the ",,,,,,(IUS lut l\!. ur the ""no.:, SUI..., haw "'(CJTI:f.l
10 Ihe rol. pl ayed II)' Aral>il: ~ci'"nCc in lh i~ rCl:-1rd lL~ " I\lfril!erali,,"
pme,"" In which Gr ...:k 11""'1:111 W:IS hel d In th e Isl:"nic ....ld~cl~lor. !i ..
hi . peak, wailing ti" "urul' ~ I" r""dl lis malu ,ity in Ih e tw elhh cCll lllry
fir.l, lrod lUI", ~urin ~ Ihe R ~".iSl"rlCC , III d.im tJl~1 (ir""k Iho"thl which
,i,hlly I>o:lu",oo 10 il. I neW ,.,,1 dwdl hl'fc " ,. tile d,WvlJI\.od,,,,, ,,' .~u~11
an IIflpn,;><:h . nor on lIIe ~c lly o f 1II1IIn,:1;:I> """ I o;uuld rcf~r yuu In i"
,lfder 10 \!Orrect il . InsIClld. I iN elld 10 invOL'Slijilllc 1_ <k,~ilaJ vicw. <If
Ihi., piclure j UM In illu.'trill" Ih" M!ti"u~ II~w~ in ;!>C canv"-~ .
I will Firsl cu,k;cOItrllle on the u lUllifcr o f tbe ,1_ic~1 .,;i"nu fk
from Gra:t into M llbi.: in o nkr 10 d"II'IIIII.,,uale III", th.c pn">:M tlf
1' :.NoI;o(klOl referral W ahove wu nul all innocenl :Ill it..,.,1M '" be. Th",.
1 will d.....utc lhe re.t or Ih i!. ~ .. , I ,;;aac study tlf ._ ...,it!llur"K
di!cipl"...,. in whict> w~ can witr.cs, Ille IriU\iOftinn al io<l nr III" ,,1;1.\.,;':;01
Jr:..Jil"m, in urd~. IU illulIrltc Ihe level uf cnllaJ;emcnl thai hl<,k pia,,,
r..'tw~~n 1 ! 1 ~ ", i<; w.:icly :m..J III.. iohcrih.'\l , 1 ;L\.,i<;~1 Ir.1diti,m .
Inl~

TfI",sllJli(>tll!wm ( iurA ;1IW Aroblr

I " 'ill o,ul<:Clk. w illl"" 1 (u rtbcr "11'",,"<1" . Ihe f....1Ih~llhcr" "'a.~ a


momcnlOtl, Iraru" l11 loll nM,vcmehi, wll k " t<K ,k Jlla\:c so'n~1il\\tl ..Jill iug Ihe
tirsl half ,,( tile nimh centu .y , IhnlllJo:.h "," ":h almust ;ill the Imf)<!<larll
G..,ck 5<.:icnli r" ;and philo";"l'lnCllJ I~I!O Wl:fe IranshlaJ (n,,., (i,-....,t inlU
AnII"'. In th ;' limit"" ~p~ I , annoIC ~k why illOOII: 1'1...., 111"". ;an..! noIC
h\'furc. Nil' c:u. 1 :..-.t h"w I ~'"lI"c ClIJ ip/l ........... r 111. """.... iIU'Y""'" in
poI,,,~~ ufr'i~". c<", ld hye r....,n ret","",lIk fo, MOeh "" ill.i"~..,crncm .
M nrwv.: I w ill nut :I._k ahl,ull h", mJr...:ull)~ evcnl in wlli~h JellS Ih:,1
..,.,rc wrlil en in G.~.",k werc;ill hUI f""ullen lIy Ihe Ryunlilll: ~u""oJ .. ns.
wh" ~'Wld p'l;:I>um;d)ly n;:;Mj :.nd wrile in Gn:ct . fur mule tllOl.n liv"
~~nturies. only to he latcr n:..uso.:itOl.[<,l(\ by Arah" srx:al lnlllr~n.'latuo ~ who

G, SAUIlA

"" :dIuut these namel, and tho:ir n~c W2-~ rel~g.;&t"'" t" Ih~t
~JL....ia1 hCl'iuce,
,;\ure i.. nul only Eun:w:tntrk, it i$ "bo an u"dlem
hislory . Ill; maon outl ine ;assu,1\t:S s.:i~nce 10 be I "ultu\
:an 11<1 Ir:illllofcrrW , without d ~c. from one ' \llturc 10
.lio !I.<.<Ume.<l a IdClOloC i~,,1 pllll~rn in whia. the wu.b. o f
lI<;eompl ah~ ('" tho: [III'IlO'l\l$ of IOOlh1lf .." if ~ .ery,one
n the same pru~r<Woive ~l"'" in which th~ (,,,,II player IS
.( ali the previlll" turns of the IilItIC , So"", hav e rctcrr,'\l
00 by Mahie ~ck ll"e in IlIi, re~ .r!l ...' ~ rdr i&~fat;'",
, Greek thnuJ;h t w~s held in thc. !.Ilarni" refrigera tor , '"
Ii: f<lr lOumpe \n reich il~ 1I1:II\lrily ill Ih~ Iwclt\h .c rll" ry
Jrino: th e Ren~i~j~rn:e. m claim th~1 vr~' lhuu~ hl whi<'h
to it . I n\lIXl ool ~wcll here on the disid.~nlid~.:z 01 Slldl
I on !hi: J'Il"i"ily uf Jllurl: 1:!' that I could Icf~'1" you hI in
il. In..tw. r ;nlcn.J to illv<Stit;:otc I.... ' tklOlikd .ieW!> <If
to iJl uslr1lte the ~er~ IUS naws in il$ '''n.U .
-"t ronl;i:rl\r;U~ on the Ir.uvfcr uf ~ cia$sial !oC,~-ntlnl:
I illlo Arabic in on:ier l() dCI'RD"su~e thai the 1"'''':_ ul
' 00 to abo>c was I"IQI a$ inlll)(tnt ... it '""""'" lu be. "l"ben
c ro;l o f th ~ ~,. to a QSe Mudy o f OAll K1Cfll lfk
lich ~ can wilness Ihe trans(urm;otiun uf Ihe "hlno.:ltl
('I" In illlL<lr;o& e Ihe level of ellPl:cm.:'~ th! lout pl~,c
s""iety and Ihe inherilt'() chl.'~ic~1 Ir;od,'ion .

" Gt'",.1c intll Aroh/(

,o;eo;Ic. w ilhout fu rthcr IjUcsuon. Ihe fal.' Ih:OI there w:as ~


IlIio" """ernen' , wh k h IOUk pla.:t ~"m",lLme lI"d... tht
ninth cenlury. thruu&h ",h ich aI~t all Ih imp"",,"1
Bnd [lh ilosophio;.al tu lS ....ere It:u\Sb ,l.'<i fl(H1l Grr.:k ,nto
mil"'" .~e r cannot ~k why '1 1"ok plilo:c the". and noI
I ""k how a 'impl~ u.l iph. nt rUt th~1 rn~ul.'f lI')'V"c in
.:.." Id h~ve been r..."..nsillic fur weh an a.;h;"vc'n~nl.
1-.;[ ;r.k :thout the m irxulu..s c~nl in wll kh I"~lli Ihat
"',,.....en.: III bu l fnqluUe" IIf ,h" Ry~anlinc ~"'I<Iili~ni,
. ",,,hl y rc;ooJ and wr il ~ in <ireek. fo r mo(~ Ih an livc
II<' lal", "'lIU~i: H :tl oo hy i\r .hi~ '1"I\:~ki"g Ir~ ".la l u rs whu

"

Aroblc ScirllCt gM11tt' Grn'l/~KI'ry

wefe, for al l purl'"scs. ~I ien IQ Icil:nli rll; Grcct . Apin. I wil l nut ask

about Ihe lie o f the c,ly of Bi&hdad ilSdf where thil. Iranslat ion :l<.1ivilY
~ms 10 lave laken pla::o:, bul will only n(Ile th'" il wa.~ harel), fi l\y yUIl
old when the earliest tnIrI$lat iolll under H ~Nn aI R..., h,d h;od a1 t.:;oo.ly
surt~ . All thale qII<lI'lions, I""'pt ing u they;ore.. are pfOP"rly lleah with
at I sqlafllO: o.;CI$;o n .
Fur thc lime htin~. I illicnoJ 10 IlN;\ls o n the IrlMlllion a.:livit)'
ilSclf in "rll ~t 10 dr.un~li7'<: the mirol<.. lous SeMI: that I j Ui\I ment;',ncd. and
to dispellhe nut lon Ih il[ I Iran, lalion is s illlpl), a Ir~",rcr ul 1 1~~t flm
one lan~ua~~ intt, anml,cr . In Ihi~ rellard we arc pa"i"\II~rl y f, "1"lIal ~, f'N"
we huve an aUhlbil,~ w"ilie~1 lext of Iln~ of Ihe mOSI fUll"'''' tr:lI1 sl:,,,,rs
""h" was iiCli"~ in Ihi~ Iral1., I~I;',n "",,,;:lIlelll durin~ Ih~ ~C,,"~J a l~ IIIirJ
~uarters uf the ninlh ~~ ntury . The lr~n,lal<!r \n 'lU"~I i<J n w~. I.,nc "Iher
th;on Ihe fa"">Us I~un~i" Ihn Io./)>q (K09 87J). ~ C hri'li~1\ "f Ihe Irille <lr
' Ih:.r.l. ""hI' W;iS ~parcnlly fluo:nl in Ar;&hi Syria.: an..! G r~...:k '11..:
illUlobio,raphic ~1 Ire;,ti", [ rdCfrW Itl j, in the f,>r,n tlr a Lo.11cr Ih,.. th if,
'.I u""in had ;odr~ " , I n of'o.:ill ""'" had wriu"" hi m .. kin,; al>....tl l>e
~I:rIIIL. of Ihe hI",u of thc SCQ)nd-<:enlury Greek phy~it;,an G~lcn !'r..m
i:llmain's "-"",111M", _ IIUI only Cd a full glolTlf"'c "llh~ hI",b Ih'" ...o:re
1 ~,lated. but ....e alsu have the rare opp.rtunilY Itl f(\lm an ' '1''''.'01 ahIJ\Il
the pl'(K:CO;S of tfll~I :otNIIl itM:I r.' I 'hilUld ''''''' p<lfc.~ h'1 i ...lIy thill
although th is lrealise hD been pul>li'ihed f;If al"""'1 Iht....: lluJMe" " f I
CenIUI"}' nuw. a.< f~r :u I knllw. ..., hislunan of M: ...... Cc h,,", yo:1 e~pl"i l''''
il (or tho: imlllen."" i" lu rmation It ,""nl31"" ~h"ut Ihe "'OC"~"I:), " I ~",cnce
durin,lhili period .
AI Ihe bc~inni", " f Ihe 11.1 1ef I~ u,,~ill IllII'ClI Ih,"l\.1 k~1 1l""-"II"I1S
concernin, It..: c. il~..ia IL<W W JudKC tile qualily " I III'Y It~""I .Il lun Ali I>...
point he u)'s Ihat he had Ihn:.: I.Tilcria i" mind. na' .....~y , (1IIh" p;.llrul1"f
the Ir.tml:uw,n, (2) lhe aJ~ IOIIlI cApcrien<l: "r the It;!lI>I:d"". ~nO.I (31 the
IIIImbcr {)f the Oti, inaJ coP"" uf Ihe hI",k w he: ulImol;ll,-..l Th e imjl<IMan.:e
uf 11K'll<: cril ilfia .... iII 51",n htlme "lwiuu... II!< ....: pr""......

, f .... ill< .. Al ..r .... '''''"" ....... 4 o.".... ~ U..,..c.., '. "'. (; 11<.".., , _
.~" ..... Ibn 1",'"-1 wli<, d,. 5~"",l>en ull<J "nol>o",,~." Go.I<" .'!><<!'''u, ,,,,u .'
AM<!",'I ...,.. for Ji.
J" /tI",. ,,"~..,t
i00i . ,"'. 2. 1 ~'I'lJ~. 11115.
Ih~f
'.1""","1 .1Id ~ . M.)"O,bu'. "N, ... 14111 ~"
h. to~ . ~ .,..t I",
110''''".' /", B (t926). pp . 6IS,124,

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